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HIST 1120 Test 1 Study Guide

by: Haley Bullock

HIST 1120 Test 1 Study Guide HIST 1120-901

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Date Created: 09/18/16
Western Civilization Test 1 Study Guide Haley Spann Multiple choice: 1 point each 1. Western historians customarily regard this as the crucial point in opening the trade routes to the East. a. the travels of Marco Polo b. the voyages of Vasco de Gama c. the discovery of the New World by Columbus d. Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe e. Prince Henry, the Navigator's establishment of a school for navigators 2. By the early 1400s, a growing percentage of the Asian spice trade was being transported a. by camel caravans across Arabia. b. in European ships, particularly Dutch and Portuguese. c. in Muslim ships. d. in Chinese ships as evidenced by the voyages of Zheng He. e. across the Silk Road from China. 3. Europeans embarked on expansionist voyages for all of the following except a. there was a potential for economic gain through increased world trade. b. some desired to spread Christianity to other parts of the world. c. a spirit of adventure. d. fear that Islam would occupy the rest of the world if Christendom did not. e. intellectual curiosity. 4. Prince Henry a. was the first European to get to the source of the Zambezi. b. established a school for naval gunners in Portsmouth, England in 1438. c. was depicted as the "epitome" of greed by Bartolomeu Dias. d. established a school for navigators in Portugal in 1419. e. became king of England in 1628. 5. An influential cargo brought back to Portugal from the West African coastal voyages in 1441 was a. silver. b. gold. c. slaves. d. spices. e. ivory. 6. The Cape of Good Hope was rounded in 1487 by a. Abram Voorhies. b. Vasco da Gama. c. Ferdinand Magellan. d. Bartolomeu Dias. e. Henry the Navigator. 7. All of the following were true of the Portuguese foray into overseas trade except that they a. were unable over time to maintain their position in the Spice Islands. b. employed the standard methods of peaceful competition that existed before they ventured  into those new foreign regions. c. gained complete control of the spice trade between the East and Europe for a brief time. d. defeated their competition in the spice trade through the use of overwhelming force until  they, in turn, were similarly overwhelmed. e. had an advantage because of Portugal's location on the Atlantic seaboard. 8. Christopher Columbus a. was an escaped criminal from Munich when he sailed to the Americas. b. was of Genoese origin, although he gained fame in the service of the Portuguese king. c. was the brother of Hessin Cortes. d. converted to Islam on his forty­third birthday. e. believed that Asia was larger, and closer to Europe by water, than people then thought. 9. The Treaty of Tordesillas a. divided the "new" areas discovered by Europeans between the English and the French. b. divided the "new" areas discovered by Europeans between Spain and Portugal. c. gave the English the eastern route around the Cape of Good Hope. d. gave the French the eastern route around the Cape of Good Hope. e. ended the Hundred Years' War. 10. Which of the following accurately pairs Spanish conquistadors with the New World empires they  destroyed? a. Pizarro and the Aztecs; de Soto and the Inka. b. Magellan and the Inka; Albuquerque and the Iroquois. c. Cortés and the Aztecs; Pizarro and the Inka. d. de Soto and the Aztecs; Cortés and the Inka. e. de Soto and the Inka; Cortés and the Aztecs. 11. Under the encomienda system, New World natives were a. forced to accept Islam. b. permitted to retain control over their local lands. c. subjected to exploitation and harsh treatment by the Dutch. d. supposed to be protected by the Spanish. e. taken to Spain to be used as laborers. 12. All of the following are correct except as a result of their empires in the New World and Asia, a. the Dutch became a major trading power, especially in Asia. b. Spain imported riches in gold, silver, hides, and agricultural products. c. Portugal imported Asian spices, jewels, silk, carpets, and perfumes. d. the development of the modern world economy began. e. England seized Greenland from Denmark. 13. All of the following were part of the Columbia Exchange except a. cows and horses were introduced into the Western hemisphere. b. potatoes and corn were introduced into Europe from the Americas. c. potatoes and corn were introduced into the Americas from Europe. d. smallpox arrived in the Americas from Europe. e. gunpowder and guns were introduced into the Americas from Europe. 