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UF / Evolutionary Anthropology / ANT 3451 / What are the anthropological evidence?

What are the anthropological evidence?

What are the anthropological evidence?

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Race and Racism
Professor: Mary ibarrola
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: race, racism, and Anthropology
Cost: 50
Name: StudyGuide - Exam 1 - Race and Racism
Description: These notes cover what's going to be in our next exam
Uploaded: 09/18/2016
23 Pages 3 Views 7 Unlocks
Reviews


ANG 3451 Race and Racism


What are the anthropological evidence?



Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

Concepts:

19th century race/racism

19th Century Realities

∙ Dependence on black labor

∙ Culture of racial slavery

o Priority of race over class and everything else

o Physical and psychological brutality commonplace

∙ Sociocultural patterns established

o Black subservience

o White control

∙ Biological diversity and DNA & Mitochondrial DNA

Understanding Biological Diversity

∙ Anthropological evidence

o Architecture

o Tools

o Personal items

o Remains

∙ Genetic evidence

∙ What we know:

o African origins

 AMH emerged in Africa 200 kya

 AMH left Africa 60 kya

o We aren’t that different 

 99.9% of genetic information is shared

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic ACID)


What are the process of enslavement?



∙ Molecule, 4 bases, in linear arrangement.

o Thymine

o Cytosine

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

o Adenine

o Guanine

∙ Double stranded

∙ Carries hereditary information (growth and development too)

o Passed on by replication 

Variation in DNA

∙ 6 billion pairs on 46 DNA molecules

∙ 99.9% identical, 6 million points of difference

o Variation within major groups predates the move out of Africa

o Variation between major groups postdates the move out of Africa

∙ Highest diversity exists among those with recent Sub­Saharan ancestry Mitochondrial DNA

∙ Inherited from mother

∙ Only 16,569 base pairs

∙ Easy to track/sequence

∙ Doesn’t recombine

∙ Highest diversity in people with recent African ancestry


Who is Johan Blumenbach?



We also discuss several other topics like How many miles do you go before an oil change in your car?

Haplogroups

∙ Genetic population with common ancestor

∙ Assigned letters of the alphabet

∙ Black slavery (significance and uniqueness) & Process of  enslavement

Process of Enslavement

∙ “Chattelization” of Labor

∙ Need for Labor/Economic Interests

∙ Gradual restriction

∙ Results in Black Slavery

Black Slavery

∙ Economic & Social Institution

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

o Part of the Southern “way of life”

∙ Easily rationalized

o Slaves in Africa

o Savages/Sinners

Significance

∙ ServitudeSlavery

o Two different institutions because it incorporates the concept of race If you want to learn more check out What is the four step marketing process?

∙ Ideology of Human Difference

∙ Defined Social Hierarchy

Classification

Early Classification

∙ Early science all about classification

∙ Linnaeus

o Swedish botanist

o Systema Natural ­ 1735

 Humans grouped with higher primates

 Four human categories

o Environment created difference 

Johan Blumenbach

∙ 1770s and 1780s 

∙ Five categories — Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay ∙ Environment created difference

o Specifically, degradation

∙ Aesthetic values = scientific knowledge

∙ Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis

Impact of Classification 

∙ Permanence/Rigidity

∙ Link between physical and cultural

∙ Ignores biological and cultural reality

∙ Ranking 

∙ Scholarly credibility

o People claimed credential however they liked 

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

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∙ Clinal variation

The Issue with Race

∙ Genetic variation is 

o Clinal (80% tied to geography)

o Non­concordant

o Widely distributed

∙ Cluster ≠ Race

∙ Race ≠ Genetic ancestry 

Genetic Variation

∙ 3 types of DNA variants

o Ancient African variants present throughout the world

o Ancient African variants that remained in Africa

o More recent variants traceable to non­African regions If you want to learn more check out What is a neurogenesis?

∙ Clinal pattern

o While there may be epicenters of genetic mutations, they are not isolated

∙ Colonial opposition to slavery

Religious Opposition to Slavery

∙ Moral outrage

o Advocated for humanization of conditions

∙ Threatened Slavery

o Eliminating “heathen” reasoning

o Improving literacy 

Enlightenment Opposition to Slavery

∙ Many Englishmen had more freedom than ever before

∙ Connection between English values and abolition

∙ *Did not necessarily believe in equality

Pro­Slavery Response

∙ Enhanced commitment to slavery

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16 If you want to learn more check out What are the difference between sensation and perception?

o Cotton gin

o Increase in slave rebellions

∙ Anti­slavery efforts pick up in 1830s

∙ Pro­slavery pushback

o Religious arguments (Souls, Punishment)

o Secular arguments (Economy, Control, Natural)

