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UVM / Animal Science / ASCI 110 / Describe the process of metabolism in the context of nutrition.

Describe the process of metabolism in the context of nutrition.

Describe the process of metabolism in the context of nutrition.

Description

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Lecture #1:If you want to learn more check out What was pieta commissioned for?

GI Tract Anatomy and Comparative Digestive Physiology

  • What is nutrition?
  • Sum of all processes involved in consuming food and utilizing its components (nutrients)

We also discuss several other topics like What is the ph level content of rainwater?

Feed/Water: Source of nutrients

        ↓

Prehension: Taking in food/water

       

Digestion: Breakdown into smaller componentsIf you want to learn more check out What term refers to a carving left on a tree when raleigh returns to roanoke island?

         ↓

Absorption: Passage of small molecules into and through sell dining of GI tract and into We also discuss several other topics like What do you mean by "logic?"

                   Blood or lymphDon't forget about the age old question of What is money multiplier?

         ↓  

Metabolism: Sequences of chemical processes that take place in the cells of the animal

                    - Catabolism + Anabolism

If you want to learn more check out What is the most important structure in plant cells?

Prehension: Act of seizing or grasping of feed/water to the mouth

                   -  forelimb (primates, raccoons)

  • How an animal grasps its food-

lips (horse, sheep, goat)

Tongue( anteater, cow, cats, dogs)

Snout (elephant, tapir)

  • The Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Convert feed outside of body into chemical components that can be absorbed into the body to be used to carry in life processes
  • Made up of a number of parts and organs
  • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
  • GI tract includes accessory structures/organs (teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, pancreas)

Why do animals have different GITS?

  • Diet
  • Carnivory: consumption of primarily animal matter

Example: dog, cat, etc..

  • Omnivory: consumption of animal and plant matter

Example: pig, bear, rat, humans etc..

  • Herbivory: consumption of primarily plant matter

Example: cow, rabbit, horse etc…

Mouth/Esophagus:

  • Mastication: Chewing action of mouth/teeth

  • Increase surface area of the feed particles →pregastric function
  • Important for herbivores/no-ruminants
  • Mixes particles with saliva
  • Adaptations: large canines/incisors (carnivores) specialized molars (herbivores)
  • Saliva-watery substance: formed in mouth secreted from salivary glands
  • Contains mucin, inorganic salts, urea, and enzymes. Ex: phosphates
  • Quantity/Composition varies by species considerably
  • Digesting, moistening, lubricating and buffering function
  • Protects mouth

  • Swallowing (deglutition) -pregastric

  • Reflex of presence of food in pharynx
  • Chewed food enters esophagus and brought to stomach by peristalsis
  • Cardiac- valve at end of esophagus to prevent food in the stomach from coming back

2 Main Stomach Types:

  • Monogastric (stomach w/ 1 chamber. Simple stomach ) ex. Human
  • Ruminant (stomach with 4 chambers)  ex. Cow
  • Simple  stomach
  • Function: mixing/mechanical breakdown of feed. Reservoir for controlled release of digesta to small intestine
  • Secretion of Gastric Juices: Hcl( Hydrochloric acid) begins chemical digestion/ kills bacteria pepsinogen (protein breakdown) rennin, gastric lipase and mucin

Ruminant Stomach;

  • Complex stomach with 4 compartments (reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum

Esophagus ⏭ Reticulum  ⏩ Rumen ⏩ Omasum ⏩ Abomasum ⏩Small intestine

Reticulum

  • Lining has honeycomb structure- passes digesta freely back and forth
  • Main function is mixing and moving food (regurgitation),traps foreign material, no enzymes secreted, participates in fermentation (microbe activity)

Rumen:

  • Large fermentation vat (microbe activity)
  • Lined with papillae, absorb fermentation product (VFAs, ammonia) no enzymes secreted, majority is water (85-90%); only 10-15% is dry matter
  • Rumen contents are stratified gas layer, rumen mat, liquid layer, small particles
  • Microbes: collective term for bacteria, protozoa, fungi, yeasts, phages + archaea, breakdown feed ingested by the animal, each species of microbe has its own niche and thus requirements.  

Omasum:

  • Many layers of tissue  (membranous divisions or omasal leaves)
  • Functions as sieve (absorb water is from the digesta as it passes through the omasum)

Abomasum:

  • True gastric (glandular) stomach, consists of large spiral folds, contains glands, same functions of monogastric animal stomach, secretes HCl, pepsinogen, mucin, rennin, lipase and lysozyme
  • The small intestine
  • Functions: mixing, propulsion, lubrication (most of important digestive + absorptive function

3 Segments:

  • Duodenum: Short
  • Jejunum: longest, main site for digestion/ nutrient absorption
  • Ileum: Connection to large intestine

Accessory Organs:

  • Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder (digestive secretions and buffers)
  • Pancreas: Secrete enzymes and bicarbonate neutralize acids entering from stomach using bicarbonate
  • Liver: Secrete bile, bile salts and bicarbonate
  • Gallbladder: Store and concentrate bile between  meals

Lecture 2: Comparative Digestive Physiology

  • Small/Large intestine
  • Digestive tract physiology: fermentation

Small Intestine: 3 segments (Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum)

  • Duodenum: short, bile and pancreatic secretions, active site off digestion
  • Liver: secrete bile, bile stored in the gallbladder
  • Bile: green, viscous liquid, alkaline pH (neutralize acidic chyme)
  • Composition: bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, phospholipids
  • Functions to emulsify fats, 95% reabsorbed and returned to liver
  • Bile is not an enzyme
  • Pancreas: Secretes “pancreatic juice)
  • Pancreatic juice: clear,watery juice, enters duodenum via pancreatic duct

⬑contains HC03- , proteases, amylases, lipases, nucleases, aid digestion of protein, fat, and carbohydrates

                -    Produces HC03: For neutralization of digesta (chyme) in duodenum

Importance in Digestion (Pancreas)

  • Enzymes produces responsible for
  • 50% carbohydrate digestion
  • 50% protein digestion
  • 90% lipid digestion

  • Jejunum: Longest part, main site of nutrient absorption

  • Ileum: Active site of nutrient absorption (mostly water, vitamins, bile salts, and minerals)

Nutrient Absorption in SI

  • Principal site of absorption of amino acids, vitamins, minerals, lipids, glucose, and other sugars s

  • Most absorption occurs in the upper part of the small intestine but some absorption occurs in all segments

  • Digestion and absorption within SI is rapid
  • Within 30 mins of entering SI

The Large Intestine

  • Major functions: water reabsorption and limited absorption of nutrients, bacterial fermentation, formation and storage of feces

  • Consists of: Cecum, colon, rectum

  • Varies considerably in different species
  • Cecum: blind sac, site of microbial fermentation and absorption of their products
  • Size varies in different species
  • Dogs/Cats- very small cecum
  • Horse/Rabbits- very large cecum
  • Cecum size:depends on diet

       

         

 

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