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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Bailey Dickinson

Exam 1 Study Guide FNDS 4630

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Exam 1 Study Guide
Cultural Aspects of FDNS
Hea Park
Study Guide
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Notes for FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (8/12/2016) Instructor: Dr. Hea Jin Park TA: Ms. Xi Fang th th **Food and Culture by Kittler 6 or 7 edition are recommended, however you do not need the book for the course. **The course will consist of three parts: Introduction, Religion, and Region **The exam questions come from lecture. Every lecture will have handouts. Some questions will also come from guest lecturers. **There will be 4 lab classes: Indian, Ghanian, Korean, and Columbian . We each can choose 2 labs because there are too many of us. This course will be focused on looking at cultures objectively, since it’s impossible for us to understand how and why some people’s cultures are a certain way. We will not be criticizing. We will be talking about the relationship between culture and nutrition. What is the most common food in the states? French fries. The USA’s McDonalds website: The Big Mac is popular. It’s composed of beef patties. The UAE’s McDonalds website: Also offers a similar beef patty Big Mac. This website has “your right to know” where you can ask the company questions. “Halal” chicken is very important to them. They use 100% halal meat. And all of their products are Halal certified. (Slaughtered in a humane and quick way in the name of Allah) The USA’s McDonalds website doesn’t certify or claim any US menu items as Halal. Although they both offer Big Macs, their claims and food processes are very different. If McDonalds didn’t want to offer Halal products, they couldn’t open a store in UAE. Now, looking at India’s McDonalds website, we notice that India doesn’t offer the Big Mac. In India, the majority of the population is Hindu and don’t eat beef. “In line with its respect for local culture, India is the first country in the world where McDonalds does not offer any beef or pork” The sausage that they offer is chicken sausage The common denominators in the difference of food items at different country’s McDonalds are: religion/culture Even though we are familiar with McDonald’s menu, the country that you’re in determines what food items are offered. Food behavior is most affected by religion and regions. Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 2 8/15 -8/19 ) Monday: • The purpose of showing data in today’s class is that she wants us to recognize that we actually see a lot of different people around here. • This course is a 4000 level because now, we have enough experience of seeing people who are different from us. • Many people experience cultural shock when they go to college. • We went to the website. The U.S. population is 324 million There is one birth every 7 seconds. We lose one person every 13 seconds. One international migrant arrives every 29 seconds. So, overall, there is a net gain of one person every 29 seconds. • The US population increases over time • The world population is 7.3 billion. rd • The USA is the 3 largest country in terms of population. #1: China #2: India Growth between 2000 and 2010 • 27.3 million people (9.7%) However, the change is not always the same…Changing Demographics • Population is more fragmented than a generation ago • Mix of ethnic origins is shifting • Indigenous population growth has stopped (the graph of the population of people who are born here in the states is more flat than increasing) • High immigration rates • Higher birth rate among non-majority ethnics groups (immigrants are having more babies than the indigenous population) • Population getting older All of the changing demographics affect culture US Population in 2013 • 62% White (not Hispanic) • 17% Hispanic/Latino • 13% African American • 5% Asian/Pacific Islander In 1960, the percent of foreign population in the US increased More foreign-born people will contribute to US growth than the native born population. There was a change in foreign-born population by region of birth. In 1960, 75% of foreign immigrants were from Europe. Inn 2010, only 12% are from Europe and most (53%) are from Latin America. The non-Hispanic white population is projected to peak in 2024. Its population is projected to slowly decrease. The Hispanic population would be more than double, from 53.3 million in 2012 to 128.8 million in 2016. It will be 30% by 2060. The black population is expected to increase over time. It will be 15% by 2060. The Asian population is expected to more than double by 2060. The U.S. is projected to become a majority-minority nation for the first time in 2043. While the non-Hispanic white population will remain in the largest single group, no group will make up a majority. Minorities, now 37% of the U.S. population, are projected to comprise 57% of the population in 2060. 4 Major Racial/Ethnic Minorities (37% of US Population) Native American (American Indians/Alaskan Natives) • 4 largest minority group- 1.2% of total pop • Origins in the original peoples of America that maintain a tribal affiliation or community attachment Asian/Pacific Islanders • Asians- Origins in any people of the Far East, SE Asia, or Indian subcontinent • Trd largest groups among Asians- Chinese, then Filipino • 3 largest minority group (5.3%) African American (Black) • Origins in any of the black racial groups in Africa (African Americans, Africans, Same origin from Caribbean) nd • 2 largest minority group (13.1%) Hispanics • Viewed as heritage, nationality, lineage, or country of birth • Largest minority group (16.9%) • Mexicans (60% of Hispanics), next largest is Puerto Ricans • Top 10 states by Hispanic population, 2011 (California 37.7% of total population), then Texas Most minorities live in the south of the U.S. (close to the borders) Immigrants may ways to live close to their origins. It’s more comfortable. 