∙ Embodiment

Genetic Determinism

∙ Genes AND environment determine phenotype

∙ Uncritical use of race

∙ Emphasis on cluster over variation

Embodiment

∙ Dual status as biological and cultural beings

∙ How social influences impact the body

∙ Biology cannot be understood without society 

o Our social world influences our body 

Effects of Racism on the body

∙ Interpersonal and institutionalized racism has health effects

o Constrains opportunities for success

o Creates pathogenic social contexts

 Residential segregation

Chicago study on hypertension

∙ European origins of race

European Origins of Race

∙ Previous interactions

∙ Religious beliefs

∙ National ethnocentrism

∙ Hierarchical view of natural & social world

English Nationalism

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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∙ Protestantism

o Henry the 8TH, creating Protestantism separates English from the rest of Europe ∙ Exceptionalism

o Us against the world

o English Identity

∙ Lack of interaction If you want to learn more check out How many people are employed in the economy as a whole this year?

o Spanish interacted with the Middle East and Africa, the British didn’t

∙ Genetic determinism

Genetic Determinism

∙ Genes, and environment, determine phenotype

∙ Although race is inadequate, we use it uncritically

∙ Emphasis on cluster over variation

∙ Pre­Darwinian roots

∙ Genetic evidence of diversity (Where and how 

variation/genetic change occurs)

Understanding Biological Diversity

∙ Anthropological evidence

o Architecture

o Tools

o Personal items

o Remains

∙ Genetic evidence

∙ What we know:

o African origins

 AMH emerged in Africa 200 kya

 AMH left Africa 60 kya

o We aren’t that different 

 99.9% of genetic information is shared

Ancestry and Blood Type

∙ Despite the persistence of racial categories, human diversity is incredibly varied ∙ Blood types

o A&B diverged 20 mya

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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9/17/16

o O arose in Africa before diaspora

∙ O most common worldwide, AB least common

Sources of Genetic Change

∙ Mutation

o Heritable change in structure or amount of DNA

∙ Natural Selection 

o Favoring of traits that enhance survival and reproduction

∙ Genetic Drift

o Genetic change due to chance

∙ Gene flow

o Transfer of genes across population boundaries

∙ Great Chain of Being

Hierarchy in American Society If you want to learn more check out What is the real interest rate?

∙ Great Chain of Being

o Originated with Greek philosophers

o Quasi­Scientific, Quasi­Theoretical

∙ Black Americans occupied lower rank

o Intellect

o Appearance

o Immorality

 Sexual deviants

 Lazy

∙ Ranks

o God

o Angels

o Humans

o Other Animals

∙ Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis

Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis

∙ 19th century debate focused on this point

o Scientists stabilize the idea of race as a category

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

∙ Race and species were previously defined

o Reproductive isolation

o Single originAdam and Eve

∙ Retrogression of social thinking

o Racism made them think of Polygenesis as a valid theory

Monogenesis

∙ All humans a single species, with single origin

o Inherent

∙ Two explanations for difference

o Degeneration

o Great Chain of Being

∙ Lamarck and Darwin

Anthropology and polygenism

∙ Samuel Morton – Study of Crania

∙ Louis Agassiz – Convert to Polygenism

∙ Josiah Nott – Types of Mankind

∙ Herbert Spencer – Social Darwinism

∙ Natural and Civil Rights

Natural & Civil Rights

∙ Natural Rights

o Natural system

o Land and resources held in common 

∙ Civil Rights

o Developed system

o Right to land you have improved 

Similarities with Irish Colonization

∙ Violence

∙ Religious mission 

∙ Forced removals

∙ Civil rights over natural rights

Arrival of Africans

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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∙ First Africans in the Americas

o Haiti/Hispaniola 1492

o Immigrants, sailors, tradesmen, etc.

∙ First Africans in an English colony

o Jamestown 1619

o Unclear status

∙ Origins of anthropology

Origins of Anthropology

∙ People have always done anthropology

o Maybe not like we do today (professionally)

∙ Increase in activity with European expansion

o Collecting & Classification

∙ Anthropology emerges when it all comes together (in the 19th century) o Study of cultural difference

o Desire to explain antiquity of humankind

o Desire to explain biological origins of humankind

∙ Possessive individualism

Possessive individualism

∙ Economic and social change in 15th & 16th centuriesBefore feudalism ∙ Basic right of man to own property in his own person, body, labor, etc. ∙ Justified appropriation of land

The Irish

∙ Long standing conflict

∙ Differences in:

o Religion

o Settlement patterns

o Mode of subsistence

o Language

∙ Race as a solution

Race as a Solution 

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

∙ Old World slave systems recognized humanity

∙ Slavery: Institution in which some persons are legally owned by other persons, akin to a  piece of property

∙ How can a human being be both a person and a piece of property?

