Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 9 Study Guide
Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 9 Study Guide PSB2000
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Gnecco on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSB2000 at Florida State University taught by Maria Greenwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 220 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Brain and Behavior in Natural Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
PSB2000 Study Guide Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 9 Chapter 1: Biopsychology as a Neuroscience 1. Define and discuss the field of biopsychology. 2. Biopsychology is an integrative discipline. Explain. 3. Who is D. O. Hebb and what did he propose? 4. Describe six areas of neuroscience that are particularly relevant to biopsychological inquiry. 5. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of humans and nonhumans as subjects in biopsychological research. 6. Compare experiments, quasiexperimental studies, and case studies, emphasizing the study of causal effects. 7. Explain how converging operations (aka, preponderance of the evidence) contributed to the study of Korsakoff’s syndrome. 8. Explain critical thinking and its relation to creative thinking in science. 9. Describe the four major themes of our approach to Biopsychology. 10.Thinking about the biology of behavior in terms of traditional physiological-psychological and nature-nurture dichotomies is flawed: Explain and discuss. Chapter 2: Evolution & Genetics 1. Evolution: a. Describe Darwin’s evidence for evolution. b. What is natural selection? c. In what ways has the human brain evolved? 2. Outline the mechanisms of gene expression. 2 3. Describe the difference between genetics and epigenetics. What are two main epigenetic changes that can occur? 4. Describe 3 classic examples of research on behavioral development, and how each illustrates gene–experience interaction. 5. Describe the twin studies we discussed, their strengths and weaknesses, and what they tell us about the interaction of genes and experience (i.e., nature and nurture). Chapter 3: Anatomy of the Nervous System 1. Illustrate the major divisions of the nervous system. 2. Draw, label, and define the major features of a multipolar neuron. 3. Briefly describe 4 kinds of glial cells. 4. Illustrate the neuroanatomical directions. 5. Draw and label a cross section of the spinal cord. 6. List and discuss the 5 divisions of the human brain. 7. Define all boldface neuroanatomical terms and be able to locate them in the brain. Chapter 9: Development of the Nervous System 1. Describe the 5 phases of neurodevelopment. 2. The human brain is not fully developed at birth. Explain. 3. Discuss examples of experience affecting early & adult mammalian development. 4. Discuss apoptosis vs. necrosis. 5. Describe Williams syndrome and attempts to identify its neural mechanisms. Chapter 1 1. Biopsychology is the scientific study of the Biology of Behavior. It is the biological approach to the study of psychological behavior. 2. Biopsychology has six different disciplines (Neuroanatomy, Neurophysiology, Neurochemistry, Neuropathology, Neuropharmacology, and Neuroendocrinology) which each study a different aspect of the nervous system that informs our understanding of what produces and controls behavior. It applies the disciplines of neuroscience to explain human behavior. 3. D. O. Hebb is a psychologist who wrote “Organization of Behavior”. He proposed that psychological phenomena (perceptions, emotions, thoughts, memories) might be produced by brain activity and introduced his theory about the neural bases of learning. 4. Neuroanatomy concerns the structure of the nervous System. Neurophysiology concerns the functions and activities of the nervous System. Neurochemistry concerns the chemical bases of neural activity. Neuropathology concerns the disorders of the nervous System. Neuropharmacology concerns the effects of drugs on neural activity. Finally, Neuroendocrinology concerns the interactions b/w the nervous system and endocrine system. 5. Humans- Advantages: Humans can follow directions presented to them, report subjective experiences, and are cheaper. Disadvantages: Have more complex brains, unacceptable ethical reasons. Nonhumans- Advantages: Comparative approach, have simpler brains, and ethical reasons. Disadvantages: Do not follow directions presented as effectively and research lacks generalizability. 6. Experiments involve the manipulation of variables. C from experiments. While non-experiments such as quasi experiments and case studies do not involve the manipulation of variable. Rather than causal relations, associations can be drawn. Drawing associations do not require as rigorous of science. Quasi experiments involve the studies of groups of subjects exposed to real world conditions. Case-studies involve the study of one individual subject. Case studies are not generalizable and typically test a hypothesis. 