14. Which of the following accurately describes European colonial development in the New World? a. The Dutch took New York from the English and changed its name to New Netherland, and later the English lost some of their Canadian holdings to the French. b. The English took New Netherland from the French and changed its name to New York,  and later the Dutch lost some of their Canadian holdings to the French. c. The English took New Netherland from the Dutch and changed its name to New York, and later the French lost most of their Canadian holdings to the English. d. The French took New York from the Dutch and changed its name to New France, and later the Dutch lost some of their Canadian holdings to the English. e. The Bishop of Rome took Brazil from Portugal and returned it to Spain. 15. Which of the following was an example of successful English colonization produced by a combination of  religious and economic motives? a. Massachusetts Bay. b. New York. c. Virginia. d. Chesapeake Bay Colony. e. Cuyahoga. 16. Which of the following was not a result of the development of printing in Europe? a. Research and learning increased. b. Standard textbooks were developed. c. More people began to read. d. Chinese influence over European affairs rose sharply because of their invention of paper. e. It played a major role in the Protestant Reformation. 17. The most influential Christian humanist, who popularized the reform program of Christian humanism,  was a. John of Ockham. b. Martin Luther. c. John Calvin. d. Desiderius Erasmus. e. Ulrich Zwingli. 18. The individual who "laid the egg that Luther hatched" was a. Machiavelli. b. Erasmus. c. Gutenberg. d. Calvin. e. England's Henry VIII. 19. Among the complaints of religious Europeans around 1500 was a. the belief that Catholic Christianity was being infiltrated by Eastern Orthodox and even  Islamic doctrines. b. the belief that the clergy were too interested in financial matters and uninterested in  religion. c. dissatisfaction with the orthodox beliefs and practices of the church. d. the charge that Pope Erasmus wanted to divide the church. e. fear that Manichaeism was corrupting the clergy. 20. Which of the following was not a position taken by Martin Luther? a. Salvation would be achieved through faith. b. The purchase of indulgences would not lead to salvation. c. The German princes should establish a reformed German church. d. Acts of good work are the sole source of salvation. e. Reading the Bible is important. 21. Luther's reforms included all of the following except a. clerical celibacy. b. a national church in Germany. c. new religious services, including Bible reading and preaching. d. a married Protestant clergy. e. salvation by faith. 22. As a result of the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, a. Calvinism became the dominant faith in northern Germany. b. Germany became highly centralized. c. Charles V reinforced his control over the German princes. d. Lutheranism became established as an alternative to Roman Catholicism in the Germanies. e. France was able to become independent of the Holy Roman Empire. 23. The Institutes of the Christian Religion, a masterful synthesis of Protestant thought, was written by a. Martin Luther. b. Ignatius Loyola. c. Desiderius Erasmus. d. Albrecht Durer. e. John Calvin. 24. John Calvin a. advanced the doctrine of predestination. b. was murdered by Lutheran police in Paris. c. had to leave Germany, for protection, after he accepted Protestantism. d. believed in free will. e. left Geneva for Paris. 25. An important reason why Henry VIII broke with the Roman church was because a. he became a Lutheran. b. he wanted to develop a distinct English Christianity for nationalistic reasons. c. the Archbishop of Canterbury had a direct confrontation with the Patriarch of  Constantinople. d. he could not get Rome's permission to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon. e. his dislike of women caused him to become an Anglican priest. 26. After Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon was annulled by the Archbishop of Canterbury, a. the English clergy forced him to take her back. b. Pope Clement VII reinstated the marriage. c. Charles V attacked England. d. Parliament finalized England's religious break with Rome by passing the Act of  Supremacy, making Henry the head of the Anglican Church. e. English monasteries remained intact, in spite of their defiance of Cranmer's actions. 27. After the death of Henry VIII, England a. returned to Catholicism. b. became Lutheran. c. established a republic, called the "Commonwealth." d. became more Catholic under Edward VI. e. became more Protestant under Edward VI. 28. Which of the following are correct statements about life in Protestant Europe in the 1500s and 1600s? a. Clergy were required to remain celibate. b. Ministers were allowed to get married and have families. c. England's Henry VIII established the Lutheran Church in his kingdom. d. Differences with Catholics were always resolved peacefully. e. Women were given equal political rights with men. 29. The Council of Trent took the position that a. confession was now optional for women and ended for men. b. the interpretation of Scripture was an open question to be individually determined. c. faith and good works were required for salvation. d. there was no longer any validity for indulgences. e. the Bible should be made available in the vernacular. 