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# Physics 1220 Exam 1 Study Guide PHYS1220

Clemson

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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Asselin on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS1220 at Clemson University taught by Pooja Puneet in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Physics with Calculus I in PHYSICS (PHY) at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 09/18/16

Physics Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Ø Physics is a natural science because it deals with natural phenomena Ø Physical Principle or Law: a rule that govern some behavior or property of the physical universe Ø Theory: the beginning of a principle; it makes testable predictions Ø Scientific Evidence: measured observations Ø SI System: standard system of units (meters, seconds, kilograms) Ø Common Power-of-10 Prefixes: Power of 10 Prefix Abbreviation 10▯▯▯ pico p ▯▯ 10 nano n 10 ▯ micro ???? ▯▯ 10 milli m 10 ▯ centi c ▯ 10 kilo k 10 mega M ▯ 10 giga G 10 ▯ tera T Ø Derived Quantities: Quantities such as speed (d/t), volume (m*l*h), and density (m/v) that are derived from fundamental quantities ▯ Ø Density: ???? = ▯ Ø Dimension: the type or category of a measured quantity o L – length, M – mass, T – time Ø Dimensional Analysis: dimensions of a quantity, rather than its value or other property is used to solve a problem o Every term has to have the same base dimensions to be added or subtracted o There has to be equivalent dimensions on each side of the equal sign o For example, you can add two speeds or two masses together, but you cannot add the mass of an object (M) to the speed of it (M/S) because the dimensions are not equivalent Ø Uncertainty or Error: the imperfection of measurements; it is not a mistake, but rather a natural result of the experimental process Ø Significant Figures: the number of reported digits in an experiment; implicitly expressed as the uncertainty of measurements; the last digit you report is uncertain o When multiplying or dividing, report the result with the same number of sig figs as the least certain value (with the smallest sig figs) o When adding or subtracting, the number od decimal places in the result should equal the smallest number of decimal places in ant of the terms o Numbers that are not measure will not affect sig figs o When working calculations, keep several extra sig figs until the end Ø Estimate: not a guess; a calculation based on a few roughly known variables Ø Order of magnitude: Another word for the power of 10 Chapter 2 Ø Kinematics: description of motion, independent of its cause Ø Dynamics: the cause of motion Ø Rotational Motion: spinning Ø Vibrational Motion: back and forth motion Ø Translational Motion: moving in a line (like an airplane landing) Ø Particle: an idealized particle that has no shape, spatial extent, or internal structure Ø Vector: has magnitude and direction Ø Scalars (Scalar Quantities): only have magnitude Ø Motion Diagram: any illustration that shows the location of a particle at regular time intervals Ø Unit vectors: ????, ????, and ???? correspond with the x, y, and z, axes respectively Ø Subscripts indicate the direction along an axes Ø Scalar components are factors that appear before a unit vector Ø Vector components are scalar components multiplied by a unit vector Ø In a potion versus time graph o Time is a scalar quantity that can be positive or negative o Distance (usually meters) goes on the y axes, and time goes on the x- axis Ø Displacement: the change in position (∆????) o ∆???? = (???? − ???? )???? ▯ ▯ o Works for y- and z- direction the same way o Position depends in the choice of coordinate system, but displacement does not Ø Distance Traveled (d) by any particle is the length of the whole path the particle covered Ø Average Velocity: displacement divided by change in time Ø Format for Average Velocity in the x-direction: ∆▯ o ???? ▯▯,▯ = ∆▯ Ø Average Speed: (???? ) ▯▯tal distance traveled