4 7. Converging operations create study results using multiple levels of analysis, multiple species, comparing among the analyses and the species. An example of the use of converging operations is the Korsakoff Syndrome study. Originally, it was believed that alcohol consumption was the cause of the syndrome and its symptoms (Severe retrograde amnesia, confabulation, intelligence otherwise in tact).It was later discovered that Korsakoff's syndrome is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (Pinel, 2002). The syndrome occurs in malnourished persons who consume little or no alcohol. Turns out, with convergent evidence, the syndrome results from poor nutrition (thiamine deficiency) and is exacerbated by alcohol. 8. Creative thinking is thinking in unconventional ways that will lead to scientific discovery. Critical thinking is carefully assessing the strength of the evidence presented to support an idea. By thinking creatively we produce the ideas which develop the study. By thinking critically we assess the evidence produced as a result, leading to new scientific discoveries. 9. 4 Major themes of our approach to Biopsychology: Thinking critically and creatively about Biopsychology; Clinical Implications- the study of diseased or damaged brains leads to new knowledge, which leads to new treatments; The Evolutionary perspective- The consideration of environmental pressures on human evolution which may use a comparative approach (human brain vs. rat brain); Neuroplasticity- The brain is plastic and can recover itself from injuries by rerouting itself. 10. Thinking in dichotomies such as physiological/psychological and nature/nurture is flawed for it is not one or the other. Behavior is not formed due to either genetics or environmental situations and upbringings. It is formed due to the influences of both. The same goes for whether an activity is physiological or psychological. It is due to the interaction of both. Something cannot be categorized as only physiological or psychological. They cannot be separated into dichotomies. Chapter 2 1. Evolution: a. Darwin’s three main pieces of evidence for evolution include the evolution of fossil records via geological layers, homologous structures, and changes via selective breeding. Darwin collected finches at Galapagos Island over the course of two years. They demonstrated natural selection. 18 month drought -> seeds were large and difficult to eat for finches -> increase in beak size of one species of finch. 5 b. Natural selection is the idea that heritable traits that are associated with high rates of survival and reproduction are preferentially passed on to future generations. c. Darwin’s theory of evolution helps explain how our brains evolved. The earliest brain’s were very simple and are seen in animals lower down the evolutionary ‘tree’ for example in insects, worms and snails. As you go up the evolutionary ‘tree’, you reach the brains of mammals. Our brain’s have grown since the early days due to evolution and natural selection. Our brains developed more convolutions (wrinkles on the brain) during evolution. 2. Gene expression involves the DNA strands unraveling, transcription, and then translation. During transcription, the copy is made (messenger RNA, DNA -> RNA). During t ranslation, protein is built based on mRNA code; the mRNA attaches to a ribosome and the ribosome reads each codon and attaches appropriate amino acid. 3. Genetics concerns genes while Epigenetics concerns environmental effects. Epigenetics tells us that experience can affect genetic expression. Two mechanisms of Epigenetics includes histone remodeling and DNA methylation. Histone remodeling involves modifications to a histone protein (around which DNA is coiled). This either decreases or increases gene expression. DNA methylation involves the attachment of a methyl group to DNA. This tends to reduce the expression of adjacent genes. 4. Selective breeding of “maze-bright” and “maze-dull” rats- “maze-bright” and “maze-dull” rates were each raised in impoverished and enriched environments. The environment influenced each group’s maze errors. The maze-dull rats made significantly more errors only if they had been raised in an impoverished environment. The maze-bright rates did not have as significant of a difference between the two environments as the maze-dull rats did. This shows the interaction b/w genetics and environment. Phenylketonuria: a single-gene metabolic disorder- Autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder which involves the inability to metabolize phenylketonuria. Builds up to toxic levels and severely affects brain development, especially myelination. Mitigated by a special diet during a critical period of development. Development of birdsong- Birdsong singing behavior develops in two phases, sensory phase and sorimotor phase. During sensory phase, several days after hatching, the young birds form memories of the adult songs they hear, guiding the development of their own singing. During sorimotor phase, the juvenile males begin to twitter subsongs and need auditory feedback for the development. For this retention of their initial crystallized adult songs, there are two different types of species: age-limited learners and open-ended learners. 