∙ People as property

o Bridewealth

o Prostitution

o Children

∙ Kin­based ownershipLabor based ownership Ownership for wealthOwnership as  necessary (Economic and Social Tool)

∙ Always required rationalization

∙ Racial paradigm

Racial Paradigm Smedley defines 6 points

∙ Human groups: exclusive entities

∙ Inegalitarian ethos, ranking of groups  Hierarchy 

∙ Link between physical and cultural characteristics

o How people acted and how they looked was related

∙ Belief that physical characteristics are inherited

∙ Division of groups ordained by GodFinal

∙ Science and race

Science and Race

∙ Science perpetuate racial ideology

∙ Enlightenment: Confrontation of science and theology

o Of rational thinking instead of emotional 

∙ Not separate form culture

∙ Controlled data collection and manipulation 

∙ Slavery in British law

Slavery in British Law

∙ UnprecedentedNew

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

∙ Exists by the 1620s

o Poor food

o Physical punishment

o Separate housing for servants

∙ “Chatelization” of labor

o Treatment of people like animals

∙ Precedes African presence

∙ Susceptibility

Susceptibility

∙ Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, many cancers o Not entirely genetic

o Diet, physical activity, environmental factors

∙ Causation vs. Correlation

o Example — Identity theft and Low altitude

Processes:

∙ Changes in early anthropology (from 19th to 20th century) The Bureau of Ethnology

∙ Anthropology “professionalized” after the Civil War

∙ Established by congress in 1879

o John Wesley Powell

 Consolidation of maps, geographical and ethnographic knowledge

 Indian Problem

∙ Move Native Americans out of their lands

∙ They collected data to use it against them 

Anthropology and Race

∙ 19th Century

o Within other disciplines

o Polygenism

o Defense of slavery, Jim Crow, Indian removal, forced sterilization, restrictive  immigration

∙ 20th Century

o Professionalizes

o Emphasizes human diversity

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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o Human and civil rights

 Religious freedom

 Racial equality

∙ Emergence of the racial ideology

Racial Ideology in American

∙ Exclusivity

∙ Ranking according to English cultural standard

∙ Behavior and rank linked to physical difference

Attitudes Towards Native Americans

∙ 2 Approaches

o Benign/positive

 They are my kids; I take care of them

o Fearsome/brutish

 They are cannibals

 I’ll be the white­skinned pure­souled Pilgrim and you be the blood thirsty  Indian savage

∙ Difference between trading relationship and settlement

o Trade focuspositive

o Settlement focuscrafty­out­to­kill people

∙ Religious justification 

o Settlement focusyou need to be strong or you’ll be attacked

Puritanism

∙ Product of Protestant Reformation

∙ Self­righteous

∙ No commitment to humanistic values

o No grey area, only good or bad

∙ Colonization

o Stopped the spread of Catholicism

o Relieved poverty at home

o Gave job, and saved the souls of the poor

∙ Genetic diversity in humans

Basic of Genetic Variation

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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∙ DNA

o Carries hereditary information

o Passed on by replication

∙ Mitochondrial DNA

o Does not recombine

o Easy to track  

∙ Greatest genetic diversity exists in Africa

∙ Genetic change happens through

o Mutation

o Natural selection

o Genetic drift

 Chance

o Gene flow

 Migration

∙ Clinal variation

o Geographic continuum

o Sickle cell anemia and skin pigmentation 

∙ Labor in the British colonies

Labor

∙ Indigenous labor utilized first

∙ Replaced by poor/IrishThey had links with Catholicism, they could camouflage ∙ Problem with free men

o They wanted to take lands

o Bacon’s Rebellion 1676

 Demand: Freedom from chattel slavery

∙ They were granted the freedom so they had to be paid to work

 Result: Not guaranteed source of labor

African Slaves

∙ Benefits to Planters

o Cheaper

o “Civilized”

o Experienced cultivators

o Immunities

o VulnerableThey had no allies

o Identifiable 

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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Which came first?

∙ Race

o Negative connotation of blackness

o Limited interactions

o Early restrictive laws

o Higher Prices

∙ Slavery

o Irish/Native American precedents

o Social integration

 Interracial marriage was higher before slavery than after slavery was 

abolished

o Gradual imposition of slavery

The Process

∙ Need for labor

∙ Increasing availability of Africans

∙ Subtle connection to Latin America

∙ Economic interests

o Elimination of class warfare

1650­1670

1670­1690

1690­1700

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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∙ Regulation on 

firearms

∙ Property rights

∙ Life servitude 

established

∙ Penalties for 

interracial relation

∙ Restrictions of militia  participation

∙ Grouping of Native Americans,  Africans, Servants

∙ Private manumission prohibited  in Maryland and Virginia

∙ Manumission 

difficult/impossible

∙ Curfews & Restrictions on 

Congregating in Public

∙ Disenfranchisement

∙ Regulations on property 

ownership, marriage, education, religion, travel, commercial 

activity

∙ Free and enslaved Africans 

grouped together

∙ Africans grouped with all other servants

∙ Skin color becomes a defining  factor for slavery

∙ First use of white rather than  “Christian”

∙ Africans are seen as uniquely  different

People:

∙ Boas, Franz

Franz Boas

∙ Columbia University 1904

∙ People create distinct/particular cultures, which cannot be ranked

∙ Culture is historically specific and related to worldview

∙ Anthropology becomes a tool to fight racism

∙ Challenged taxonomic approach

o How do we know?

