StudyGuide - Exam 1 - Race and Racism
StudyGuide - Exam 1 - Race and Racism ANT3451
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT3451 at University of Florida taught by Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Race and Racism in Cultural Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Concepts: th 19 century race/racism 19th Century Realities Dependence on black labor Culture of racial slavery o Priority of race over class and everything else o Physical and psychological brutality commonplace Sociocultural patterns established o Black subservience o White control Biological diversity and DNA & Mitochondrial DNA Understanding Biological Diversity Anthropological evidence o Architecture o Tools o Personal items o Remains Genetic evidence What we know: o African origins AMH emerged in Africa 200 kya AMH left Africa 60 kya o We aren’t that different 99.9% of genetic information is shared DNA (Deoxyribonucleic ACID) Molecule, 4 bases, in linear arrangement. o Thymine o Cytosine ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 o Adenine o Guanine Double stranded Carries hereditary information (growth and development too) o Passed on by replication Variation in DNA 6 billion pairs on 46 DNA molecules 99.9% identical, 6 million points of difference o Variation within major groups predates the move out of Africa o Variation between major groups postdates the move out of Africa Highest diversity exists among those with recent SubSaharan ancestry Mitochondrial DNA Inherited from mother Only 16,569 base pairs Easy to track/sequence Doesn’t recombine Highest diversity in people with recent African ancestry Haplogroups Genetic population with common ancestor Assigned letters of the alphabet Black slavery (significance and uniqueness) & Process of enslavement Process of Enslavement “Chattelization” of Labor Need for Labor/Economic Interests Gradual restriction Results in Black Slavery Black Slavery Economic & Social Institution ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 o Part of the Southern “way of life” Easily rationalized o Slaves in Africa o Savages/Sinners Significance ServitudeSlavery o Two different institutions because it incorporates the concept of race Ideology of Human Difference Defined Social Hierarchy Classification Early Classification Early science all about classification Linnaeus o Swedish botanist o Systema Natural 1735 Humans grouped with higher primates Four human categories o Environment created difference Johan Blumenbach 1770s and 1780s Five categories — Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay Environment created difference o Specifically, degradation Aesthetic values = scientific knowledge Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis Impact of Classification Permanence/Rigidity Link between physical and cultural Ignores biological and cultural reality Ranking Scholarly credibility o People claimed credential however they liked ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Clinal variation The Issue with Race Genetic variation is o Clinal (80% tied to geography) o Nonconcordant o Widely distributed Cluster Race Race Genetic ancestry Genetic Variation 3 types of DNA variants o Ancient African variants present throughout the world o Ancient African variants that remained in Africa o More recent variants traceable to nonAfrican regions Clinal pattern o While there may be epicenters of genetic mutations, they are not isolated Colonial opposition to slavery Religious Opposition to Slavery Moral outrage o Advocated for humanization of conditions Threatened Slavery o Eliminating “heathen” reasoning o Improving literacy Enlightenment Opposition to Slavery Many Englishmen had more freedom than ever before Connection between English values and abolition *Did not necessarily believe in equality ProSlavery Response Enhanced commitment to slavery ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 o Cotton gin o Increase in slave rebellions Antislavery efforts pick up in 1830s Proslavery pushback o Religious arguments (Souls, Punishment) o Secular arguments (Economy, Control, Natural) Embodiment Genetic Determinism Genes AND environment determine phenotype Uncritical use of race Emphasis on cluster over variation Embodiment Dual status as biological and cultural beings How social influences impact the body Biology cannot be understood without society o Our social world influences our body Effects of Racism on the body Interpersonal and institutionalized racism has health effects o Constrains opportunities for success o Creates pathogenic social contexts Residential segregation Chicago study on hypertension European origins of race European Origins of Race Previous interactions Religious beliefs National ethnocentrism Hierarchical view of natural & social world English Nationalism ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Protestantism o Henry the 8 , creating Protestantism separates English from the rest of Europe Exceptionalism o Us against the world o English Identity Lack of interaction o Spanish interacted with the Middle East and Africa, the British didn’t Genetic determinism Genetic Determinism Genes, and environment, determine phenotype Although race is inadequate, we use it uncritically Emphasis on cluster over variation PreDarwinian roots Genetic evidence of diversity (Where and how variation/genetic change occurs) Understanding Biological Diversity Anthropological evidence o Architecture o Tools o Personal items o Remains Genetic evidence