30. The Edict of Nantes a. destroyed Calvinism in France. b. legitimized Calvinist worship and permitted Calvinists to engage in politics in France. c. outlawed Calvinism in France. d. permitted Henry IV to continue the French wars of religion. e. declared Lutheranism and Anglicanism to be heresies. 31. All of the following statements about Ottoman expansion are true except a. their geographical location gave them a definite advantage for expansion. b. after taking advantage of Byzantine weakness, they established a base at Gallipoli, and  then allied with the Serbs and Bulgars to continue fighting the Byzantine Empire. c. after the Kurdish seizure of Constantinople in 1521, Ottoman support of the new Kurdish  ruler gave them greater control over Asia Minor. d. as they established European settlements, Turkish beys replaced local landlords, and  became the only recipients of taxes collected from the Slavic peasant population. e. they besieged Vienna, unsuccessfully, in 1529 and 1683. 32. Before the Turkish capture of Constantinople, a. Murad I defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo. b. the Balkan population refused to assist Ottoman efforts in any way. c. Morocco was the only Mediterranean area controlled by the Spanish conquistadors. d. the last Byzantine emperor became a Lutheran in a bid for European support. e. Pope Innocent XII personally led a crusade to save the city for Chritendom. 33. Constantinople was captured by the a. Seljuk Turks, led by Suleyman the Magnificent. b. Ottoman Turks, led by Tamerlane. c. Safavids, under Shah Ismail. d. Ottoman Turks, headed by Mehmet II. e. Mongols, led by Akbar. 34. The Ottoman Turks renamed Constantinople a. Kuycik. b. Istanbul. c. Anatolia. d. Adrianople. e. Ankara. 35. Which of the following statements is not true about Ottoman power in Europe? a. It came to be accepted by the leadership of the non­Turkish European states. b. It was aggressively extended into central Europe. c. It destroyed a European coalition of Austrian, Polish, Bavarian, and Saxon forces at  Vienna in 1683 and held the city for ten years. d. It was ultimately forced out of Hungary by an alliance of allied European armies. e. It threatened to take naval control of the Mediterranean until the Battle of Lepanto. 36. Ottoman expansion a. was achieved without any change in military organization or technology between 1400­ 1700. b. relied heavily on the development of the Janissaries and new artillery weapons and tactics  in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. c. absorbed Persia and Samarkand during the 1570s. d. seized Ukraine during the late 1600s, but it was lost again in the early 1700s. e. saw the use of slaves as conscript soldiers. 37. In the Ottoman system, the administrative unit of each religious minority was called a a. millet. b. vezier. c. janissary. d. sipahis e. devshirme. 38. In the Ottoman system, the term millet referred to the religious organizations that were called a. "groups." b. "states." c. "clans." d. "rabbis." e. "nations." 39. Women in Ottoman society a. had considerable political influence if they were queen mothers. b. were given much more freedom in the economic sphere than those of Vietnam. c. had no political influence, as was shown by the fate Suleyman the Magnificent's mother. d. who lived in the harem were abused sexually by the sultan and his male friends and, at  times, even by enlisted army personnel. e. served as royal bodyguards and, if slaves, were used to produce royal heirs. 40. The Ming Dynasty a. under Yongle, had Chinese ships bring back Christian missionaries to China. b. sent a fleet far into the Indian Ocean. c. sent a huge army into Japan, which captured and held the city of Edo for one year until a  debt owed to the Chinese government was paid. d. saw their fleets reach the Mediterranean Sea. e. dismantled the Great Wall as it was no longer needed for the defense of China. 41. The Christian missionaries who accompanied the European merchant ships to East Asia a. came primarily, at first, from the Lutheran and Greek Orthodox churches. b. seemed less threatening to the Ming and Qing dynasties than to the Tokugawa shogunate. c. were actually only twenty in number, and were ignored by the governments and peoples. d. were widely resented by the Chinese population because of their all­too­obvious  disinterest in the Chinese language and popular ideas. e. were refused entry into China. 