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CHE 152 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Tiffany Matyja

CHE 152 Exam 1 Study Guide CHE 152

Marketplace > University of Tampa > CHE > CHE 152 > CHE 152 Exam 1 Study Guide
Tiffany Matyja
GPA 4.0

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Here's a study guide covering the material learned in chapters 1-3
General Chemistry 1
Thomas Jackman
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHE 152 at University of Tampa taught by Thomas Jackman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in CHE at University of Tampa.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Saturday, September 17, 2016 Exam 1 Study Guide CHE 152 - Definitions to know Atomic number: number of protons • • Mass number: number of protons + number of neutrons • Isotope: atoms with the same number of protons (same element), but different numbers of neutrons (mass numbers) Ion: the number of protons does not equal the number of electrons • • anion: negative ion that loses electrons in reaction • cation: positive ion that loses electrons in reaction • atomic mass unit: exactly 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 isotope • isotopic mass: the mass of a given isotope • molar mass: the atomic mass expressed in grams • mole: a unit for expressing the number of expressing the number of atoms, ions, molecules, etc. in a “common-size” unit • microscale equations: work with small quantitates of chemical substances • macroscale equations: used to demonstrate large-scale processes - Experiments to know • Rutherford’s gold foil experiment - A beam of alpha particles was shot at a screen that had fluorescent dye, and particles would hit it. The screen would then emit light - Rutherford put gold foil in front of the beam and he saw that there were sometimes flashes of light at the screen, despite the foil - Conclusions • Most of an atom’s mass and most of its positive charge is contained in a small core called the nucleus 1 Saturday, September 17, 2016 • Most of an atom's volume is empty space • Negatively charged particles are distributed in the space around the nucleus • Atoms are electrically neutral - the number of positive charges = the number of negative charges - Laws to know • Law of Conservation of Mass - In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. The mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products • Law of Definite Proportions - All samples of a given substance have the same proportion of their constituent elements • in water, the ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is 8:1 • in ammonia, the ratio of nitrogen to hydrogen is 4.7:1 - Theories to know • Dalton’s Atomic Theory - Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms - All atoms of an element are (almost) identical - Atoms of different elements are different - Atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds - Atoms of an element cannot be changed into atoms of another element in ordinary chemical reactions - In reactions, atoms only change in the manner in which they are found to one another - Equations to know • Temperature - Kelvin = Celcius + 273.15 - Celcius = Kelvin - 273.15 2 Saturday, September 17, 2016 - Celcius = (Fahrenheit - 32)*(5/9) - Fahrenheit = (Celcius * 9/5) + 32 • Density = mass/volume - Concepts to know • Properties of Matter - intensive vs extensive properties • intensive means that the property does not change based on how much of the substance you have. An example of this is boiling point. The boiling point of water remains at 100 degrees C whether you have 100mL or 100L of water. Other examples include color, hardness, pressure, and density. extensive means the property changes when the size of the sample changes. • Examples include mass, volume, and length. - Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass • Solids: have a rigid, fixed volume and definite shape • Liquids: have a definite volume, but no definite shape • Gases: have no fixed volume or shape, and is highly compressible • Pure substances - Elements: cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by physical or chemical means - Compounds: have a constant composition, and can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, but not by physical means • Mixtures: matter of variable composition - Heterogeneous mixtures: have visibly distinguishable parts - Homogeneous mixtures (solutions): have visibly indistinguishable parts • SI Units Quantity Unit Symbol Length meter m Mass kilogram kg 3 Saturday, September 17, 2016 Quantity Unit Symbol Time second s Temperature kelvin K Amount of a substance mole mol • SI Prefixes Prefix Symbol Number Scientific Notation Giga G 1,000,000,000 1.0x109 Mega M 1,000,000 1.0x106 Kilo k 1,000 1.0x103 -1 Deci d 0.1 1.0x10 -2 Centi c 0.01 1.0x10 Milli m 0.001 1.0x10-3 Micro u 0.000001 1.0x10-6 Nano n 0.000000001 1.0x10-9 -12 Pico p 0.000000000001 1.0x10 • Rules for Significant Figures (sig figs) Number Rule Example Nonzero integers Always significant 6.34 (3 sig figs) Leading zeroes Never significant 0.00634 (3 sig figs) Captive zeroes Always significant 6.0034 (5 sig figs) Trailing zeroes Significant if after a decimal 63400 (3 sig figs) .63400 (5 sig figs) Exact numbers