Introduction to Sociology Exam 1 Review
Introduction to Sociology Exam 1 Review SOCI 1311, 001
Popular in INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
SOCI 1311, 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
SOCI 1311 - 004
verified elite notetaker
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Skylar Hertel on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 1311, 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Jason E Shelton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 263 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY in Sociology at University of Texas at Arlington.
Reviews for Introduction to Sociology Exam 1 Review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/18/16
Intro to Sociology Exam 1: Chapters 16 Highlight = Lecture Topic ● VOCAB: ○ Chapter 1: 1. Sociology: The systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social groups and society. 2. Sociological Imagination: Quality of mind that provides and understanding of ourselves within the context of the larger society. 3. Globalization: The interconnectedness among people around the world; the process whereby goods, information, people, oney, communication, fashion(and other forms of culture) move across national boundaries. 4. Convergence Hypothesis: Assuming that globalization is causing different cultures to continually become more alike. 5. Critical Thinking: Objectively assessing ideas, statements, and information. 6. Sociological Thinking: Asking questions and questioning answers. 7. Mass Media: Forms of communication that transmit standardized messages to widespread audiences(e.g., newspapers, magazines, books, radio, television, and movies). 8. Social Media: Computerfacilitated tools that allow people to create, share, or exchange information, ideas, and pictures/videos in virtual communities and networks. 9. Positivism: The use of observation, comparison, experimentation, and the historical method to analyze society. (Auguste Comte) 10. Ideal Type: A conceptual model or typology constructed from the direct observation of a number of specific cases and representing the essential qualities found in those cases. 11. Pure Sociology: The study of society in an effort to understand and explain the natural laws that govern its evolution. 12. Applied Sociology: Using sociological principles, social ideals, and ethical considerations to improve society. 13. Theoretical Perspective: A viewpoint or particular way of looking at things. 14. Paradigm: A set of assumptions and ideas that guide research questions, methods of analysis and interpretation, and the development of theory. 15. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Views social meaning as arising through the process of social interaction (often referred to as interactionism). 16. Microlevel Analysis: Focuses on the daytoday interaction of individuals and groups in specific social situations. 17. Dramaturgical Analysis: Uses the analogy of the theater to analyze social behavior. 18. Labeling approach: Contends that people attach various labels to certain behaviors, individuals, and groups that become part of their social identity and shape others attitudes about and responses to them. 19. MacroLevel Analysis: Examines broader social structures and society as a whole. 20. Structural Functionalist Perspective: Views society as a system of interdependent and interrelated parts( often referred to simply as the functionalist perspective or functionalism). 21. Manifest Functions: Anticipated or intended consequences of social institutions. 22. Latent Functions: Unintended or unrecognized consequences of social institutions. 23. Conflict Perspective: Views society as composed of diverse groups with conflicting values and interests. 24. Feminist Theory: Studies, analyses, and explains social phenomena from a genderfocused perspective. ○ Chapter 3: 1. Glocalization: The interdependence of the global and the local, resulting in standardized values producing unique outcomes in different geographical areas and cultural settings. 2. Grobalization: The imperialistic ambitions of nations, corporations, and organizations and their desire to impose themselves on various societies and cultures. 3. Society: People who live in a specific geographical territory, interact with one another, and share many elements of a common culture. 4. Sociocultural Evolution: A process in which societies grow more complex in terms of technology, social structure, and cultural knowledges over time. 5. HuntingGathering Society: A society in which people make their living by hunting, collecting wild foods, and fishing with simple technologies. 6. Pastoral Society: A society that depends on domestic animals for its livelihood. 7. Horticultural Society: A society in which hand tools are used to grow domesticated crops. 8. Agrarian Society: A society that depends on crops raised with plows, draft animals, and intensive agricultural methods. 9. Industrial Society: A society that relies on machines and advanced technology to produces and distribute food, information, goods, and services. 