42. The peasant revolt that brought down the preoccupied Ming Dynasty, and precipitated the ascension to  control of the Manchus, was led by the disgruntled postal worker a. Yuan Shi­Kai. b. Li Zicheng. c. Zheng Chenggong. d. Koxinga. e. Kangxi Lon. 43. The name of the Chinese dynasty established by the Manchus was the a. Yuan. b. Tang. c. Ming. d. Qing. e. Han. 44. Concerning the role of women in traditional China, which of the following is NOT true? a. Women could not participate in sacred family rituals. b. Women could not aspire to roles in the government. c. Women could not inherit property. d. Women were prohibited, on penalty of death, from studying the Confucian classics. e. Women could not inherit property. 45. Toyotomi Hideyoshi was able to accomplish all of the following except a. rise from farmer's son to leader of Osaka and most other areas of Japan. b. increase the area he controlled to include the islands of Shikoku and Kyushu. c. was one of the three unifiers of Japan in the sixteenth century. d. gain control of Korea. e. create a national currency. 46. The modern­day name for the capital city of the Tokugawa shogunate is a. Edo. b. Tokyo. c. Osaka. d. Nagasaki. e. Sapporo. 47. Hideyoshi expelled missionaries from his domain in 1587 because the missionaries were a. supportive of the emperor rather than the shogun. b. selling indulgences. c. destroying local Christian religious shrines. d. interfering in local Japanese political matters. e. from France, whose revolutionary tradition was a concern to the shogun. 48. In order to enhance its authority over the general population including the peasants, the shogunate relied  upon a. force and intimidation by samurai warriors. b. high taxes. c. Confucian maxims. d. cheap food and entertainment. e. restoring the emperor to power. 49. The Ptolemaic view of the universe believed all of the following to be true except a. the planets were believed to be imperfect and material. b. the imperfect, motionless earth was in a state of constant change at the center of the  universe. c. heavenly bodies, composed of a crystalline substance, resided in concentric spheres that  moved in circular orbits around the earth. d. God and all the saved souls resided in the Empyrean Heaven that lay beyond the  outermost, or tenth, sphere. e. God and the saved souls were at one end of the universe and humans at the center. 50. A discovery made by Galileo was the a. development of the calculus. b. fallacy of the existence of sunspots and the phases of Venus. c. five moons revolving around Pluto. d. similarity of the material composition of other planets and the moon to that of the earth. e. totally flat terrain of the earth's moon. 51. The Catholic Church condemned the theories of Copernicus and Galileo because they a. ended the spirituality of the earth. b. threatened the Scriptures, as the heavens were no longer a spiritual world but a world of  matter. c. was simpler to accept it than to reject its doctrinal challenges. d. conflicted with those of Newton. e. were contrary to the Council of Constance. 52. Newton's Principia a. placed the earth at the center of the universe. b. rejected the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. c. mathematically disproved the universal law of gravitation. d. supplied the new theory of the universe that combined the work of Copernicus, Kepler,  and Galileo. e. proved that Luther was correct regarding salvation by faith. 53. All of the following were relevant to Newton's discoveries except a. they created a new cosmology. b. they presented a basically mechanical explanation of things. c. universal motion could be mathematically explained. d. his theories had no spiritual ramifications. e. Einsteinian relativity eventually came to superseded Newtonian mechanism. 54. Rene Descartes a. was the developer of algebra. b. had his writings approved by the Church. c. claimed that "I think, therefore I am." d. fled the Dutch Republic for the Holy Roman Empire. e. discovered the moon of Jupiter. 55. Which of the following was not one of the positive buzzwords of the Enlightenment? a. reason b. divine revelation c. natural law d. hope e. progress 56. Which of the following statements would John Locke find acceptable? a. Some of us are born bad. b. A positive environment will create positive results. c. Everything that we are is in our genes. d. Faith, not reason, determines what we know. e. Original sin places limits on individual aspirations. 57. The most active opponent of religious intolerance and the most outspoken anti­Christians among the  philosophes were a. Lavisher and Rousseau. b. Voltaire and Diderot. c. Diderot and Bourbon. d. Montesquieu and Adrien. e. Quesnay and Pelletier. 58. The most important product of European industry in the eighteenth century was a. spices. b. steel. c. coal. d. textiles. e. oil. 59. In eighteenth­century Europe, a. it was illegal for a noble­class male to marry a middle­class female without a government  dispensation everywhere except in Prussia and the Netherlands. b. noble and bourgeois women dressed in the same fashion and were visually  indistinguishable. c. the peasants composed less than forty percent of the populations of Austria and France. d. nobles constituted approximately two or three percent of the population. e. factory workers had replaced farmers as the majority of the population. 