60% of U.S. immigrants live in either California, Florida, Texas, New York, or New Jersey. HOWEVER Five other states have seen the fastest growth since 2000: Kentucky, South Carolina, Mississippi, Wisconsin, and North Carolina BECAUSE these 5 states are cheaper to live in Georgia: 2011: 944,641 immigrants 9.6% state pop 2000-2011 increase 63.3% 6 state in growth We see a lot less Hispanics in GA and a lot more African Americans. The US Majority Population • White-origins in people of Europe, Middle East, or North Africa • 64-78% pop-varies with data subset • Most Americans trace their ancestry to Europe alone. Eastern European immigration rates rose between 1990 and 2010 because their nations used to be communist, but now they can come. All other European immigration decreased during this time. American Culture: describes the culture shared by the dominant white-Anglo- Saxon Protestant population Wednesda y: Culture • Values, beliefs, attitudes, and practices accepted by members of a group or community. (Not individual) • Culture can even be established in our classroom. There is a culture of UGA students. - Learned, not inherited - Changes over time Cultural Effects on Food Consumption • What, when, where, how much is eaten In china, if you are hosted by a family, you must leave some food on your plate to show that you’ve been treated well. • How it is obtained • How it is prepared • How it is distributed • How it is consumed A lot of Indians eat with their hands. Touch is an important sense to use when you eat. It tastes better. Dietary changes occur with length and location of residence. Acculturation • Process by which an ethnic group moves into another new majority society and begins to adopt the new society’s cultural values and habits -Adopt some values while maintaining old ties of friendship and family -To measure acculturation, observe language adoption, social networks, and information sources An individual becomes “bicultural” when the new culture is seen as a complement to the original culture of origin Language is a culture too. If you speak Korean and then learn English because you move to USA, you are acculturating. Acculturation of food habits • Often the last practice changed through acculturation (hard to change) • Lack of available native ingredients • Convenience • Cost • Unpopular traditional foods often first to go • Food most associated with ethnic identity are the most resistant to acculturation The last thing to change is what people eat at home On-going immigration and acculturation effects on diet • Immigrant groups adopt traditional American fare Assimilation Theory • To become similar to the majority population • The once new culture becomes yours eventually; acculturation is the process • Process by which people form one cultural group shed their ethnic identity and fully merge into the majority culture • Assumes no contact with culture of origin Transnational Theory • Recognizes that immigrants continue to have strong ties with their country of origin • Ex. Transnational suburb: a suburb made up mostly of immigrants who maintain strong ties to their home countries (like Chinatown) • Some people even have houses in both countries and vote in their home countries. US is more stir-fry than a melting pot. If everyone assimilated, America would be a melting pot. In a stir fry, you can taste each ingredient. In a melting pot, it’s all the same. Contemporary food habits depend on Stage of Acculturation Stage 1: Traditional, Limited Acculturation • Parents/grandparents speak native language • Practices traditional religion • Participates in ethnic cultural activities and feasts Stage 2: Increased Acculturation • English is primary language • Religion of majority population is preferred • Involved in activities of major society Stage 3: Pan-traditional • Speaks English and Native language • Religion is a combination of traditional and Christian beliefs • Actively involved in both activities from both ethnic and majority groups (Native Americans) The five levels of acculturation: traditional, marginal, bicultural, assimilated, and pantraditional Pan-traditional people are those who make a conscious choice to return to their traditional way of living, and seek to embrace previously lost traditional cultural values and beliefs. On-going immigration and acculturation effects on diet • Majority population adopts ethnic foods as own Ethnic food sales (2010) Increase over time • 1 in 7 food $ • 75% purchased by mainstream consumers (majority group, not immigrants) • 30% of Americans looking for new and unusual flavors • Often Americanized (want familiar foods with foreign intrigue Value systems are culturally based American Values Compared to Values Held by Others • Person control over environment vs. Fate • Change/Mobility/Independence vs Tradition • Time and its control vs Human interaction • Equality vs Hierarchy/Rank/Status • Individualism and privacy vs Group’s welfare • Self-help vs Birthright Inheritance • Competition vs Cooperation • Future orientation/Optimism vs Past orientation • Action/Work orientation vs “being” orientation • Informality vs Formality • Directness/Openness/Honesty vs Indirectness/Ritual/Face • Practicality/Efficiency vs Idealism • Materialism/Acquisitiveness vs Spiritualism/Detachment Fri day: Food: any substance that provides the nutrients necessary to maintain life and growth when ingested. -Raise crops and livestock, leading to consistent supply of similar foods. People would like to have similar, safe food supply over time -Use these foods in cooking and other culturally specific ways (ex. Meals, rules on utensils, manners, sharing of food) Foodways: standardized food practices of people who compose a society -Refers to the population in general -Determined by availability and acceptability -Helps to maintain identity and viability of the group Constantly changing within a cultural framework Cultural framework: values, attitudes and belief. Culture is the values beliefs attitudes and practices accepted by a group of community. Foodways: How food is: • Selected • Obtained • Distributed • Who prepares food • Who serves food • Who eats food (and who you eat with) The Omnivore’s Paradox Humans are omnivores • Consume/digest wide selection of plants and animals • Adapt easily almost all earthly environments • No single food provides all nutrition for survival • Must be flexible yet cautious to avoid harmful foods Dilemma: Need to experiment yet be cautious Diverse food consumption is good because you need all nutrients. The dilemma is that you need to be cautious when experimenting with new foods. Paradox: • Attraction to new foods • Preference to familiar foods Conservative approach We conserve food choices within a culture In most societies, Plant and animal foods are important Diet has become more diversified with time Historically, indigenous foods determined what was consumed -Determined by environment -Determined by what non-indigenous foods can be introduced Stage of technological development determines what is available Hunter/gatherer: