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BSC 114 Chapters 5 and 7 Study Guide

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC 114 Chapters 5 and 7 Study Guide BSC 114

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 114 > BSC 114 Chapters 5 and 7 Study Guide
Lauren Dutch
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About this Document

Here are the final two chapters for exam 1 over chapters 2-7. For the other 4 chapters, check out my other study guide.
The Principles of Biology 1
Dr. Stephenson
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stephenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 201 views. For similar materials see The Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Chapter 7 Study Guide: 1. The plasma membrane exhibits selective permeability between a cell and its external environment. 2. Phospholipids form a selectively permeable structure. 3. The fluid part of the fluid mosaic model is due to the movement of phospholipids and the embedded proteins make up the mosaic part. 4. Cholesterol can be found in the interior of the plasma membrane. 5. Membrane proteins function in enzymatic activity, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and transport. 6. During tissue formation in embryonic development of animals, membrane proteins with short sugar chains form identification tags that are recognized by other cells. 7. Membrane carbohydrates function in cell-cell recognition. 8. Carbohydrates are found on the outside (external) surface of the membrane. 9. The plasma membrane has two lipid layers that may differ in specific lipid composition, exposes some proteins on the cytoplasmic side of the ER as well as on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, has specifically oriented integral membrane proteins in the plasma membrane, and has an asymmetrical distribution of membrane proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates across the plasma membrane that is determined as the membrane is constructed. 10.Carbon dioxide can passively diffuse across the plasma membrane. 11.A large polar molecule would be least likely to diffuse through a plasma membrane without the help of a transport protein. 12.Passive transport permits the solute to move in either direction, but the net movement of solute molecules occurs down the concentration gradient of the molecule. 13.If cell A is metabolically less active than cell B and cell B is actively converting oxygen to water in cellular respiration, oxygen will diffuse more rapidly into cell B because the diffusion gradient in cell B is steeper. 14.Diffusion is a passive process. 15.If the internal solute concentration of a plant cell is about 0.8 M, putting it in a 1 M solution would demonstrate plasymolysis. 16.If a plant cell is placed in an isotonic solution and then salt is added to the solution, water would leave the cell by osmosis, causing the volume of the cytoplasm to decrease. 17.Since seawater is hypertonic to the cytoplasm in vertebrate cells and plant cells, putting a red blood cell and a plant cell in seawater would cause both cells to lose water. The red blood cell would shrivel and the plant plasma membrane would pull away from the cell wall. 18.Facilitated diffusion of solutes may occur through channel or transport proteins in the membrane. 19.Facilitated diffusion does not require the hydrolysis of ATP. 20.If a membrane separates a 0.2 M sucrose solution from a 0.2 M glucose solution, nothing will happen because the two solutions are isotonic to each other. 21.A concentration of solutes in a red blood cell is about 2% but red blood cells contain almost no sucrose or urea. Sucrose cannot pass through the membrane, but water and urea can. Osmosis would cause the red blood cell to shrink the most when immersed in a hypertonic sucrose solution. 22.Green olives are preserved in brine, a 30% salt solution, because the solution is hypertonic to the bacteria so they lose too much water and undergo plasmolysis. 23.The sodium potassium pump hydrolyzes ATP and results in a net positive change outside the cell membrane. 24.To pump glucose up its concentration gradient, sodium moves down its concentration gradient and the distribution of sodium ions across the membrane forms and electrochemical gradient that drives this mechanism. 25.Active transport requires energy from ATP but facilitated diffusion does not. 26.The sodium potassium pump moves sodium ions and potassium ions in opposite directions, resulting in a net negative charge inside the cell. 27.Cotransport proteins allow a single ATP powered pump to drive the active transport of many different solutes. 28.For cotransport to work, the two molecules must both be moving. 29.Receptor mediated endocytosis allows cells to pick up and concentrate a specific kind of molecule. 30.Exocytosis, smooth ER, and rough ER account for the replacement of lipids and proteins lost from the plasma membrane. 31.Endocytosis moves large molecules into the cell. 32.Pinocytosis is the uptake of water and small solutes into the cell by formation of vesicles at the plasma membrane. Chapter 5 Study Guide: 1. Dehydration reactions are the process by which monomers are linked together to form proteins. 