10. Postindustrial Society: A society where service industries and the manufacture of information and knowledge dominate the economy. 11. Virtual Society: A social network of individuals who interact through social media to pursue common interests or mutual goals. 12. Culture: The learned set of beliefs, values, norms, and material goods shared by group members. 13. Material Culture: Artifacts, art, architecture, and other tangible goods that people create and assign meanings. 14. Nonmaterial Culture: Mental blueprints that serve as guidelines for group behavior. 15. Symbol: Anything to which group members assign meaning to. 16. Language: A complex system of symbols with conventional meanings that people use for communication. 17. Beliefs: Assertions about the nature of reality. 18. Values: Shared ideas about what is socially desirable. 19. Norms: Expectations and rules for proper conduct that guide behavior of group members. 20. Folkways: Informal rules for proper conduct that guide people's everyday behavior. 21. Mores: Salient norms that people consider essential to the proper working of society. 22. Laws: Formal rules enacted and enforced by the power of the state, which apply to members of society. 23. Taboos: Prohibitions against behaviors that most members or a group consider to be so repugnant they are unthinkable. 24. Sanctions: Penalties or rewards society used to encourage conformity and punish deviance. 25. Culture Shock: Feelings of confusion or disorientation that occur when a person encounters a very different culture. 26. Ethnocentrism: The tendency to evaluate the customs of other groups according to one's own cultural standards. 27. Cultural Relativism: A perspective that asks that we evaluate other cultures according to their standards, not ours. 28. Subcultures: Groups that share many elements of mainstream culture but maintain their own distinctive customs, value, norms, and lifestyles. 29. Countercultures: Groups that reject the conventional wisdom and standards of behavior of the majority and provide alternatives to mainstream culture. 30. Multiculturalism: A movement that encourages respect and appreciation for cultural differences. 31. Eurocentrism: The belief that European cultures have contributed the most to human knowledge and are superior to all others. A focus on the contributions of europeans to history, math, science, and literature, 32. Afrocentrism: The perspective that Emphasizes the preeminence of African and African American culture in human development. 33. Ideal Culture: What people should do, according to group norms and values. 34. Real Culture: What people do in everyday social interaction. 35. Cultural Lag: Inconsistencies in a cultural system, especially in the relationship between technology and nonmaterial culture. 36. Cultural Ecological Approach: An approach that examines the relationship between a culture and its total environment. 37. Cultural Hegemony: The domination of cultural industries by elite groups. ○ Chapter 4: 1. Socialization: A process in which we learn and internalize the attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms of our culture and develop a sense of self. 2. Nature: Heredity 3. Nurture: Environment 4. Cultural Transmission: Idea that we pass our culture on to the next generation or new group of people. 5. Personality: A dominant pattern of attitudes, feelings, and behaviors. 6. Sociobiology: A field that integrates theories and research from biology and sociology in an effort to better understand human behavior. 7. Self: A person’s conscious recognition that he or she is a distinct individual who is part of a larger society. 8. I: In Mead’s schema, the unsocialized self as subject. 9. Me: In Mead’s schema, the socialized self as object. 10. Looking Glass Self: Cooley’s concept that individuals use others like mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected during social interaction. 11. Situated self: The self that emerges in a particular situation. 12. Agents of socialization: those groups and institutions that both informally and formally take on the task of socialization. 13. Primary Socialization: The learning of human characteristics and behaviors and the development of a concept of self. 14. Anticipatory Socialization: Learning designed to prepare an individual for the fulfillment statues and roles. 15. Desocialization: The “unlearning” of previous normative expectations and roles. 16. Resocialization: learning a radically different set of norms, attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors. 17. Social Learning Theory: The idea that much human behavior is learned from modeling others. 18. Life Course: A process by which individuals move from one biological and social stage to another as they grow and develop. 19. Rites of Passage: Ceremonies that symbolically acknowledge transitions from one life state to another. 20. Role Taking: The ability to anticipate what others expect of us, and to act accordingly. 