6 5. The twin studies showed how MZ twins have a higher heritability than DZ twins. The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart specifically showed us how MZ twins are more similar on all measures than DZ twins, including personality and intelligence. For the Adoption studies on heritability, if adopted kids resemble biological parents more than adoptive parents, high heritability is assumed. Virtual twins were used for this study. For the twin studies, the disadvantage is that the MZ twins share chorion and blood supply and have more similar prenatal environment than DZ twins. For the adoption studies, Biological children of low IQ or mentally ill parents tend to have similar problems even if raised by “great” adoptive parents. This could be genes or it could be reflection of poor prenatal environment. Chapter 3 1. 2. 7 3. Oligodendrocytes : Glia cells with extensions rich in myelin that wrap around the axons of some neurons of the CNS. They create myelin sheaths in CNS. Schwann cells: Similar to the function of oligodendrocytes, but in PNS. They can also guide axonal regeneration after damage. Microglia: Respond to injury or disease. Astrocytes: largest glia; many functions. 4. 6. 7. Metencephalon: Have many tracts, includes the pons (ventral surface) and cerebellum (coordination); Myelencephalon (medulla): Composed largely of tracts, origin of reticular formation; Mesencephalon (midbrain):includes tectum (has inferior and superior colliculi) and tegmentum (has periaqueductal gray, substantia nigra, and red nucleus); Diencephalon: includes hypothalamus and thalamus; Telencephalon (cerebral cortex): includes longitudinal fissure (a groove that separates the hemispheres) and corpus callosum (largest hemisphere-connecting tract). Subcortical structure of the telencephalon: Limbic 8 system (Regulation of motivated behaviors, emotion, learning and memory. Includes Mammillary bodies, hippocampus, amygdala fornix, cingulate, and septum) and the Basal Ganglia Motor System (Involved in coordination of movement. Includes Amygdala, striatum/caudate plus putamen, and globus pallidus) 8. Bold-faced terms are located in #7 Chapter 9 1. Induction of the neural plate- A patch of tissue on the dorsal surface of the embryo becomes the neural plate. Development is induced by chemical signals from the mesoderm (the “organizer”). Can Become Any Kind of Mature Cell: a. Totipotent: the earliest cells have the ability to become any type of body cell. b. Multipotent: with development, neural plate cells are limited to becoming one of the range of mature nervous system cells. (present in adults) Neural proliferation- The neural plate folds to form the neural groove, which then fuses to form the neural tube. Inside will be the cerebral ventricles and neural tube. Proliferation is guided by the organizer areas of the roof plate and the floor plate. Migration and aggregation- Migrating cells are immature, lacking axons and dendrites. Two types of neural tube migration: Radial migration (moving out usually by moving along radial glial cells) and Tangential migration (moving up). Two methods of migration: Somal (extension develops that leads migration; the cell body follows) and Glial mediated migration (cell moves along a radial glial network) Aggregation- cells align themselves and form structures. Cell-Adhesion molecules (CAM’s) aid both migration and aggregation by recognizing and adhering to molecules. Once aggregation and migration are complete, axons and dendrites begin to grow. Axon growth and synapse formation- Two mechanisms of axonal growth- Growth cone (at the growing tip of each extension; extends and retracts filopodia as if finding its way) and Chemoaffinity hypothesis (postsynaptic targets release a chemical that guides axonal growth, but this does not explain the often circuitous routes often observed) Neuron death and synapse rearrangement- Neuron death- 50% more neurons die than are needed to produce. They die due to failure to compete for chemicals provided by targets. Synapse rearrangement‐ Space left after apoptosis (active cell‐death) is filled by sprouting axon terminals of surviving neurons. 2. Babies are born with more neurons than needed. Neurons die off as their cognitive abilities increase. 3. For young: 9 Early Visual Deprivation: Fewer synapses and dendritic spines in primary visual cortex and deficits in depth and pattern vision. Also. altered exposure during a sensitive period leads to reorganization. Active motor neurons take precedence over inactive ones. Enriched Environment: Thicker cortexes, greater dendritic development, and more synapses per neuron. For adults: Neurogenesis (growth of new neurons) is seen in the olfactory bulbs and hippocampuses of adult mammals of adult mammals. Enriched environments and exercise promote neurogenesis. 4. Apoptosis is active cell death, while Necrosis is passive cell death. Apoptosis is safer than Necrosis for it doesn’t proved inflammation. 5. Williams Syndrome is a mental retardation and contains an uneven part of abilities and disabilities. People with this syndrome are empathetic, sociable, and talkative. They also have language and music skills and have an enhanced ability to recognize faces. Other symptoms include profound impairments in spatial cognition and (usually) the presence of heart disorders associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 7. “Elfin” Appearance: Short, Small, Upturned Noses; Oval Ears; Broad Mouths. There is a role of chromosome 7 (as in autism) and a general Thinning of Cortex at Juncture of Occipital and Parietal Lobes, and at the Orbitofrontal Cortex.
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