depends on local environment Farmers/Gardeners: producing foods, trade, processing Marketplace: production + processing/storage + transportation Vavilov’s Eight centers of crop origin A Vavilov Center is a region of the world to be an original center for the domestication of plants New World crops- items domesticated in the Americas. Most important: corn Far Eastern crops- Most important: rice Near Eastern crops- lentils, olives, barley, almonds, figs…etc Still, these food ways affect your own food culture and food behavior Major domesticated animals: The basic set: • Cattle • Hogs • Sheep • Goats Animals domesticated not all for food. Some for religious reasons, transportation, hunting aids, etc. Understanding the role of food in a culture • Frequency of food consumption -Core and complementary food model • Ways food are traditionally prepared and seasoned -Flavor Principle • Daily, weekly and yearly use of foods -Meal patterns and meal cycles • Food preparation methods chosen Classification of foods within foodways of a given society/cultural group Frequency of consumption Core food: regularly consumed on a daily basis, typically complex carbohydrates (cheap and more primary thing needed to survive) Complementary food compliments the core food (beans go with rice) Secondary foods: widely consumes but less frequently Peripheral foods: eaten sporadically, individual preference Role of specific foods in diet: Protective foods • Rich in nutrients and calories • Provide ethnic identity Status foods • Rare and expensive • Not part of daily diet, special occasions • Varies within subgroups in society Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 3 8/22 -8/26 ) Monday: Flavor principles • Traditional seasonings or “flavor principles”. (More smell than taste) • Flavor principles are the signature flavors that are associated with food preparation within a culture • Flavor is imparted by geography, latitude, longitude, and climate. (Hotter areas use stronger flavor) Central to a cultural cuisine are the combinations of foods and the significance of flavor. Flavor principle examples: Middle East/Greece: Tomato + Cinnamon West Africa: Tomato + Peanut + Chile Mexico: Tomato + Chile Italy/France: Tomato + Olive oil + Garlic + Basil Foodways: Acceptability Becomes important as food supply becomes constant No society has ever eaten all possible food items From Foodways to Food Habits Food Habits: An individual’s choices and behavior as they are related to food InedibleàEdible by animals but not humansàEdible by humans but not my kind of humansàEdible by humans like me but not meàEdible by me What I actually eat…Individual food choices “Edible by me” The Consumer Food Choice Model depicts this. Cost, Taste, Variety, Well-Being, Self Expression, and Convenience affect an individual’s food choices. They change as you change age. The food choices affect physiology/metabolism and health outcomes. Consumer Food Choice Model: Taste • Food selection is primarily motivated by TASTE • TASTE: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami Consumer Food Choice Model: Cost • Income level is the most significant sociodemographic factor in predicting selection • In poorer societies, price is more important than taste • In wealthier societies, food choices change Consumer Food Choice Model: Other factors • Convenience -Especially important in urban societies • Self expression -Cultural activities -Religion -Region • Physical and spiritual well-being -Age, gender, body image, state of health • Variety -Humans are motivated psychologically to try new foods Changing American Foodways • Foodways of a society change within a cultural framework Driving forces Ethnic diversity • Age distribution (Getting older, taste buds older) As you get older, in general, you want stronger flavors Generation Y, authentic ethnic foods, eating out • Household size: smaller, packaging • Socioeconomic status 1/3 households have income below $35,000 before economic downturn Higher income consumers- food purchases are expressions of personal preferences, values, lifestyle Intention to Economize (2009) 53% just getting by 21% struggling Decreased…% • Foreign vacations 78% • Coffee shop visits 72% • Bars/club visits 71% • Upscale restaurants 71% Increased…% • Coupon use 64% • Prepare more meals at home 63% • Seek more deals 61% • Store brand groceries 46% Government Programs -School nutrition program -Food stamps (SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program -WIC (Women, Infants, and Children EFNEP (expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program) The budget on government programs has increased Women in the Workplace Time and Convenience New technologies/industry Improved food ingredients Food processing Packaging Distribution Nutrition Science Consumer more aware of diet-health link Industry response Media Preferred source shift from books, magazines and TV to internet US Spice and herb consumption Spicier and more flavorful • Increasing ethnic diversity • Baby boomers- aging against taste buds • Gen Y- more authentic, exotic flavors • Increased travel • Increased exposure to TV chefs • Diet/health link- decreased salt/fat. Phytonutrient sources 1970- 1.3 lbs of spice per capita 2006- 3.3 lbs of spice per capita Dietary Surveys • Estimates of food consumption by large population segments with the aim of detecting changes in dietary or nutritional status of a population • US Government Dietary Surveys -USDA (US Department of Agriculture)- FNA (Food and Nutrition Service)—began in 1935 HFCS— Household Food Consumption Survey NFCS— Nationwide Food Consumption Survey CSFII— Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals -DHHS (Department of health and human services)-CDC—began in 1960 NHES—National Health Examination Survey NHANES—National Health and USDA Dietary Surveys (HFCS, NFCS, CFII) Uses.. • Demand for ag products • Determine effects of demographics on food expenditures • Examine eating practices, including at-risk groups • Document trends DHHS Dietary Survey (NHANES) Uses.. • Estimate # persons with selected diseases and risk factors • Monitor trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of certain diseases • Study relationships between diet, nutrition, and health • Analyze risk factors for selected diseases • Explore emerging public health issues and new technologies • Identify target groups for intervention Dietary Survey • 24 hour recall • Food Record • Food Frequency • Diet History Food Habits or Food-related Behavior Research Traditional approach • Food