21. Significant Others: Specific people with whom we interact and whose response has meaning for us. 22. Generalized others: The dominant attitudes and expectations of most members of society. 23. Developmental Socialization: Learning better to fulfill the role we already occupy. 24. Total Institutions: Places where people carry out virtually all of their activities. 25. Degradation Ceremony: A process in which an individual is stripped of his or her former self, publicly stigmatized, and assigned a new identity.(also known as mortification process) ○ Chapter 5: 1. Social Structure: The ordered relationships and patterned expectations that guide social interaction. 2. Status: A socially defined position in a social structure. 3. Status Set: All of the Statuses a person has at a given time. 4. Status Inconsistency: Two or more statues that society deems contradictory. 5. Ascribed Status: Statuses assigned to individuals without references to their abilities or efforts. 6. Achieved Status: Statuses secured through effort and ability. 7. Master Status: A status that dominates all other statuses. 8. Role: A set of expectations, rights, and duties that are attached to a particular status. 9. Role Distance: When people play a role but remain detached from it to avoid any negative aspects of the role. 10. Role Embracement: When a person’s sense of identity is partially influenced by a role. 11. Role Merger: When a role becomes central to a person’s identity and the person literally becomes the role he or she is playing. 12. Role Set: Multiple roles that are attached to almost every status. 13. Role Strain: Contradictory expectations and demands attached to a single role. 14. Role Conflict: When a person cannot fulfil the roles of one status without violating those of another. 15. Social Network: The total web of an individual’s relationships and group memberships. 16. Social institutions: Relatively enduring clusters of values, norms, social statuses, roles, and groups that address fundamental social needs. 17. Social Interaction: The mutual influence of two or more people on each other’s behavior. 18. Social Perception: The process by which we form impressions of others and of ourselves. 19. Stereotypes: Static and oversimplified ideas about a group or a social category. 20. Social Acts: Behaviors influenced or shaped by the presence of others. 21. Personal Space: An area around our body that we reserve for ourselves, intimate acquaintances, and close friends. 22. Nonverbal Communication: The body movements, gestures, and facial expressions that we use to communicate with others. 23. Definition of the Situation: The idea that when people define situations as real they become real in their consequences 24. Dramaturgy: Analyses social interaction as though participants were actors in an ongoing drama. (Erving Goffman) 25. Impression Management: Ways that people use revelation and concealment to make a favorable impression on others. ( 5th theory of socialization) 26. Ethnomethodology: A way of analysing the “taken for granted” aspects that give meaning to social interaction. ○ Chapter 6: 1. Aggregate: A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time. 2. Category: People with similar social characteristics or a common status. 3. Social Group: Two or more people who interact in patterned ways, have a feeling of unity, and share interests and expectations. 4. Primary Group: People who regularly interact and have close and enduring relationships. 5. Secondary Group: Two or more people who interact on a formal and impersonal bases to accomplish a specific objective. 6. InGroup: A group with which people identify and have a sense of belonging 7. OutGroup: A group that people do not identify with and consider less worth and less desirable than their own. 8. Social Boundaries: Material or symbolic devices that identify who is inside or outside a group. 9. Reference Groups: Groups that people refer to when evaluating their personal qualities, circumstances, attitudes, values, and behaviors. 10. Dyad: A twoperson group. 11. Triad: A threemember group. 12. Group Think: Decision making that ignores alternative solutions in order to maintain group harmony. 13. Formal Organizations: Secondary groups that are formally organized to achieve specific goals. 14. Bureaucracy: A largescale organization that uses rules, hierarchical ranking, and a rational worldview to achieve maximum efficiency. ■ 3 core tenants: 1. Human beings act toward people and things based on meaning we have for them. 2. Meanings derive out of interactions with others. 