What we know: o African origins AMH emerged in Africa 200 kya AMH left Africa 60 kya o We aren’t that different 99.9% of genetic information is shared Ancestry and Blood Type Despite the persistence of racial categories, human diversity is incredibly varied Blood types o A&B diverged 20 mya ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 o O arose in Africa before diaspora O most common worldwide, AB least common Sources of Genetic Change Mutation o Heritable change in structure or amount of DNA Natural Selection o Favoring of traits that enhance survival and reproduction Genetic Drift o Genetic change due to chance Gene flow o Transfer of genes across population boundaries Great Chain of Being Hierarchy in American Society Great Chain of Being o Originated with Greek philosophers o QuasiScientific, QuasiTheoretical Black Americans occupied lower rank o Intellect o Appearance o Immorality Sexual deviants Lazy Ranks o God o Angels o Humans o Other Animals Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis th 19 century debate focused on this point o Scientists stabilize the idea of race as a category ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Race and species were previously defined o Reproductive isolation o Single originAdam and Eve Retrogression of social thinking o Racism made them think of Polygenesis as a valid theory Monogenesis All humans a single species, with single origin o Inherent Two explanations for difference o Degeneration o Great Chain of Being Lamarck and Darwin Anthropology and polygenism Samuel Morton – Study of Crania Louis Agassiz – Convert to Polygenism Josiah Nott – Types of Mankind Herbert Spencer – Social Darwinism Natural and Civil Rights Natural & Civil Rights Natural Rights o Natural system o Land and resources held in common Civil Rights o Developed system o Right to land you have improved Similarities with Irish Colonization Violence Religious mission Forced removals Civil rights over natural rights Arrival of Africans ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 First Africans in the Americas o Haiti/Hispaniola 1492 o Immigrants, sailors, tradesmen, etc. First Africans in an English colony o Jamestown 1619 o Unclear status Origins of anthropology Origins of Anthropology People have always done anthropology o Maybe not like we do today (professionally) Increase in activity with European expansion o Collecting & Classification th Anthropology emerges when it all comes together (in the 19 century) o Study of cultural difference o Desire to explain antiquity of humankind o Desire to explain biological origins of humankind Possessive individualism Possessive individualism Economic and social change in 15 & 16 centuriesBefore feudalism Basic right of man to own property in his own person, body, labor, etc. Justified appropriation of land The Irish Long standing conflict Differences in: o Religion o Settlement patterns o Mode of subsistence o Language Race as a solution Race as a Solution ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Old World slave systems recognized humanity Slavery: Institution in which some persons are legally owned by other persons, akin to a piece of property How can a human being be both a person and a piece of property? People as property o Bridewealth o Prostitution o Children Kinbased ownershipLabor based ownership Ownership for wealthOwnership as necessary (Economic and Social Tool) Always required rationalization Racial paradigm Racial Paradigm Smedley defines 6 points Human groups: exclusive entities Inegalitarian ethos, ranking of groups Hierarchy Link between physical and cultural characteristics o How people acted and how they looked was related Belief that physical characteristics are inherited Division of groups ordained by GodFinal Science and race Science and Race Science perpetuate racial ideology Enlightenment: Confrontation of science and theology o Of rational thinking instead of emotional Not separate form culture Controlled data collection and manipulation Slavery in British law Slavery in British Law UnprecedentedNew ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Exists by the 1620s o Poor food o Physical punishment o Separate housing for servants “Chatelization” of labor o Treatment of people like animals Precedes African presence Susceptibility Susceptibility Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, many cancers o Not entirely genetic o Diet, physical activity, environmental factors Causation vs. Correlation o Example — Identity theft and Low altitude Processes: Changes in early anthropology (from 19 to 20 century)th th The Bureau of Ethnology Anthropology “professionalized” after the Civil War Established by congress in 1879 o John Wesley Powell Consolidation of maps, geographical and ethnographic knowledge Indian Problem Move Native Americans out of their lands They collected data to use it against them Anthropology and Race th 19 Century o Within other disciplines o Polygenism o Defense of slavery, Jim Crow, Indian removal, forced sterilization, restrictive immigration th 20 Century o Professionalizes o Emphasizes human diversity ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 o Human and civil rights Religious freedom Racial equality Emergence of the racial ideology Racial Ideology in American Exclusivity Ranking according to English cultural standard Behavior and rank linked to physical difference Attitudes Towards Native Americans 2 Approaches o Benign/positive They are my kids; I take