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FND 250 - Principles of Nutrition, Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Emily

FND 250 - Principles of Nutrition, Exam 1 Study Guide FND 250-001

Marketplace > University of Northern Colorado > Food Nutrition & Dietetics > FND 250-001 > FND 250 Principles of Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide

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About this Document

This study guide outlines the three different sections we talked about and what are going to be over the test.
Principles of Nutrition
Catherine Gerweck
Study Guide
nutrition, Dietetics, Carbohydrates, Diabetes, Digestive System
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FND 250-001 at University of Northern Colorado taught by Catherine Gerweck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Food Nutrition & Dietetics at University of Northern Colorado.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Nutrition in Health and Illness Exam 1 Review Sheet This first exam will be comprised of multiple choice and true/false questions. Please bring a calculator (not the one on your cell phone). You should be familiar with the following items below; however, this is not an all inclusive list. You should be able to apply the following; not just regurgitate facts. Wellness & Community Nutrition  Know the ultimate goals of Healthy People 2020; time frame o10 year objective. Goals change every ten years oattain higher quality of life, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death ocreate social and physical environments that promote good health  Definition of wellness o Maximum well-being, the top range of health states, the goal of the person who strives toward realizing his or her full potential physically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually, and socially  Role of nutrition in wellness & disease prevention  Dietary Guidelines for Americans- what they are and time frame oTime frame: every 5 years  Be able to define the following terms: RDA, DRI, AI, TUL, EAR, EER oDRI: Dietary Reference Intakes (like the charts for estimated intakes for people so they can get the required nutrients for their body to be healthy) oRDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances - a set of values to be used as nutrient intake goals oAI: Adequate Intakes oTUL: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels - limits nutrient intake, says how much is too much oEAR: Estimated Average Requirements – average daily intake based on which RDA values are set oEER: Estimated Energy Requirements – dietary energy intake level that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, and physical activity level consistent with good health  Difference between RD and nutritionist oRD: Registered Dietitian – oNutritionist:  Factors that affect food selection oAge, gender, schedule, work, beliefs, culture, medical conditions, social interaction, availability, convenience, economy, 1  Food Guide Systems: Food groups; My Plate; 5-A-Day, etc. How are they used? oTo help people know how much of what to eat a day so they get the full nutrients  Characteristics of nutrients: energy-yielding; organic versus inorganic oOrganic: contain carbon; carbohydrates, lipids, and protein oInorganic: minerals and water  Know how to calculate kcal amounts if given gram values of nutrients oCarbs: 4 kcal/g oProtein: 4 kcal/g oFat/Lipids: 9 kcal/g oAlcohol: 7 kcal/g  Energy density versus nutrient density oEnergy: more calories, less nutrients oNutrient: more nutrients, fewer calories  AMDR recommendations oCarbs: 45-65% oFat: 20-35% oProtein: 10-35% Digestion, Absorption & Metabolism  Know the primary functions of all digestive organs oStomach: Holds food Produces gastric juices Mechanical action Destroys harmful micro-organisms Cephalic phase: mental factors stimulate gastrin Gastric phase: increases release of gastric juices Intestinal phase: gastric secretions change as chym passes into the duodenum oSmall intestine: major organ of digestion and absorption passage takes about 5 hours Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum produces intestinal juices nutrients pass through intestinal wall to the blood and lymph cells specialize in absorbing different nutrients oLarge intestine Valve between small and large intestine = ileocecal valve consists of the cecum, colon, and rectum 2 colon: ascending, transverse, descending final absorption of water bacteria in colon produces several vitamins intestinal flora protects against systemic infection from bacteria  Know the enzymes that aid in the digestion of carbohydrate, fat & protein; what organ makes them and how they act oCarbs: gastrin; stomach, but begins in mouth oFat: Lipase; small intestine oProtein: Pepsin; stomach  Know the difference between chemical and mechanical (physical) digestion and where they primarily occur oMechanical: mouth, anything involving muscle movement, stomach has some mechanical movement. oChemical: anything involving enzymes, such as stomach and small intestine  Know the methods of absorption: active transport, diffusion, pinocytosis oActive: energy dependent oDiffusion: Facilitated: carrier protein takes the nutrients across Passive: higher to lower concentration. Not much energy oPinocytosis: the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.  