Infinite significance ex: there is 1 star at the center of our solar system. there is no doubt about the number 1 Scientific notation All digits are significant 6.3400 x 10 (5 sig figs) - Calculations with sig figs 4 Saturday, September 17, 2016 • addition and subtraction: the answer will have the same number of decimals as the value with the least number of decimal places - 547.3+375.863=923.2 • multiplication and division: the answer will have the same number of sig figs as the value with the least number of sig figs - 6.372x2.84=18.1 • exact measurements have no uncertainty. An example is a count; if you have a bag of jelly beans and you count that you have 20 in the bag, there is no uncertainty to that. Also, numerical definitions, such as gross=144 or dozen=12 are exact. • inexact measurements are uncertain, as any measurement has some degree of uncertainty with it. To combat this uncertainty, we use significant figures • Atomic Structure - Proton • Positively charged, located in nucleus Mass • - 16726 x 10 -27kg - 1.00767 amu (atomic mass units) • defines an atom’s identity - all atoms of an element have the same number of protons - Neutron • no charge, located in nucleus, discovered in 1932 • mass - 1.6749 x 10 -27kg - 1.00866 amu - Electron • negatively charged, located in the space around the nucleus • mass 5 Saturday, September 17, 2016 -27 - .00091 x 1kg - .00055 amu • defines how atoms combine with other atoms -Comparing subatomic particles • an electron’s charge is the same magnitude as a proton’s charge, its just the opposite sign • protons and neutrons have relatively the same mass, while electrons are much smaller, thus making their mass negligible • Reading Elemental Symbols Mass Number Charge (if ion) a n± Atomic Number z E Symbol of element • The Periodic Table -metals are solids at room temperature, shiny, and conductors of heat and electricity tend to lose electrons and form cations (positive ions) • • located on the left side of the table -nonmetals are solids, brittle, and don’t conduct heat • tend to gain electrons and form anions (negative ions) • located on the upper right side of the table 6 Saturday, September 17, 2016 - transition elements are less predictable • all the rest of the elements in the middle of the table • inner transition elements - lanthanide series and actinide series - Some groups (columns) have special names • 1A: alkali metals 2A: alkaline earth metals • • 8A: noble gases • 7A: halogens • 6A: chalcogens - Some elements are diatomic (two atoms together instead of just one) • Hydrogen • Oxygen • Nitrogen • Fluorine • Chlorine • Bromine • Iodine • the mass number =/= the mass on the periodic table (atomic mass) - this is because the atomic mass is the weighted average of the isotopes of a given element. found by taking the sum of isotopic masses multiplies by their abundance fraction 23 • Avogadro’s number = 6.022 x 10 • A mole is the amount of anything that contains Avogadro’s number of units • Rules for Naming Compounds cations • - cations have the same name followed by “ion” (sodium ion, magnesium ion) - some metals, like copper and lead, have multiple charges. They can be 2+ 3+ differentiated by the suffixes -ous and -ic (ferrous (Fe ) and ferric (Fe )) 7 Saturday, September 17, 2016 • These would be written out Iron (II) and Iron (III), respectively - polyatomic cations formed from nonmetals end in -ium (NH is ammoniu4) • anions - monoatomic anions have names ending in -ide (bromide, chloride) - polyatomic anions containing a metal or nonmetal bonded to one or more oxygen atoms end in -ate or -ite • -ate is used for the most common oxyanion (SO 42-is sulfate, PO 43-is phosphate) • -ite is used for the oxyanion with one fewer oxygen atom than the most common oxyanion (SO 32- is sulfite, PO 33-is phosphite) per…ate is used for one more oxygen than the most common oxyanion (ClO - • 4 is perchlorate) • hypo…ite is used for one less oxygen than the -ite oxyanion , ClO is - hypochlorite) • anions derived by adding one hydrogen ion to an oxyanion are added either by adding hydrogen before the name or adding the prefix bi- to the name (HCO 3- can be called either hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate) • acids - all acids begin with H - acids based on anions that in -ide are formed by adding the prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic acid (HF is hydrofluoric acid) - acids based on polyatomic anions that end in -ate are formed by changing -ate to -ic acid (H2SO i4 sulfuric acid) *think “-ate” something “-ic”ky* - acids based on polyatomic anions that end in -ite are formed by changing -ite to -ous acid (H S2 is 3ulfurous acid) • binary molecular compounds - names are comprised of the element located farthest to the left on the periodic table, then the second element will end in -ide • if the elements are in the same group (column), the element located the lowest on the periodic table is written first 8 Saturday, September 17, 2016 • greek prefixes are used to indicate how many of each element is present - 1: mono (only used for the second element: i.e. CO is carbon monooxide) - 2: di - 3: tri - 4: tetra - 5: penta - 6: hexa - 7: hepta - 8: octa - 9: nona - 10: deca 9


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