consumption • Determine % RDA Correlate with selected demographic characteristics of respondents Provides: snapshot of what is being consumed, but little about why Current approach • Food consumption • Food preference • Food ideology • Sociocultural variables Demographics Reading habits Religion Accessibility Acculturation Provides: What is being consumed and why Dietary Acculturation • The process that occurs when members of a minority group adopt eating patterns and food choices of the host country It’s all related to food and searching for new foods Food Habits or Food-related Behavior Research Single Item Measures of Acculturation • Residency 1) Length of residency in host country 2) Length of residency in country of birth 3) Place of birth • Language 1) Proficiency 2) Preference 3) Spoken at home • Generation Level • Friendship Preferences • Self-identification Acculturation Scales: General • Several previously identified single measures • Specific to population group • Not specific to food Food-based • Food lists-typical of US and native culture • Food lists and dietary behaviors that reflect native culture and acculturation (Can assume dietary acculturation) Wednesday: Consumption of red meat has decreased over time. Consumption of poultry has increased over time. Fish/shellfish consumption hasn’t changed a lot (slight increase because of salmon, but not much) Fruit and vegetable consumption has a bigger fluctuation. The most consumed vegetable is potato (by a huge margin). A lot of the potato is consumed in french fry form. Second is tomato (but most are consumed canned- ketchup, bbq sauce, tomato sauce) The most consumed fruit is a banana. Both of these foods have a lot of carbohydrates (big problem with how they are consumed) Closer to half of American’s calories come from grain and fat/oils. US diets are out of balance with recommendations (we consume more meat eggs, nuts, and grains than recommended level) (we consume less vegetables, dairy, and fruit than recommended.) 1909-2012 (red meat consumption peaked in 1975 and then has been decreasing overtime) (pork stayed pretty consistent) (chicken increased) For the first time in 2010, white meat consumption was higher than beef. Per capita availability of chicken is higher than that of beef. People eat more white meat because it’s cheaper and because of nutritional information Pork is red meat For the last 30 years, the obesity rate in America has significantly increased Each ethnic group developed its own prevalence of obesity, and the prevalence depends on gender. About 50% of the black population is obese. Asians have low prevalence. Hispanic is higher than white, but slightly lower than black. Black women have a very high prevalence of obesity (one reason is that it’s related to poverty, and the concept of health) (black people traditionally have a slightly different concept about fat) PIR- poverty income raiser When PIR is high- rich Low PIR- poor Among men, obesity prevalence is generally similar at all income levels, with a tendency to be slightly higher at higher income levels Among women, obesity prevalence increases as income decreases. If we find out why this is, we can intervene correctly The Diet and Health Connection Influential lifestyle habits • Tobacco use, alcohol use, and nutritional choices Chronic diseases • Heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes • Connection with poor diet. Heart disease and Cancer are the leading causes of death Talking about people living in the states (have gone through acculturation): 40% of Native American men develop obesity Obesity and cholesterol are highly related Although, Asian’s obesity rate is lower, they have similar cholesterol levels. How strongly diseases are correlated depends on the ethnicity. Asians develop more chronic diseases when they have slightly higher obesity Each ethnic group responds differently Heart disease and Cancer are the leading causes of death Ethnicity and Chronic Disease Among minority populations.. Higher reported levels • Obesity • Diabetes • Hypertension Among immigrants • Increased obesity with increased acculturation Cultural Effects on Diet and Health • Traditional food choices • Relationship between food and health (food used to treat illness or maintain health) • How health is perceived • Dietary changes with length and location of residence in US (acculturation) Inconsistent classification of groups Classification often very broad and across gender groups Incidence vs Prevalence The data is self reported of which ethnicity you are. This can lead to confusing results. Prevalence: The fraction or proportion of a group possessing a disease or condition at a specific time (all events) Incidence: The fraction or proportion of a group initially free of a disease or condition over a period of time (new events) 20 people sleepy now. 10 minutes later, 30 people. So the incidence is 10 because 10 people newly developed the condition. To see how acculturation affects food choices, you have to look at incidence, not just prevalence. Intercultural Nutrition • Study of food habits has a specific applications in determining nutritional status and implementing dietary change • Avoid ethnocentric assumptions • Diet should be carefully evaluated within the context of culture Nutritional Assessment and Counseling/Education “Observe the nature of each country; diet; customs; the age of the patient; speech; manners; fashion; even his silence..One has to study all these signs and analyze what th they portend”- Hippocratic writings, 5 century B.C.E. Iceberg model of multicultural influences on communication A person’s cultural heritage impacts communication. The most obvious elements affecting communication • Race • Gender • Age • Nationality Other challenges affecting communication • Acculturation/Assimilation • Socioeconomic Status • Occupation • Health Condition • Religion • Sexual Preference • Group Membership • Educational Background • Political Orientation Iceburg concept of culture: Like an iceburg, 9/10 of culture is below the surface. Surface culture: Most easily seen. Emotional level- low • Food, dress, music, crafts, dance, literature, language, celebration Shallow culture: • Courtesy, personal space, eye contact, concept of beauty, social interaction rate, etc. Deep culture: • Tolerance of physical pain, attitudes towards dependents, definition of obscenity, etc. Language is abstract and can only be interpreted within context The context in verbal communication • Low context cultures • High context cultures Low context