3. Meanings can change over time through continued interactions with others(social sophistication) ○ Conflict Perspective: Views society as composed of diverse groups with conflicting values and interests. ■ It does NOT function normally and peacefully ■ Karl Marx ■ Stratification: idea of structured inequality in access to recourses, rewards, and privileges in society. ■ Ranking ■ Class consciousness: a group of people who wake up one day and are tired of how they are being treated. ○ Structural Functionalism: Views society as a system of interdependent and interrelated parts( often referred to simply as the functionalist perspective or functionalism). ■ Most popular ■ Moves back to Macro Sociology: society as a whole ■ All structures and individuals have roles, responsibilities and purpose(society is like a human body) ■ Anomie: Social disorder; can be mild or major ■ Functionalists want to avoid chaos ○ Feminist Theory: Studies, analyses, and explains social phenomena from a genderfocused perspective. ■ Studies the ongoing social meanings of gender and questions commonly accepted definitions and symbols of femininity and masculinity. ■ Emphasizes that gender is incorporated into the basic and social structure of every society. ● 6 Types of Societies: all up in vocab ○ Huntergathering ○ Pastoral ○ Horticultural ○ Agrarian ○ Industrial ○ Postindustrial(what we are in today) ● Culture: The learned set of beliefs, values, norms, and material goods shared by group members. ○ Material vs. non material ○ Consists of everything learned over the lifecourse; we are taught how to do everything ○ Provides meaning to people's lives; helps us find our identity. ● 5 Components of Culture: All up in vocab ○ Language ○ Norms: 5 types: ■ Folkways ■ Mores ■ Laws ■ Taboos ■ Sanctions ○ Technology: sign or how much a society has evolved; transforms old culture into new culture. ○ Values: more set in stone ○ Beliefs: subject to change ● Diversity and Culture: all in vocab ○ Subculture ○ Counterculture ○ Cultural shock ○ Ethnocentrism ○ Cultural relativism ○ Multiculturalism ● Debate over Nature vs. Nurture: ○ Nature: stresses inborn biological characteristics ■ Come into world with genetic code already in place; inherit level of intelligence/personality by relatives ■ Most popular side of debate ■ Social Darwinism; Spencer argued some have stronger genetic code: already equipped to succeed or fail. ○ Nurture: stresses environmental and social forces in society ■ Blank sheet of paper; how your environment and social forces affect you ■ Social interaction and stratification ■ What you are exposed to NOT born with ○ Twins vs. Feral Children: ■ Nature theorists point to twins to back up their argument ■ Nurture theorists point to feral children as their back up to the argument. ● Socialization: A process in which we learn and internalize the attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms of our culture and develop a sense of self. ○ Lifelong process ○ Becoming a “social” being ○ Process of learning culture ○ Cultural transmission: up in vocab; culture won't survive if not passed on. ● 6 Sources of socialization: ○ Family: teaches us idea of gender roles ○ Education: formal vs. informal knowledge ○ Peers: conflicting messages ○ Religion: some believe faith is fundamental ○ Work/Employment: always learning ○ Media: affects everyone ● 5 Theories of Socialization: ○ Freudian Theory: we are driven by a deeper feeling; we want to experience pleasure ■ impulses/urges; internal conflict ■ 3 parts to personality: id: part that is way back in subconscious, superego: “angel” sense of right and wrong, ego: resolves conflict b/tw the id and superego ■ Sigmund Freud ■ Passive ○ Looking Glass Self: Cooley’s concept that individuals use others like mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected during social interaction. ■ 3 parts: my opinion: what I think; my guess about what others think; me adjusting myself based on what i think you feel ■ Charles Cooly ■ Active ○ Development of Self: middle ground b/tw Freudian and Looking glass ■ I is the unsocialized part; doesnt know right from wrong; wants to be satisfied ■ Me is the socialized part and knows difference b/tw right and wrong ■ Me is the ego and superego essentially ■ Both, but scholars believe its passive ○ Situated Self: The self that emerges in a particular situation. ■ Different people/situations bring about different aspects of our personalities ■ Our personality is not fixed ■ Code switching: emerges from research on race/religion/ethnicity ■ We follow cultural codes with whomever we are interacting with ■ Active ○ Impression Management: Ways that people use revelation and concealment to make a favorable impression on others. ■ Trying to control others views about us ■ Dramaturgic sociology: up in vocab ■ We are acting at any times we are interacting with others ■ “Backstage” when we are all alone, but still acting (ex: singing in shower) ■ Active and passive ● Mortification Process: A process in which an individual is stripped of his or her former self, publicly stigmatized, and assigned a new identity. ○ Would have been embarrassed by the old you ○ But new you is cool ○ Doesn't always have to be a bad thing ○ The you you start with, will be different than the you that emerges after an event, institution, or situation. ● Status and Roles: all up in vocab ○ Status ○ Status set ○ Ascribed status ○ Achieved status ○ Master status ○ Role ○ Role conflict
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'