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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Susan baker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 251 at Jefferson Community College taught by Todd Vincent in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Biology 251 Laboratory 1 Practice Exercises TERMINOLOGY EXERCISES 1. Describe each structure of the following pairs as superior or inferior. The cervical region is __superior_______________ to the nose. The abdomen is ___________inferior__________ to the pectoral region The orbital region is ____superior_________________ to the oral region The lungs are ___________superior_________ to the pelvis The oral region is ______superior_________ to the chest 2. Describe each of the following as being anterior or posterior. The nose is _________anterior_____________ to the ear Knuckles are _______posterior__________________ to the palm The heel is _____posterior__________________ to the toes The sternum is ____________anterior___________ to the lungs The vertebral column is ____posterior_________________ to the heart 3. Tell whether these pairs are medial or lateral. in position. The sternum is _______medial________________ to the shoulder In the lower leg, the fibula is ______lateral_____________ to the tibia The middle toe is _____lateral_______________ to the biggest toe. The hip is _______lateral______________ to the navel. The orbital region is __medial_______________ to the ear. 4. Use the terms proximal or distal to compare the following body areas. Fingers are _______distal______________ to the wrist. The elbow is _________proximal_________ to the carpal region. The upper arm is __________distal_________ to the antebrachium. The lower leg is ______distal____________ to the thigh. The ankle is ________proximal_______________ to the toes Chapter 3 notes Diffusion and Osmosis High concentration- all in one spot Diffusion- is net movement from high to low concentration. Concentration gradient- it’s the movement from high concentration to low concentration. It’s the path that it happens on. Plasma membrane- selectively permeable. Some things can go through some cannot. 1) ions and polar molecules can not go through. 2) Water leaks through (very slowly) Osmosis- net movement of water across a membrane in response to a solute gradient. Hypertonic- water moves out of cell and the cell shrinks. Isotonic- Cell doesn’t swell or shrink because water moves in and out of the cell equally. Hypotonic- water moves into the cell and the cell swells. Lipid soluble- non polar Water soluble- polar Signal molecule-ligand Two solutes- 2 different molecules Active transport- moving solutes against gradient. Have to use energy Endocytosis- moving materials into the cell Pinocytosis- cell drinking Phagocytosis- cell eating Exocytosis- cell moving material out. G proteins- inactive (activates the 2 ndmessenger) Anatomy lab: Anatomical position: standing feet forward palm out or facing forward. Cardinal planes. 1. Sagittalcut right down the middle mirror image right and left. 2. Parasagittal cut right or left. 3. Frontal cut in back. 4. Mid sagittal cut in middle 5. Transverse (horizontal) cut middle 6. Oblique cut in an angle. Superior up Inferior down Cephalic toward the head this is for four legged animals. Caudal toward the rear this for four legged animals. Anteriorfront Posteriorback Ventralbelly Dorsalback Medialtowards midline Lateral far from midline Proximal limb terminology closer to point of attachment Distal limb terminology farther from point of attachment Superficial how close to outside it is? Deep how close to the inner organs it is. Cavities is openings in the body. Dorsal Cavity is the back both cranial and vertebral canal. Pericardial cavity heart cavity Mediastinum left and surrounds plumbing Epigastria region right below sternum Inguinal groin Tissue population of cells Names of major organ systems Effect create a change Negative feed back really suddle most homeostasis controlled by negative feed back. Brings it back to the goal. Response minimizes the variation away from the set point. Skin is the primary effector (regulator) Positive feedback Ex: blood clotting 1 common thing between negative and positive feedback have an off switch (escalates) Uterus contraction positive feed back example Receptors monitors Control system says what to do. Auto regulation no control system deals with it locally (nervous system not involved.) Extrinsic regulation comes from somewhere else. Taking orders and communicates. Body cavities 1. Serous membranes surround visceral organs and provide lubrication Each visceral organ has its on serous membrane Chapter 4 Epithelial covering on the surface everyone of epithelial is connected to basement membrane. Apical Surface free surface faces away from basement membrane. Squamous epithelium cells are flat only 1 cell thick (ex: pancake) sheet of cells stitched together. Cuboidal epithelium cells that are cubed Columnar tall cells Stratified multiple cell layers on top of single base membrane. To tell which cell it is go by the top cell. All epithelial are avascular don’t have blood supply. The blood supply is under the base membrane. Epithelial tissue has a high regeneration rate. It is the highest in regeneration rate in your body. More use the higher the generation rate. Spot desmosome forms very strong connection at 1 spot. Tight junctions it blocks water flow between cells. Adhesion belts connects terminal web from cell to cell. Gap junctions is passage of cytoplasm between cells. Hemidesmosomes strength connections to basement membrane Exocrine secrete to outside of the body.
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