cultures • Information is in a logical, linear sequence • Explicit • Straightforward • Unambiguous • Focus on speaker • Impatient with high-context speakers • Often miss non-verbal cues • Ex: Swiss, German, Scandinavians High context cultures • Meaning is in context, not words • Attitudes/feelings prominent in the conversation • Reading between the lines • Misunderstandings easily occur • Nonverbal communication • Ex: Asian, Native American, Middle Eastern Successful Intercultural Communication CRASH to remember components of cultural competency C- Culture: consider culture in interaction R- Respect: show respect A- Assess/affirm: assess/affirm differences S- Sensitive: be sensitive H- Humility: demonstrate humility Friday: Kathrine Ingerson- registered dietician Southern bbq counts as a global cuisine Trattoria- pasta station at Bolton Kalmeta olives- soaked in squid ink Hickory and Oak- rotisserie chicken Canting- stir-fry station (Korean, Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese) Pho noodle bar (Americanized version)-the broth is vegetarian. Normally pho is not vegetarian Mayo is considered a salad dressing Pimento cheese- cheddar cheese, pimento, mayo Medical Nutrition Therapy: -Celiac Disease (autoimmune disease)/Gluten Free -Diabetes, Low Sodium, Heart Healthy -PKU, FODMAP, pureed foods -Digestive disorders Food Allergies -Milk, wheat, soy, egg, fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts Vegetarian Vegan Religious -Muslim, Jewish, Indian Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 4 8/29 -9/2 ) Monday: Will the US population continue to increase in obesity or will it ever decrease? It’s expected to increase until 2030 2 lines on the graph: one based on the historic trend, and one on the recent trend Recently, women have been trying to lose and maintain weight more than men do. So obesity will still be increasing, but at a slower rate JAMA journal did another study. Change in obese population based on age groups from 2003-2012. The increase or decrease in P value determines the significance. People over 60 years old are expected to increase 4.4% and it’s significant. This is important because this is directly related to the cost of health care (the elderly develop chronic diseases) 2-5 year olds are expected to have a 5.5% decrease with a P value of .03 (significant) This might be because adults now how dangerous obesity is so they try to feed their children well. Childhood obesity predicts adult obesity “Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States” Intercultural Nutrition Assessment • Standardized tools may be biased • Health attitude models, acculturation scales, and indexes also unsuited • Anthropometric measurement tools may be inappropriate • Development of culturally specific techniques and tools is a critical need in a nutrition assessment • Use 24 hr recall in an open-ended manner Nutrition Assessment- respondent-driven interview • Can what you eat help cure your sickness or make it worse • Do you eat certain foods to keep healthy? To make you strong? • Do you avoid certain foods to prevent sickness? • Do you balance eating some foods with other foods? • Are there foods you will not eat? Why? Successful Diet Counseling • Dependent on culturally sensitive communication strategies • Cross cultural counseling through four steps 1) Must become familiar with your own cultural heritage 2) Must become acquainted with the cultural background of each client 3) Through an in-depth cross cultural interview, they must establish the client’s cultural background, food habit adaptations made in the US and personal preferences 4) Must modify diets based on unbiased analysis of the dietary data. The best chance for compliance occurs when diets are modified with consideration for client’s cultural and personal preferences There are food guide pyramids for all different cultures (Native Americans, Mexicans, Chinese, Indian, etc) For people who live in the states with different cultural backgrounds. Each country has their own “food pyramid” or their own public education tool Food and Religion Many factors affect food ways and food behavior. We will focus on religion and then region. Religions…provide networks for social and emotional support Religion is a culture Remember: • Evolved within existing culture • Often have health and dietary rules • Associated with overall health status Impact of religion varies with individuals: Related to: • How religious one is • Religious attendance (group participation) Common health and Dietary rules • Food prescription/avoidance • Fasting..why? -Gain spiritual merit -Increased introspection -Historical or sorrowful event -Closeness to God • Forms of fasting -Total avoidance of food and drink -Avoidance of certain dietary items -Usually short term Major Religions of the World Western • Judaism • Christianity • Islam • Originated in the Middle East • Teach concept of one God Christianity- Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodoxy, Protestantism (Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists) Eastern • Hinduism • Buddhism • Developed in India • Principle goal is liberation of the soul from the bondage of the body Self-Described Religious Affiliation in the US by Percentage (in 2008) Protestant, 54% Catholic, 25% No Religion, 16.8% Jewish, 1.7% Muslim, 0.6% Comparing 2007 and 2014: Christianity decreased. Non-Christian faiths increased. Unaffiliated increased the most (16% to 23%) Christianity fell from 78.4% to 70.6% Religion is a culture Practices • Vary widely • Have been used for thousands of years and have been reinvented over time • Most have areas of questionable guidelines Wednes day: JUDAISM Two major Jewish traditions in US: Ashkenazi- Germany, N. France, E. Europe. Most common in US Sephardi- Originally Spain, Muslim countries, or once Muslim countries In US, 90% of Jews are Eastern European in origin, so Ashkenazi dominates. 