History and Systems of Psychology Test 2 Study Guide
History and Systems of Psychology Test 2 Study Guide PSYC 4010-001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Bullock on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4010-001 at East Tennessee State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History and Systems of Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
PSYC 4010001 Test 2 Existentialism Haley Spann 1. Concerning existentialism: a. Existentialism is an ideal that questions the value and purpose of existence. This includes both the awareness of life and death. b. One of the main effects existentialism had on the field of psychology was through the definition of health and pathology. Existentialism defined pathology as the presence or absence of disease. However, it brought to the table questions of whether or not the presence or absence of disease is the relative definition of having good health. Many saw that this absence of disease was not enough to define a person as being healthy. Other considerations were to be made such as sleep, eating habits, exercise, and mental health. This idea of pathology and relative health brought great strides to the field of psychology through existentialism. c. Existentialism focuses much on what it means to be healthy, happy, and having an ideal life. One of the Great Debates discussed over the term was the Mind vs. Body debate. This is much relatable to existentialism because it begs the question does the body decide if one is healthy, or is it the mind? Some people could argue both by saying that being healthy is more than just the absence of a physical illness such as cancer, it is an overall state of wellbeing that includes mental health as well. In terms of happiness, one could relate the Free Will vs. Determinism debate by saying that existentialism defines flourishing, through mental health, as both the absence of disease and the presence of high subjective wellbeing scores. On the other end of the spectrum, one could argue the idea of languishing, scoring high on a subjective wellbeing test but in reality not being happy. Finally, one could relate the Nature vs. Nurture debate in favor of existentialism through the question of what is the purpose of life and existence and how is it defined. Does our purpose of life come from behaviors that we learn or is it through our natural awareness of life and death? d. Pathology is the presence or absence of illness or disease. Health is more the identifications of wellbeing in an individual. Some would argue that these are the same thing, that health is defined through the absence of disease, which is pathology. People who see them as the same might also argue that disease is the only factor in one’s health because they are solely relating health to physical bodily function. On the other hand, people who think that pathology and health are separate might argue that they are different because one can be of good pathology, or free from disease, but not actually healthy. One could still suffer from a mental health illness such as PTSD and still be physically healthy. e. Hedonism is the idea of a positive feeling or emotional wellbeing. This relates to happiness in terms of a high positive affect and a low negative affect. In addition, hedonism relates to one’s life satisfaction and the fulfillment one gets out of life. Also, hedonism considers the vitality of one’s life, or the interest in their life itself. Hedonism is best related to existentialism through that it identifies one’s purpose of life through their emotional wellbeing and positive feelings. Eudaimonia is related to the positive functioning of a human being. This included both the psychological and social wellbeing of an individual. In terms of psychological wellbeing, eudaimonia is best described through a combination of purpose, meaning, growth, selfacceptance, positive relationships with others, and autonomy (P,M,G,SA, PRO, A). Through social wellbeing, eudaimonia is defined as social acceptance and integration, growth, contribution to society, and social coherence. All the factors put together what people consider as eudaimonia, or positive functioning of an individual. f. From my point of view, I would think that eudaimonia is best in describing flourishing within a person. I feel that the combination of both psychological and social wellbeing to balance social and personal interactions is beneficial to a person. Eudaimonia is best because it combines both personal purpose and growth through an individual while ideally maintaining a social role through contribution to others. In past times, the Greeks also argued a similar topic questioning what virtue and a good life meant, and whether hedonism or eudaimonia was most appropriate to define an individual’s wellbeing. In addition, this implied that behavior and social interaction were both an important part in the development of the psychology field. g. The psychological needs are defined as autonomy, in relation to choice, belongingness, and competence (ARC). In terms of the ARC and relation to the hedonism and eudaimonia debate, one cannot argue either/or. The ARC defines that one’s psychological needs are the combination of personal choices, their belongingness to society, and the competence and understanding that they hold. With that being said, this combines psychological, social, and emotional well being all into a three factor group that is the ARC. In more clear terms, the ARC defies the separation of eudaimonia and hedonism and combines them as one between both positive functioning and feeling. They are not separate but together as multiple working parts of an individual. h. Psychoanalytic i. Psychoanalysis is nest described as a theory of research, founded by Sigmund Freud, which deals with the treatment of mental illness and disorders through the manipulation of the conscious and unconscious mind. This often deals with the retrieval of fears, memories, and dreams. In relation to pathology, psychoanalysis is the foundation of Freud’s idea of mental health and wellbeing. Freud considered almost everything to be entirely of the mind and how to body retrieves, develops, and stores things in the unconscious mind. ii. Psychoanalysis used a method called free association in which a patient would lie down and openly talk about their feelings, desires, and thoughts. This became a huge breakthrough for Freud. In addition, other treatments included dream analysis, a way that the patient’s mind could be explored through the unconscious way of dreams. iii. As stated before, Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. His work focused on the conscious and unconscious mind in relation to fears, desires, dreaming, and sex. Freud had a common thinking that sexual problems were at the root of most mental illnesses. iv. If a clinician were treating a patient from a psychoanalytic perspective, the clinician might have the patient do a series of free association exercises where the patient would speak about their thoughts. i. Behavioral i. Behavioral psychology was first introduced through the study of animals. Behavioral psychology was formed to test and study the stimuli and responses within behaviors. In addition, behaviorism was identified through the ideas of conditioning and behavioral therapy. Behavioral psychology best relates to pathology in that behavioral training and therapy can often become a beneficial treatment as a means of changing behavior. ii. Behavioral psychology is founded on the basis that one can treat a patient through the study and manipulation of behaviors, unlike psychoanalytic styles of treatments, there is no manipulation of the unconscious mind or dreams/fears. Behavioral psychology also focuses on scientific study of behaviors through the dependent variables that change behaviors. iii. John B. Watson is known as the founder of psychology, though he was not the first to develop ideas of behavioral therapy and behavior training, he was the most influential name in moving behavioral psychology. His work included many animal trials including rats, and how they learn and are conditioned to perform certain behaviors. iv. If one was treating a patient from a behavioral psychology perspective, one might first do a period of observation and record where the particular behavior is occurring, next one might implement a treatment of behavioral change like Pavlov did with his dogs, to change one’s behavior. j. Cognitive i. Cognitive psychology is a new form of psychology that deals with the study of human experiences such as memory, attention, and perception. Cognitive psychology deals with health and pathology in that it deals with human experiences and processes such as language and attention that affect social interactions greatly. Cognitive psychology also deals with the brain in terms of memory, attention, and artificial intelligence, all popular topic of research in the field. ii. Cognitive psychology uses therapy through the study of dreams and thoughts. In addition, cognitive therapy includes the study of how the brain affects behavior, how people perceive others and events, the effects of social circumstances on a person, and the overall process of thinking and retaining information. iii. Fredrick Barlett is a significant figure in the field of cognitive psychology. His work was centered around memory and how people perceive events around them based on their personal biases and concepts of life and reality. In addition, his work was focused on studying individuals in a natural setting rather than in a lab. He believed that this was best because it allowed people to reveal their thoughts and concepts about events in a real setting. iv. If one were to treat a patient from a cognitive therapy perspective, one might study a patient in a natural setting such as the home or work to better see how a patient deals with memory and the rediscovering of old memories.
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