2. In a hydrolysis reaction, a polymer is broken up into monomer and water is consumed. 3. The type of bond that joins monomers into polymers is a covalent bond. 4. Cellulose is a polymer. 5. Cellulose is a polymer made of many glucose molecules. 6. Generally, animals cannot digest the glycosidic linkages between glucose molecules in cellulose but microorganisms in cows’ digestive tracts hydrolyze the cellulose to individual glucose units. 7. Plants store glucose in the polysaccharide called starch to be available later as an energy source. 8. Glucose has the lowest carbohydrate molecular mass. 9. C6H12O6 is a monosaccharide. 10.Insects crunchy hulls are made from the polysaccharide called chitin. 11.Carbohydrates are used in our bodies for energy storage and release. 12.A polysaccharide I have eaten recently is starch. 13.Sucrose, lactose, and maltose are all disaccharides. 14.Glycogen is used for storing energy in human cells and liver cells. 15.Carbohydrates provide structural support and energy storage. 16.In a 1-4 glycosidic linkage, the number one carbon in on monosaccharide is bound to the number four carbon in another monosaccharide. 17.The enzyme that breaks down starch cannot break down cellulose because the monosaccharide monomers in cellulose are bonded together differently than those in starch. 18.The monomers in cellulose are linked by glycosidic linkages. 19.Cellulose in lettuce is not digested well. 20.Nearly all naturally occurring unsaturated fats have cis double bonds. 21.Lipids are not truly polymers. 22.Hydrophobic compounds do not mix with water. 23.Saturated triacylglycerols are considered to be less healthy than unsaturated triacylglycerols because for carbon skeletons of equal length, saturated triacylglycerols have more hydrogen atoms than unsaturated triacylglyercols. 24.Phospholipids form the main structural component of cell membranes. 25.Phospholipids in water point outward because they have a charged polar end and an uncharged nonpolar end. 26.Phospholipid molecules have a distinctly polar head and a distinctly nonpolar tail whereas triacylglycerols are predominantly nonpolar. 27.The sex hormones estradiol and testosterone are lipids. 28.Cholesterol is the precursor for many important molecules such as sex hormones. 29.Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid at room temperature by adding hydrogen atoms to the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains so that carbon- carbon double bonds are converted to single bonds. 30.Oil is the major energy storage of plant seeds. 31.Ester linkages link fatty acids to glycerols. 32.The fatty acid tails of a phospholipid are hydrophobic because they have no charges to which water molecules can adhere. 33.The overall 3D shape of a single polypeptide is called its tertiary structure. 34.Protein loses its functionality when it is denatured because denaturation breaks the intramolecular bonds, such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions, that hold the protein in its 3D shape. Without proper shape, it cannot function. 35.Ranked from smallest size to largest size: water, glucose, sucrose, protein 36.A polypeptide is a bunch of amino acids linked by dehydration, not hydrolysis. 37.Heating a protein, denaturing the protein, changing the salt concentration or pH, and treating the protein with a chemical that breaks hydrogen bonds would alter the shape of an enzymatic protein. 38.Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are secondary structures of proteins. 39.A peptide bond is a covalent bond joining amino acids together to form a polypeptide. 40.Protein molecules are polymers of amino acid molecules. 41.The primary structure of a protein refers to the sequence of amino acids along a polypeptide chain. 42.Chaperonins shield a newly forming protein from cytoplasmic influence while it is folding into its functional form. 43.Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and mad cow disease all are associated with the buildup of misfolded proteins in cells. 44.A glucose molecule is to a starch as a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid. 45.A shortage of phosphorus in soil would make it especially hard for plants to manufacture DNA. 46.Based on complementary base pairing, you would expect the percentage of adenine to be equal to the percentage of thymine. 47.Thymine and cytosine are pyrimidines found in the nucleic acid DNA. 48.RNA consists of a single polynucleotide chain whereas DNA consist of two polynucleotide chains organized into a double helix. Both molecules contain adenine, guanine, and cytosine but DNA contains thymine while RNA contains uracil. 49.A nucleotide is composed of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar. 50.Although the base pairing between two strands of DNA in a DNA molecule can be thousands to millions of base pairs long, base pairing in an RNA molecule is limited to short stretches of nucleotides in the same molecule or between two RNA molecules.


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