over change in time Ø Facts about position versus time graphs: o The slope of the straight line joining two points in a position versus time graph is the average velocity over that time interval o A steeper slope means higher average velocity o The sign of the slope gives the direction of motion o A horizontal line means no slope and no velocity Ø Instantaneous Velocity (Velocity) of a certain point is the derivative (slope of the tangent line) at that specific time (t) Ø Instantaneous Speed: the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity Ø Velocity Versus Time graph: plots instantaneous velocity on the vertical xis and time on the horizontal axis o Displacement is the are under the curve Ø Average Acceleration: the change in a particles instantaneous velocity over the change in time Ø Instantaneous Acceleration (Acceleration) of a certain point is the derivative of the velocity at the point over the corresponding time (t) Ø Deceleration: shorthand for acceleration in the direction opposite of velocity Ø The 6 motion variables along the x-axis: o ???? time elapse since t=0 o ???? ???? the position at t o ???? ▯ the initial position o ???? ▯????) the velocity at time t o ???? ▯▯ the initial velocity (when t=0) o ???? ▯ constant acceleration Ø Kinematic Equations for Constant Acceleration: o ???? ▯ ???? ▯▯ + ???? ▯ ▯ o ∆???? = ???? ???? ▯▯ ▯ ????▯???? ▯ ▯ o ???? ▯ ???? ▯▯+ 2 ???? ▯???? Ø Free Fall: the object is affected only by gravity Chapter 3 Ø Adding Vectors Geometrically: ???? + ???? = ???? (the Resultant Vector) Ø Vector addition is commutative, so the order you add them does not matter Ø Vector addition is associative, so if there are more than two vectors, they can be added in any order Ø When you multiply a vector by a scalar, the thing that changes is the magnitude of the Vector o If it is a negative scalar, the direction of the vector is completely reversed Ø To subtract vectors, the treat the second vector (the one being subtracted) and make it negative (flip the sign) o After you do this you can add them like normal o Remember vectors have magnitude and direction, but they are not set in one place in the plane, so they can slide around as long as they keep the same length and direction Ø The Cartesian Coordinate System is the normal one with x, y, and z Ø Resolving a vector into components (A is the magnitude of ????): o ???? = ???? cos???? ▯ o ???? =▯???? sin???? o ???? = ????cos???? ???? + ????sin???? ???? Ø Magnitude of ???? (in three dimensions): ▯ ▯ ▯ o ???? = ????▯+ ???? ▯ ???? ▯ ▯▯ ▯▯ Ø To find the angle: ???? = tan ▯▯ Ø If you are multiplying a vector by a scalar, then all components must be multiplied by that scalar Ø Adding vectors with components: o Add ???? and ???? : ???? = ???? + ???? ▯ + ???? ▯ ???? ???? + ▯ + ???? ????▯ ▯ ▯ Ø To find Displacement: o ∆???? = ∆???? + ∆???? + ∆???? Ø To Find Average Velocity: ∆▯ o ???? ▯▯ = ∆▯ o ???? ▯▯ = ∆▯ ???? + ∆▯ ???? + ∆▯ ???? ∆▯ ∆▯ ∆▯ Chapter 4 Ø Nonuniform: the motion of a particle whose speed changes Ø Uniform: the motion of a particle whose speed does not change Ø Position Vector: ???? = ???????? + ???????? + ???????? Ø Displacement Vector: ∆???? = ∆???????? + ∆???????? + ∆???????? Ø Average Velocity Vector: ???? = ∆▯ ▯▯ ∆▯ ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? Ø Velocity: ???? = ???????? = ???????? ▯ + ????????▯ + ???????????? ∆▯ Ø Average Acceleration: ????▯▯ = ∆▯ ???????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? Ø Instantaneous Acceleration: ???? = ????????= ???????????? ▯ + ????????????▯ + ???????????????? Ø Projectile: anything that is launched or projected o Only the vertical vector component (y direction) is altered by gravity Ø Projectile motion: o There is no acceleration in the x-direction o The acceleration in the y-direction is the constant acceleration g o Acceleration: ???? = −???? ???? o Velocity: ???? = ???? c▯s???? ???? + ( ???? sin▯ − ???????? ???? o Position ???? = ???? ????▯os???? + ???? ???? +▯???? ????sin????