Know the differences in the absorption of fat-soluble versus water-soluble nutrients; ie.,vascular and lymphatic systems oFat-Soluble: absorbed into the lymphatic system oWater-Soluble: absorbed into the blood stream (vascular)  Role of bile in digestion oBreaks down fats/lipids  Foodborne infection versus intoxication oInfection: actual bug in food enters GI tract, usually from undercooked meat or unpasteurized milk oIntoxication: eating food w/ toxins or foods containing microbes that makes those toxins Includes Staphylococcus Aureus and Clostridium Botulinum Botulism is most deadly. Comes from improperly canned foods and homemade oils. Causes paralysis of muscles.  Food safety temperature danger zone oDanger Zone: 40-140 degrees Fahrenheit 3 o “When in doubt, throw it out” oKeep cold things cold and keep hot things hot Carbohydrates  Know the differences between a simple and complex carbohydrate oSimple: Monosaccharides Disaccharides oComplex: Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides  Name the monosaccharides and disaccharides oMono Glucose Fructose Galactose oDisaccharides Sucrose (table sugar): glucose + fructose Maltose (malt sugar): glucose + glucose Lactose (sugar in milk): glucose + galactose  Describe glycogen oGlycogen: storage form of glucose in animals and humans Stored in the liver (90g) Stored in the muscle (150g)  Know glucose metabolism and maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis oBlood sugar level  Know the functions of fiber and the recommended amounts of fiber in the diet oFiber: found in plant structures (apple skins, oats…) Energy yielded = 1.5-2.5 kcal/g Soluble Fiber: dissolves in water; forms a gel that bacteria can easily take in. Associated w/ lower risks of chronic diseases Insoluble Fiber: does not dissolve in water; aids in digestion by keeping things moving in your gut  List and define nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners; discuss benefits & drawbacks of their use; associated controversies oNutritive: has calories; side effects are gas, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea oNon-Nutritive: doesn’t have calories  Compare and contrast Type 1 DM and Type 2 DM oType 1 (old name = juvenile onset) Pancreas shuts down production of insulin Cause: could be viral; genetic factors; auto immune destruction of pancreas 4 Treatment: insulin injections Health risks: heart disease, kidney disorders, nerve damage and retinal damage oType 2 (old name = adult onset) Pancreas produces insulin but cells are resistant to its uptake Cause: genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors Treatment: exercise and consume moderate Kcal, high fiber, low-fat diet; may require oral meds and/or insulin injections Health risks: same as Type 1  List the complications of DM (acute and chronic) oAcute Complications Hypoglycemia Ketoacidosis in Type 1: dangerously low insulin levels; increased supply of fatty acids and amino acids trigger production of ketone bodies and glucose in liver Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome: severe hyperglycemia and dehydration. Blood plasma may become so hyperosmolar that it causes neurological abnormalities, confusion, speech or vision impairments, muscle weakness, abnormal reflexes, and seizures oChronic Complication: Macrovascular: impaired blood circulation in the limbs increases risk of pain while walking and contributes to the development of foot ulcers. Which can lead to gangrene (tissue death); some patients need amputation because of this. Includes heart diseases Microvascular: damage to capillaries in the retina, leading to visual impairments. Also prevents adequate blood filtration and kidney failure often develops requiring the use of dialysis. Diabetic Neuropathy: pain or burning in legs and feet, weakness of the arms and legs, or numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. Cuts and bruises can go unnoticed in feet. Sweating abnormally, disturbances in bladder and bowel function, sexual dysfunction, constipation  Define glycemic index oLevel to which food raises blood glucose levels compared with reference food; ranking 100 highest  What are probiotics? oLive microorganisms provided in foods and dietary supplements for the purpose of preventing or treating disease  What health benefits do probiotics provide? oBoost immune system; prevent and treat urinary tract infections; improve digestive function; fight food-borne illness; 5


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