60. Which of these leaders asserted, "I have made Philosophy the lawmaker of my empire"? a. Louis XIV b. Napoleon c. Joseph II d. George III e. Peter the Great Choose from the following list to answer 61-70. 2 points each a. men h. Gold b. nationalism i. Issac Newton c. colonial power j. 19th century d. Pope k. Indulgences e. sibling executions l. giant machine f. Genghis Khan m. Cardinals 61. The primary motives of European expansion were “God, glory, and ____? H. 62. Between 1500 and 1800, Southeast Asia experienced its last flowering of traditional culture before the advent of European rule in the _____. J. 63. The issue that drove Luther to writing his Ninety-Five Theses was the selling of_____. K. 64. After the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church had a clear body of doctrine under the supremacy of the_____. D 65. The position of the Ottoman sultan was hereditary, with a son, although not necessarily the eldest, which led to many_____. E. 66. The first Mughal emperor, Babur, was descended from both Tamerlane and____. F. 67. Isaac Newton was an inspiration for the Enlightenment in his contention that the world and everything in it worked like a___. L. 68. In the Enlightenment, many intellectuals argued that women were by nature inferior to___. A. 69. France's revolutionary army was an important step in the creation of modern___. B. 70. By 1763, Great Britain had become the world's greatest____. C. Essay Questions: Please answer completely and use information from your reading to support your answer. I will not accept one or two word answers. These are essay questions, the answers need to be no less than a paragraph but if you answer correctly your answer should be more than a paragraph. 5 points each 1. Who were the leading figures of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, and what were their main contributions? What was the impact of the intellectual revolution of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries on European society? Was the Scientific Revolution "the most revolutionary of all revolutions"? Discuss critically, using specific examples. Two major figures of the Scientific Revolution were Galileo with his theories in astronomy and the development of the telescope and Isaac Newton with his work on gravity and the Law of Motion. These figures had great impact on the intellectual revolution developing in Europe. One of which being great advancements in the fields of physics and astronomy. One could argue whether or not the Scientific Revolution was the most revolutionary of all and I would agree. I agree with this theory because the Scientific Revolution brought new ideas for how they world would look at astronomy and mathematics as well as having significant influence in our communication of education and knowledge to the outside world. 2. Of the two major Protestant reformers, Luther and Calvin, who was the most revolutionary figure, and why? Martin Luther was the most revolutionary figure of the protestant reformation because he had the greatest influence on the Roman Catholic Church today. His group of people, Lutherans, began a separation from the Catholic Church, spreading the word of how salvation was granted through grace and forgiveness rather than through money and corruption. Luther’s views significantly affect the way Christians currently practice their beliefs. 3. What was the relationship of the Enlightenment to the Scientific Revolution? Could the Enlightenment have occurred with the Scientific Revolution? The Scientific Revolution was primarily based on the spreading of new ideas in mathematics, physics, astronomy, and philosophy. The period of Enlightenment was a movement of change for the way philosophers and religious leaders thought and reasoned. It is quite possible that during the Scientific Revolution the Enlightenment period was occurring at the same time, simultaneously changing the way people thought and shared information. 4. Describe the major innovations in art and music during the Enlightenment. Were they as important as the era's new social and economic ideas? Why or why not? During the period of Enlightenment, art and music were the focus of change in 19 century Europe. In art, architect Zimmermann and artists Giovanni Battista Tiepolo paved the way for inspiration. In music, classical music became the focal point of aristocracy with composers Bach and Mozart. These innovations in art and music far exceeded the political and social ideas of Europe’s enlightenment.


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