43% live in New England and about 20% are in the south Three major branches of Judaism: Orthodox Judaism: most likely to follow Kashrut Conservative Judaism Reform Judaism- most likely to not follow Kashrut 25-30% of Jewish Americans practice Kashrut (depends on which branch you are involved in) Kashrut: Set down in Torah ‘Kosher’ means ‘fit’ ‘Kosher’: permitted food items For spiritual health, not physical health Biblical references serve as basis of Kashrut Which animals, fish and fowel may be regarded as Kosher For the life of the flesh is in the blood Thou shalt not cook a kid in its mother’s milk So you shall sat apart clean beast from the unclean.. you shall be holy to me, for I the Lord am holy Generally, foods are classified into two categories • Kosher: means Jewish dietary laws • Trief: forbidden Within Kosher, foods are.. • Meat • Dairy • Pareve: eggs, fruits, vegetables, and grains (neutral) Which animals are permitted for food and which are not: • All mammals with a completely cloven food and chews the cut may be eaten and their milk may be consumed -Clean animals include cattle, deer, goats, oxen, and sheep -Unclean animals include swine, rabbits, and carnivorous animals • Clean birds must have a crop, gizzard, and extra talon and their eggs may be consumed -Ex. Chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys -All birds of prey are unclean • Fish: everything with fins and scales is clean Everything else is unclean Unclean includes catfish, eels, rays, sharks, and all shellfish • All reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates are also unclean Method of slaughtering animals • Life must be taken by a ritualistic process called shehitah (shechitah) • A shohet is trained and licensed to perform the killing -Slits jugular and trachea -Blood is all drained • No Natural death, road kill, or killed by any other method allowed Part of a permitted animal that is forbidden Blood • Blood from any animal is strictly forbidden • An egg with a small bloodspot in the yolk must be discarded Fat • Fat around vital organs is permitted (heleb) • Other fat is okay Preperation of the meat • Remove heleb, blood, blood vessels, and scietic nerve • Koshering -Soak meat in water -Drain -Cover with kosher salt to draw out blood -Rinse out salt -Rinse repeatedly The law of meat and milk • Meat and milk cannot be eaten together -Eating meat: six hours before eating dairy -Dairy products: one hour before meat The period between is a matter of custom, not law • Mixing meat and dairy shows insensitivity to life -Milk: birth Meat: decay and death • Separate sets of dishes, pots, utensils, linens, sinks, etc. for meat and dairy • Pareve: Neutral- eggs, fruits, vegetables, and grains They can be eaten with both Products of forbidden animals • Products of unclean animals are forbidden -Eggs of non-kosher birds: no • Exception: Honey is fine, bees aren’t -Assumed to not contain any insect parts • Where does gelatin come from? Pig parts OU is the mark of the most strictly regulated kosher certifiers Religious Holidays Sabbath: Day of rest • Friday night till after nightfall Saturday • A day devoted to prayer and rest, no work is allowed -Challah (hallah, a braided bread) -Cholent: a bean and potato dish -Kugel: a pudding, side dish Rosh Hashanah Jewish New Year (September or October) The beginning of a ten-day period of penitence that ends with the Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur • Round challah -Life without end -Uninterrupted year of health and happiness • No sour or bitter foods -Apples in honey -Special sweets and delicacies (honey cake, etc) Yom Kippur Day of Atonement • Holiest day of the year -10 days after Rosh Hashanah -Usually in September or October • Complete fast day -No food or water allowed -Exception: boys under 13, girls under 12, people who are sick, women in childbirth • Meal before fast is bland to prevent thirst • Meal to break fast is light Fri day: Sukkot: Feast of Tabernacles • Festival of thanksgiving in Fall • Dancing, singing, feasting • Sukkah (hut) built and meals are eaten there Hanukkah: the Festival of Lights • Commemorates the recapture of the Temple in Jerusalem in 169 C.E. • 8 nights in December • Candle lit each night • Foods cooked in oil -Latke: potato pancakes Purim: Joyous celebration in February or March • Feast in honor of deliverance by Queen Esther • Lots of meat and alcohol • Symbolic foods -Hamantaschen: triangular-shaped pastry filled with jams -Kreplach: a pastry stuffed with meat or cheese -Purim challah: sweet bread with raisins -Special fish dish -Seeds, beans, and cereals Passover • 8 day festival of spring and freedom • in March or April • Celebrates the Jewish exodus form slavery in Egypt and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses • Passover Seder: a ceremony carried out at home • All foods must be “Kosher for Passover” • Includes chicken soup, matzah balls, meat, or chicken • During Passover, no food that is subject to a leavening process or that has come in contact with leavened foods eaten • Matzah: a white flour cracker -A descendent of the unleavened bread Shavuoth • Season of giving of the Torah • Two-day festival • 7 weeks after the second day of Passover • Commemorates the rev • Traditional Ashkenazi food -Blintzes: thin pancakes rolled with a meat or cheese filling, and then topped with sour cream -Kreplach -Knishes: dough filled with a potato, meat, cheese, or fruit mixture, then baked Fast Days • Several other than Yom Kippur • Most Jews usually fast on Yom Kippur but other fast days are observed by only Orthodox Jews • Fasts can be broken by women who are pregnant or nursing or if it’s dangerous to a person’s health Kosher food is holy food, not necessarily healthy food Nutritional Status • Many are lactose intolerant -60-80% of Ashkenazi Jewish people are lactose intolerant • Research has identified a genetic predisposition to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Ashkenazi Jews • Tend to consume more fat from animal sources although calorie intake slightly lower than that for non-Jewish control -Higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia -Higher prevalence of Coronary heart disease -Can’t rule out genetics as a contributer Christianity Around the world, more people follow Christianity than any other single religion Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant Roman Catholicism • 25% of US population • Immigrated from Germany, Poland, Italy, Ireland (1800s), Mexico and the Caribbean (20 and 21 century) • French Catholics in Main and Louisiana • Most Filipinos and some Vietnamese in the US are Catholic Catholic Dietary Guidelines Abstinance- no meat but.. eggs, milk products, fish, condiments made of animal fat okay Applies to Catholics over 14 yes old and under 60 years old Fasting -Fasting practices vary locally -Eat only one full meal (1 mid-day meal or no mid-day meal but light morning and evening meals) -Beverages are allowed (not allowed: honey, milk, soup, broth, or anything else having the nature of food) Applies to Catholics over 18 yrs old but under 60 Current US Catholic Dietary Guidelines Papenitemini (1966 by Pope Paul VI) -Pope Paul VI changed the