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Sociology Study Guide for the 9/22 Exam!!

by: Megan Notetaker

Sociology Study Guide for the 9/22 Exam!! SOC 1004

Marketplace > Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University > Sociology > SOC 1004 > Sociology Study Guide for the 9 22 Exam
Megan Notetaker
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

Covers everything that is on the study guide (Chapter notes and Lecture Notes)
Introductory Sociology
Dr. David L. Brunsma
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. David L. Brunsma in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/18/16
Study Guide for Sociology I. Introduction to Sociology (Conley Chapter 1) 1) What is sociology? Study of human society (sports, religion, music, medicine). 2) What is the social? An area of sociology that focuses on social actions and on interrelations of personality, values, and mind with social structure and culture. 3) Define Collective Effervescence According to Durkheim, a community or society may at times come together and simultaneously communicate the same thought and participate in the same action. 4) List the Sociological Units of Analysis (Micro to Macro) Micro- looking at the individual Macro- looking at the whole of society to understand an individual 5) What is sociological imagination? The ability to see the connections between our personal experience and larger forces of history. 6) How does Sociology differ from other disciplines? It differs because it focuses on the supra-individual, it examines group level dynamics and social structures II. Durkheim and Sociology th 19 century social change: 1) Industrial Revolution Social changes that stemmed from revolution were profoundly important to the rise of sociology a. Population Growth Agricultural production skyrocketed, leading to an increase in population b. Urbanization Prompted earliest sociological reflection due to dramatic differences between urban and rural lifestyles 2) Political Instability/ Problem of Social Order Waves of revolutions- French revolution (most important), changes from monarchies to democracies. Social order- motivated earliest sociologists 3) Rise of Science Tried to approach and understand the world 4) Gemeinschaft v Geselleschaft Gemeinschaft- community, small, hi density, mechanical, diversity lo Geselleschaft- association, large, lo density, organic, diversity hi Continued Solution to Social Order: 5) Mechanical Solidarity to Organic Solidarity Mechanical- social cohesion due to similarities Organic- social cohesion due to interdependent differences 6) Continuation of Mechanical Solidarity People find ways to cohere within their mechanical spaces (family, religion, community, etc.) Relationship between self and society: 7) Dual nature of humans (S & I) Social- symbolic, socially prescribed obligations, altruism Individual- organic/ physical, spontaneous desires, egoism 8) Individuality Created by society 9) We are products of the social… Social facts Creating a Social Science: 10)Objective Unbiased 11)External to any One Individual About the whole group- outside a single individual 12)Measurable Producing data 13)Influences Individuals It has to matter Conley Chapter 2- Methods 14)Quantitative v Qualitative Quantitative Methods- methods that seek to obtain info about the social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form. Qualitative Methods- methods that attempt to collect info about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form. 15)Deductive v Inductive Deductive Approach- research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis, makes empirical observations and then analyses the data to confirm, reject, or modify the original theory. Inductive Approach- starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory. 16)Causality Relationship between cause and effect 17)Independent v Dependent Variables Independent Variable- a measured factor that the researcher believes has a casual impact on the dependent variable. Dependent Variable- the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain. 18)Research Process Deductive and Inductive 19)Types of methods Quantitative and Qualitative Participant Observation- uncovering meanings people give their social actions by observing their behavior Historical Methods- Collecting and analyzing data from a period of study Comparative Research- method of comparing two or more entities with intent of learning more about differing factors Content Analysis- systematic analysis of content in written or recorded material Manifest- what we can observe Latent- what is implied Conley Chapter 5- Groups and Networks 20)Dyad v Triad Dyad- group of 2 Triad- group of 3 21)Types of groups Small group- face to face interaction, unifocal perspective, lack of formal arrangements or roles, certain level of equality Party- like a small group, but multifocal Large group- formal structure that mediates interaction and status differentiation Primary group- social groups with intimate face to face relationships that strongly influence attitudes of those involved. Secondary groups- groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships. In group- majority Out group- minority Reference group- helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups 22)Networks Social network- set of relations by individuals Tie- connection between 2 people in a relationship Narrative- sum of stories combined in a set of ties. 23)Institutions and Organizations Organization- any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world. Organizational culture- shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group, often used interchangeably with corporate culture. Organizational structure- ways in which power and authority are distributed with an organization. Suicide Suicide Rate as a social fact 1) Four components of a social fact Social facts must be objective, external to any individual, measurable, and must constrain individual behavior. Durkheim’s Sociological Explanation: Groundwork 1) Conley Chapter 6 (196-200) Social Integration- how well you are integrated into your social group/ community Social regulation- number of rules guiding your daily life and what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day to day basis. Egoistic Suicide- suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group. Altruistic Suicide- suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration Anomie- sense of aimlessness and despair Anomic suicide- occurs as a result of insufficient social regulation Fatalistic suicide- too much social regulation Durkheim’s Sociological Explanation: The Theory 2) Social Integration the movement of minority groups such as ethnic minorities, refugees and underprivileged sections of a society into the mainstream of societies. 3) Social Regulation Rules that guide our daily lives, and more specifically what we expect from the world on a day to day basis 4) Recent Developments Suicide rates among young people have tripled while the general has remained constant Criticizing Durkheim Sociology 5) Ecological Fallacy Occurs when researchers attempt to draw conclusions about the way people act when data is measured at the group level 6) Nature of Objectivity in Social Science Social facts are not objective facts, definition of suicide in one country is different than another, definition of suicide can vary Culture and Media 1) Conley Chapter 3 a. Central paradox The most important aspects of social life are those concepts we learn without anyone teaching us b. Culture Set of beliefs, traditions, and practices; everything but the natural environment around us. c. Ethnocentrism Belief that one’s own culture is superior d. Representation We are not passive receptors of media; we see everything through our own lens e. Material v Nonmaterial Culture Material- everything part of our constructed, physical environment Nonmaterial- Values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms f. Ideology v Hegemony Ideology- system of concepts and relationships, cause and effect Hegemony- condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary consent of its masses. g. Cultural Relativism Taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgement. h. Scripts Modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal. i. Subculture Distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in society j. Values/ Norms Norms- how values tell us to behave Values- morals 2) “Generation Like” Explains how technology is changing our lives and social media is making relationships way less personal because privacy is taken away and people are so focused on “likes” and “retweets” III. Socialization, Identity, Interaction, and Construction of Reality 1) Goffman’s Dramaturgy a. Anatomy of a conversation Every conversation has to have a signal to start Opening- signals Breaks civil inattention- refraining to interact with someone until something has been opened Given gestures- putting on your coat to signal a closing Given off gestures- unconscious gestures of our true feelings Many gestures are nonverbal b. Faces and framework Nonverbal communication 2) Conley’s Chapter 4 a. Socialization The process by which you learn how to become a functioning member of society b. Self Individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person c. Identity One’s sense of agency, action, or power d. I v Me I-identity Me- the self as perceived as an object by the “I”; the self as one imagines others to perceive one. e. Generalized Other An internalized sense of the total expectations of others on a variety of settings- regardless of whether we’ve encountered those people or places before. f. Dominant Institutions of Socialization Family, School, Peers, Teachers, Media, Friends g. Status A recognizable social position that an individual occupies h. Role Duties and Behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status. i. Achieved v Ascribed v Master Statuses Achieved- status into which one enters Ascribed- status into which one is born Master- one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others j. Symbolic interactionism A micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people’s actions k. Dramaturgical theory View of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages with roles, scripts, set, costumes, etc. Heat Wave Chicago Heat wave novel


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