care of them o Fearsome/brutish They are cannibals I’ll be the whiteskinned puresouled Pilgrim and you be the blood thirsty Indian savage Difference between trading relationship and settlement o Trade focuspositive o Settlement focuscraftyouttokill people Religious justification o Settlement focusyou need to be strong or you’ll be attacked Puritanism Product of Protestant Reformation Selfrighteous No commitment to humanistic values o No grey area, only good or bad Colonization o Stopped the spread of Catholicism o Relieved poverty at home o Gave job, and saved the souls of the poor Genetic diversity in humans Basic of Genetic Variation ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 DNA o Carries hereditary information o Passed on by replication Mitochondrial DNA o Does not recombine o Easy to track Greatest genetic diversity exists in Africa Genetic change happens through o Mutation o Natural selection o Genetic drift Chance o Gene flow Migration Clinal variation o Geographic continuum o Sickle cell anemia and skin pigmentation Labor in the British colonies Labor Indigenous labor utilized first Replaced by poor/IrishThey had links with Catholicism, they could camouflage Problem with free men o They wanted to take lands o Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 Demand: Freedom from chattel slavery They were granted the freedom so they had to be paid to work Result: Not guaranteed source of labor African Slaves Benefits to Planters o Cheaper o “Civilized” o Experienced cultivators o Immunities o VulnerableThey had no allies o Identifiable ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Which came first? Race o Negative connotation of blackness o Limited interactions o Early restrictive laws o Higher Prices Slavery o Irish/Native American precedents o Social integration Interracial marriage was higher before slavery than after slavery was abolished o Gradual imposition of slavery The Process Need for labor Increasing availability of Africans Subtle connection to Latin America Economic interests o Elimination of class warfare 16501670 16701690 16901700 ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Regulation on Grouping of Native Americans, Manumission firearms Africans, Servants difficult/impossible Property rights Private manumission prohibited Curfews & Restrictions on Life servitude in Maryland and Virginia Congregating in Public established Disenfranchisement Penalties for Regulations on property interracial relation ownership, marriage, education, Restrictions of militia religion, travel, commercial participation activity Free and enslaved Africans grouped together Africans grouped with Skin color becomes a defining Africans are seen as uniquely all other servants factor for slavery different First use of white rather than “Christian” People: Boas, Franz Franz Boas Columbia University 1904 People create distinct/particular cultures, which cannot be ranked Culture is historically specific and related to worldview Anthropology becomes a tool to fight racism Challenged taxonomic approach o How do we know? Inuit of Baffin Island (1883) American Museum of Natural History (1890) o Are racial markers static o He measured crania o No! Aggasiz, Louis Louis Agassiz ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Changed his ideological learnings o Creationism God made us in the 6 day but made us inherently different o Colleagues work o Visceral judgement Opposed evolutionism Harvard professor o Huge impact on academia Blumenbach, Johann Johan Blumenbach 1770s and 1780s Five categories — Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay Environment created difference o Specifically, degradation Aesthetic values = scientific knowledge Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis Darwin, Charles Darwin Evolution (1859) Change follows natural laws Natural selection fundamental No two individuals alike o Some variations are more advantageous than others which leads to natural selection Characteristics passed from parent to offspring Accumulation of adaptive traits=evolution Possible to have both progress and social disruption Douglass, Frederick Opponents to racism ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Frederick Douglas o Anthropological perspective o People have various origins; they are naturally different but it is not until you combine that with our ideas with slavery that it really can be explained as inequality or hierarchy of beings Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson and Race Representative of the inherent opposition of Enlightenment and racial ideology He wanted money He was a hypocrite He hated slavery but had slaves and didn’t help to accelerate the process towards the abolition of slavery Slavery benefited this way of life Moved rationalization from religion to science, from heathens to inherently inferior Representative of the inherent opposition of Enlightenment and racial ideology Science can determine the nature of black inferiority Notes on the State of Virginia Science can determine the nature of black inferiority It doesn’t matter if it was because blacks were originally inferior or made distinct through time, they are now inferior to whites in body and mind. Kant, Emmanuel Montesquieu, the Encyclopaedists, & Kant Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws (1748) o Cross cultural study of law The enyclopaedists o Attempt to classify and systematize knowledge Kant, Critique of Pure Reason (1781) o Knowledge is both objective