strictly regulated Catholic fasting requirements Ash Wednesday to the day before Easter (about 6 weeks) Only restrictions are: • Abstain from meat on Fridays during Lent • Fast and Abstain on: Ash Wednesday and Good Friday • Avoid food and liquids for 1 hour prior to communion -exception: water Good Friday: commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary US Catholic Dietary Guidelines before 1966 Abstinence on every Friday that did not fall on a holy day of obligation 6 Holy Days of Obligation in US 1) New Year’s Day 2) Ascension Day (40 days after Easter) 3) Assumption 4) All Saint’s Day 5) Immaculate Conception 6) Christmas Fasting and abstinence -Ash Wednesday -Good Friday Feast Days All celebrates: Christmas, Easter Most Devout celebrate: Annunciation, Palm Sunday, Pentecost Holiday food depends on country or origin Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 5 9/7 -9/9 ) Wednesday: Protestantism th • Protestant branch began in the 16 century initiated by Martin Luther • Emphasis on the individual’s direct responsibility to God • Christmas and Easter as feast days -Foods are determined by ethnicity • Fasting is uncommon • Only a few of the Protestant denominations such as the Mormons and the Seventh Day Adventists have dietary practices to their faith Mormons: Church of the Latter Day Saints • Began in US in early 1800s • The LDS Church self-identifies as Christian • World-wide membership is about 13 million • Half lives in US (Most live in Mountain region; Utah is 70% Mormon) Mormon Dietary Laws • Diet and health codes are found in the Doctrine and Covenants • The body is the temple of the spirit (exercise daily; avoid abusive substances) Mormon Laws of Health • No alcohol (strong drink) • No tea or coffee (hot drink) • No caffeine • No tobacco • Eat meat sparingly • Diet based on grains (wheat) • Fast one day per month • Donate money saved to the poor • Have one year of food and clothing in reserve LDS Consumption Patterns and Nutrient Intake • Beverage consumption LDS vs. US overall -Less coffee, tea, beer -More water, milk -Carbonated beverages preferred are caffeine-free • Nutrient Intake LDS vs. non-LDS in Utah -No differences for: total kcals, fat, protein, CHO, fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C • Health Status: All cause mortality (Utah vs. US Overall) -40% below US death rate -Lower incidence of: cancer, heart disease, stroke, and neonatal/infant deaths • Utah residents: LDS vs. non-LDS -30-80% lower risk for various chronic diseases -Varies with disease/study -Influential: Diet, lifestyle including exercise and stress reduction Seventh Day Adventists • Founded in 1863 • Belief in Christ’s advent or second coming • Human body is temple of Holy Spirit • Sabbath from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday • 12 million worldwide, 1 million in US • Sacred duty to attend to one’s health and to arouse others to do so as well • Against intemperance of any kind, Water is God’s great medicine, Sickness due to violation of the laws of health Sickness is a violation of the Laws of Health • Eat the right foods in moderation -Overeating is discouraged • Get enough rest and exercise • Diet in Eden did not include flesh foods -Lacto-ovo vegetarianism widely practices -May eat meat but avoid pork and shellfish • No coffee, tea, alcohol, or tobacco • Water is the preferred beverage • Avoid highly seasoned meals or condiments • Eating between meals is discouraged SDA Fasting Guidelines • Specifics left to individual -Suggestion by congregations -Medical conditions should be considered -Excused (pregnant, nursing, ill or on medication (modified)) • General approach: -Adults: complete abstinence from all foods for 24 hours; water okay (not before age 12-13) -Pre-teens/Teens: eat bland nutrient crackers and water -Children: Eliminate a preferred food SDA: Health Effects (Adventist Health Study) • 34,000 participants, 50% vegetarian • Lower all-cause mortality in vegetarians • Significant relationship between meat consumption and heart disease mortality in men • Sig protective effect of nut consumption for fatal and non-fatal heart disease • Colon and prostate cancers more common in non-vegetarians • High fruit consumption associated with lower risks of cancer of the lungs, prostate, and pancreas • Lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis among vegetarians SO • Vegetarianism tends to lower overall death rates by 5% and mortality from heart disease by 25% • Other beneficial SDA lifestyle choices (high nut consumption, high levels of exercise, maintenance of moderate body weight) • Total benefit- up to 10 years! Kellogg’s and Seventh Day Adventists? Kellogg was a doctor and he practiced this religion. Eastern Orthodox • 1054 AD Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches split (East-West Schism) • Membership: -260 million worldwide (12% of the global Christian population) -39% Friday: Rabbi Barry Cofsky After the flood, God said that he would ease up on what people were allowed to eat/however not from a live animal (not vegetarian anymore) The blood within our body is a life source. Must drain blood from a dead animal. No rare steak, for example Braham- first Hebrew- first person who believed in one God Why Jewish people eat certain foods comes back to the time of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Almost everything Jewish people eat has to do with tradition, not nutrition Moses: first 40 years was a prince, next 40 lived in wilderness, next 40- led Jews out of Egypt Matzah is a flat cracker- not leavened (bakes for exactly 18 minutes) Lambs blood was placed on the doorposts of Hebrews, so they weren’t affected by the plague. Lambs were considered sacred Manna- what Hebrews ate in the desert during their trek. Available every morning. Some people think it was a coriander seed. People gathered it in the field. Only enough for the day. It tasted like anything you wanted it to. On the day before the Sabbath, they could gather enough for two days The way people eat challah depend on a family’s tradition Some families have two loves of challah on Sabbath Difference between roast beef and brisket: the cut Passover meal: Seder (order or sequence) We will live like money is no object tonight A difference between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews- foods There are more Ashkenazi here. Only one Sephardic temple in ATL When Europe passed laws to prevent the baking of bread, the Jewish people invented bagels (because they’re boiled) You ignore all kosher laws relating to