▯− ???????? + ???? ▯ ▯ ▯ ???? ▯ Ø Range: the horizontal displacement when its vertical displacement is zero ▯▯ Ø The maximum range possible is: ???? ▯▯▯ = ▯ Ø Uniform Circular Motion o Period (T): the time it takes for a particle to complete one revolution ▯▯▯ o Uniform Speed: ???? = ▯ o Position: ???? = ????cos???? ???? + ????sin???? ???? Ø Polar Coordinates: (r,????) the r-axis is free to rotate, and ???? is measured from the positive x-axis, going counterclockwise ▯ ▯ o Magnitude of ????: ???? = ???? +???? o To get from Cartesian to Polar coordinates, remember: ▯ § tan???? = ▯ § ???? = ????cos???? § ???? = ????sin???? Ø Angular Speed: ???? = ▯▯ = ???????? ▯ ???????? Ø Linear or Translational Speed: o ???? = ???????? o ???? = ???????? (if you take the derivative of the first one) Ø Centripetal Acceleration: the acceleration in uniform circular motion, which is always pointed toward the center of the circle ▯ o ???? = − ▯ ???? = −???? ???? ???? ▯ ▯ Ø Relative Motion: occurs when motion is observed from different viewpoints Ø Reference Frame or Frame: coordinate system attached to a particular observer’s perspective Ø Basic formula to find different reference frames using viewpoints 1, 2, and 3 o Position: (????▯ ▯= (???? ▯ ▯ (???? ) ▯ ▯ o Velocity: (????▯ ▯= (???? )▯ ▯(???? ) ▯ ▯ o Acceleration: (????▯ ▯= (???? )▯ ▯(???? ) ▯ ▯ o When using this in more than one dimension, make sure you only add quantities going in the same direction Chapter 5 Ø Dynamics: The study of the causes of motion Ø Newton’s First Law: Every object will stay at rest or will remain at constant velocity unless acted on by another force Ø Contact Forces: require the source (of the force) to touch the subject (object receiving the force) Ø Field Forces: Do not require the source and subject to touch (like gravity) Ø System: any collision of two or more objects Ø Internal force: acts inside a system Ø External Force: exerted on the outside of a system Ø Newton’s Second Law: the mass time acceleration of a system is equal to the sum of all forces (net force) acting on a system o ???? = ???? = ???????? ▯▯▯ o This must be broken down into x, y, and z components just like any of the kinematic equations Ø The net force on an object us zero if the acceleration of the object is zero Ø Force is measured in Newtons (N): ???? = ???????? ∗ ▯ ▯▯ o This makes sense because force is mass times acceleration Ø Force of Gravity (???? =????????????): o Source: Earth (field force) o Magnitude: weight (???? = ???? = ▯????) o Direction: Toward center of Eart Ø Spring Force/Hooke’s Law (???? = −????????????): o This equation represents the amount of force created by a spring that was stretched or compress returning to its relaxed state o The negative sign means that the restoring force is in the direction opposite the direction of displacement o k is the spring constant (unique to each spring) and is measured in (N/m) o Source: Spring o Magnitude: ????∆???? o Apparent weight: the reading of a scale displaying the magnitude of the spring force on that object Ø Normal Force (???? ): ???? o Source: Surface o Direction: Perpendicular to surface Ø Tension Force (???? ):???? o Source: Rope/String o Magnitude: “tension” is the same throughout the entire rope o Direction: Pull along the rope § If something is hanging straight down, the direction of the tension force is straight up Ø Kinetic Friction (???? ):???? o Source: Surface o Magnitude: ???? = ▯ ???? , ▯ ▯re ???? is t▯e coefficient of kinetic friction (unique to each pairing of unique surfaces, found experimentally) o Direction: Parallel to surface; points in direction opposite velocity Ø Free Body Diagram includes: o All forces acting on the subject o Clearly labeled axes o The subject (represented by a particle at the origin) o Indication of the Net Force and Acceleration Ø Newton’s Third Law: if two objects (A and B) interact, the force exerted by A onto B is equal in magnitude to the force exerted by B onto A but in the opposite direction: F = −F [▯ ▯▯ ▯] [▯ ▯▯ ▯]

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