and subjective o Rational vs. Emotional knowledge (two sides of the same coin) o Measurable and observational ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Legitimate to study the life of everyday people, possible to produce scientific knowledge about society Lamarck, JeanBaptiste Lamarck’s Evolution (1801) Environmental pressure Inheritance of acquired characteristics Giraffe’s example Morton, Samuel Samuel Morton Studies of human crania Brain size correlated with intelligence Each race suited to particular environment Samuel Morton – Study of Crania Nott, Josiah Josiah Nott Degeneracy of Negroes Types of Mankind (1854) o Blacks need care and owning o They could not survive without the slave order Powell, John Wesley The Bureau of Ethnology Anthropology “professionalized” after the Civil War Established by congress in 1879 ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 o John Wesley Powell Consolidation of maps, geographical and ethnographic knowledge Indian Problem Move Native Americans out of their lands They collected data to use it against them Spencer, Herbert Herbert Spencer Evolution as: o Fundamental process o Progressive (opposite to Darwin’s idea) o Struggle for survival o It is a competition o Progress is only accomplished if the “fittest” dominates the weak Progress is achieved through inequality Social Darwinism Progress achieved through inequality Vico, Giambattista La Scienza Nuova (1725) Giabattista Vico Universal scheme of human development o Bestial Condition (no morality, no art) o Age of Gods (nature worship, basic social structure) o Age of Heroes (great social inequality, social unrest) o Age of Man (equality with corruption) Cyclical9 Case Studies: 9/11 and birth weight 9/11 and Birth Weight Birth outcomes before and after 9/11 ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 California 34% increase in likelihood of low birth weight among women with Arabic names 50% increase with stronger ethnic affiliationGiving the babies Arabic names Lingering effects of racism o Diabetes o Heart failure Alcoholism on reservations Alcoholism on Reservations Mixed research results o Variants protecting against dependence o Link between alcoholism and other dependencies Social conditions are more significant Blood type Ancestry and Blood Type Despite the persistence of racial categories, human diversity is incredibly varied Blood types o A&B diverged 20 mya o O arose in Africa before diaspora O most common worldwide, AB least common Bureau of Ethnology The Bureau of Ethnology Anthropology “professionalized” after the Civil War Established by congress in 1879 o John Wesley Powell Consolidation of maps, geographical and ethnographic knowledge Indian Problem Move Native Americans out of their lands They collected data to use it against them Dred Scott Dred Scott Decision (1857) ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 72 opposed He was financed by abolitionists Majority o Never citizens; never have been, never will be o Always seen as inferior o Impassible barrier: no way to change these facts Dissent o Black voters o Slavery unprotected o Slaves as humans Residential segregation and health Effects of Racism on the body Interpersonal and institutionalized racism has health effects o Constrains opportunities for success o Creates pathogenic social contexts Residential segregation Chicago study on hypertension Sickle Cell Anemia (geography, consequences) Sickle Cell Trait AA, SS, AS Heterozygous carriers have “Sickle cell trait” o 1 in 13 African Americans o 1 in 10,000 Caucasians Under stress can cause cell deformation Racism and Sickle Cell First identified in 1910 — AfroCaribbean student in the U.S. Assumptions: o Only people of African descent had the disease o Higher prevalence among AfricanAmericans than Africans Tool for antimiscegenation laws, segregation (1950s) o Mixture of African Americans with Euro Americans was the problem Sickle Cell and the Civil Rights Movement ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Dr. Robert Scott (Howard) o Just as many cases of SCA, way less funding o 1972 — National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act o 1980s — rising awareness o 2003 — Sickle Cell Treatment Act o 2006 — sicklecell testing becomes standard Sickle Cell Trait & Athletes Athletes families sued NCAA 2010 NCAA changes its requirements o Get tested, prove previous testing, or release liability Potential for racist practices Scientific community emphasized universal safety practices Recent Developments Stanford University study o 4800 activeduty soldiers o August 2016 o Increased risk of injury form overexertion but not death Susceptibility Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, many cancers o Not entirely genetic o Diet, physical activity, environmental factors Causation vs. Correlation o Example — Identity theft and Low altitude Skin Pigmentation (including Vitamin D Hypothesis) Skin Pigmentation Natural selection Polygenic inheritance Melanin High pigmentation is the ancestral state Occurred after diaspora ANG 3451 Race and Racism Review Midterm #1 9/17/16 Variation in Skin Pigmentation Directional selection o Outside of Africa – reduction of pigmentation Dramatic change – “selective sweep” o Within Africa – purifying selection Resulted in low diversity Vitamin D Hypothesis Sun exposure and reproductive health o Folate o Vitamin D Health tradeoff o Low folateHigh vitamin D (UV radiation)
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