ingredients in medicine Kosher rules are extremely complicated and people follow them at varying degrees Kosherstal- family tradition Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 6 9/12 -9/16 ) Monday: Eastern Orthodox • 1054 AD Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches split (East-West Schism) • Membership: -260 million worldwide (12% of the global Christian population) -39% reside in Russia, the country with the largest number of Orthodox -87% can be found in the 10 countries -2.6 million in US, Greek Orthodox is the largest one (about 47%), Russian -76.9% of Eastern Orthodox live in Europe Diet-related practices Fasting- about 200 days • Pope authority not recognized • Marriage of clergy • Use of leavened bread for communion • Interpretation of the Trinity • Opportunity to gain God’s grace and the power to resist spiritual temptations and the passions of the flesh • Preparation for a feast • During fast: pray, do good deeds, practice sexual abstinence, no smoking • More than just food restriction! • Specifics vary with day of week, specific fast, and local parish custom • Excluded: sick or weak, pregnant, nursing, small children General rules for a strict fast every Wednesday and Friday • No meat including poultry • No any meat products such as lard or meat broth • No fish (shellfish are permitted) • No egg and dairy products • No olive oil, sometimes include all vegetable oils as well as oil products such as margarine • No wine and other alcoholic drinks. In the Slavic tradition, beer is often permitted on fast days Foods consumed during fasting • Fruits, vegetables, bread, olives, pasta, beans, lentil soups, invertebrate fish Fast Days Communion • From midnight until communion is received (includes all food and water) Every Wednesday and Friday except during fast-free weeks • Week following Christmas to eve of Theophany (12 days following Christmas) • Bright week (week following Easter) • Trinity week (week following Trinity Sunday or Pentecost) 4 Fast Periods • The Lenten Fast (Great Lent and Holy Week) -7 weeks -Great lent is the longest and strictest fasting season • Dormition Fast -2 weeks -Fasting is like that during most of Great Lent • Apostles Fast -8 days to 6 weeks • Nativity fast -6 weeks Greek Orthodox- Saturday before Easter • Magurutsa- soup made with internal organs of lamb-liver, pancreas, lungs, and heart • Tsoureki- thick, round, and leavened loves of bread decorated with colored, hard-boiled eggs Greek Easter • Hard-boiled eggs are colored red to symbolize blood of Christ • Cracking symbolizes opening of tomb • Russian Orthodox- Easter eggs highly ornate • Lamb is a tradition, seasoned with lemon and cooked over an open pit • Soup, stuffed vegetables, salad, sweet pastries Greek Christmas • Pork of lamb • Chicken-lemon soup • Cheese • Salads • Christoposomo (sweet Christmas bread) • Kourambiedes (Christmas shortbread cookie) Orthodox Lifestyle Associated behaviors enhance health • Whoever follows the fasting has a much better blood profile • Relaxation • Life satisfaction • Personal hygiene • Physical activity • Healthful nutrition • Mediterranean diet is healthy Wednesday: Name: Each state in India is its own country Tirupati, India is her hometown Special ball dish made of chickpea flour Southern states love spicy foods Religion Invasions -Moghul Empire • Left a significant mark on Indian cuisine particularly in northern parts of India Portuguese and British • Came in search of spices, gold and silk • Loved black pepper • Introduced cashews, potatoes, and tomatoes • Strong influence on Indian cuisine Cereal: rice, wheat, millets Pulses (legumes, lentils) Most food is made from scratch and fresh Eat millets, pay less, stay healthier, save Earth • Small grains • Grown in dry regions • Drought resistant • High in fiber and minerals Legumes • Low glycemic index compared to rice • Antioxidants: Legumes are rich in essential nutrients that exhibit antioxidants effects such as vitamin C, copper, and selenium • Glycemic Indexes: The glycemic index is an indicator of a specific food’s effect on blood sugar levels. Legumes are generally low on the glycemic index • Protein: legumes, grains, fruits, and vegetables often lack at least one of the essential amino acids and are considered to provide incomplete proteins Lentils are as good as meat in protein content Biriyani • Mixed rice dish • Basmati rice preferred (sona masoori rice) • Known for its spicy and hot taste • Can be cooked with vegetables or meat • Spices, fried onions and mint-key to taste • Chicken biriyani -has a great Mughal impact Raita • Yoghurt based side dish -Cucumber, onion, carrots, tomatoes mixed with yogurt • Commonly served as a side dish with biriyani • Also served as a salad Butter Chicken and Naan/Paratha • Chicken sauted in butter and cooked in tomato gravy -Usually have a lot of onion, tomatoes, cumin, turmeric, mustard, garlic, ginger • Naan and paratha are breads -Either wheat or all purpose flour Idli and Dosa • Fermented black lentils and rice batter • A good mixture of carbs, protein, fat, and fiber • Essential amino acids and enzymes India has the second largest number of people with diabetes in the world (first- China) There are 1 billion people in India Consumption of refined grains is associated with increased risk of diabetes Ghee • Therapeutic use of ghee for thousands of years in the Ayurvedic system of medicine • High doses of ghee decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in psoriasis patients • Significantly lower prevalence of coronary heart disease and has anti-cancer properties Masala Chai- spiced milk tea Lassi- yogurt based drink Flavored milk- Almond milk Pickles in India • Pickles are an important source of sustenance for travelers and impoverished families • Almost everything can be pickled in India: Chicken, mango, lemon, egg plant, etc. • Long shelf life Thali is the way of presenting foods- a little bit of everything- full plate Not practical to eat this way every day at home Thadka • Secret behind the flavor and aroma of most of the Indian savory dishes • Chana dal, Urad dal, dried red chilies, mustard seeds, fenugreek seeds Paan Chew Betal leaves and areca nut- euphoric feeling and fullness May affect the nervous system Contributes to oral cancer The Indian Cuisine is vast and differs from region to region and person to person It has huge medicinal values and is also used in Ayurvedic medicines Chicken is the preferred meat in India, also lamb. No beef really Friday:


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