∙ Inuit of Baffin Island (1883)

∙ American Museum of Natural History (1890)

o Are racial markers static

o He measured crania 

o No!

∙ Aggasiz, Louis

Louis Agassiz

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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∙ Changed his ideological learnings

o Creationism

 God made us in the 6th day but made us inherently different 

o Colleagues work

o Visceral judgement

∙ Opposed evolutionism

∙ Harvard professor

o Huge impact on academia

∙ Blumenbach, Johann

Johan Blumenbach

∙ 1770s and 1780s 

∙ Five categories — Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay ∙ Environment created difference

o Specifically, degradation

∙ Aesthetic values = scientific knowledge

∙ Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis

∙ Darwin, Charles

Darwin Evolution (1859)

∙ Change follows natural laws

∙ Natural selection fundamental

∙ No two individuals alike

o Some variations are more advantageous than others which leads to natural  selection

∙ Characteristics passed from parent to offspring

∙ Accumulation of adaptive traits=evolution

Possible to have both progress and social disruption 

∙ Douglass, Frederick

Opponents to racism

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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∙ Frederick Douglas

o Anthropological perspective

o People have various origins; they are naturally different but it is not until you  combine that with our ideas with slavery that it really can be explained as  inequality or hierarchy of beings

∙ Jefferson, Thomas

Jefferson and Race

∙ Representative of the inherent opposition of Enlightenment and racial ideology ∙ He wanted money

∙ He was a hypocrite

∙ He hated slavery but had slaves and didn’t help to accelerate the process towards the  abolition of slavery

∙ Slavery benefited this way of life

∙ Moved rationalization from religion to science, from heathens to inherently inferior ∙ Representative of the inherent opposition of Enlightenment and racial ideology ∙ Science can determine the nature of black inferiority

Notes on the State of Virginia

∙ Science can determine the nature of black inferiority

∙ It doesn’t matter if it was because blacks were originally inferior or made distinct through time, they are now inferior to whites in body and mind.

∙ Kant, Emmanuel

Montesquieu, the Encyclopaedists, & Kant

∙ Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws (1748)

o Cross cultural study of law

∙ The enyclopaedists

o Attempt to classify and systematize knowledge

∙ Kant, Critique of Pure Reason (1781)

o Knowledge is both objective and subjective

o Rational vs. Emotional knowledge (two sides of the same coin)

o Measurable and observational

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

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Legitimate to study the life of everyday people, possible to produce scientific knowledge about  society 

∙ Lamarck, Jean­Baptiste

Lamarck’s Evolution (1801)

∙ Environmental pressure

∙ Inheritance of acquired characteristics 

∙ Giraffe’s example

∙ Morton, Samuel

Samuel Morton

∙ Studies of human crania 

∙ Brain size correlated with intelligence

∙ Each race suited to particular environment

∙ Samuel Morton – Study of Crania

∙ Nott, Josiah

Josiah Nott

∙ Degeneracy of Negroes

∙ Types of Mankind (1854)

o Blacks need care and owning

o They could not survive without the slave order

∙ Powell, John Wesley

The Bureau of Ethnology

∙ Anthropology “professionalized” after the Civil War

∙ Established by congress in 1879

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o John Wesley Powell

 Consolidation of maps, geographical and ethnographic knowledge

 Indian Problem

∙ Move Native Americans out of their lands

∙ They collected data to use it against them 

∙ Spencer, Herbert

Herbert Spencer

∙ Evolution as:

o Fundamental process

o Progressive (opposite to Darwin’s idea)

o Struggle for survival

o It is a competition

o Progress is only accomplished if the “fittest” dominates the weak

 Progress is achieved through inequality

∙ Social Darwinism

∙ Progress achieved through inequality

∙ Vico, Giambattista

La Scienza Nuova (1725)

∙ Giabattista Vico

∙ Universal scheme of human development

o Bestial Condition (no morality, no art)

o Age of Gods (nature worship, basic social structure)

o Age of Heroes (great social inequality, social unrest)

o Age of Man (equality with corruption)

∙ Cyclical9

Case Studies:

∙ 9/11 and birth weight

9/11 and Birth Weight

∙ Birth outcomes before and after 9/11

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

∙ California

∙ 34% increase in likelihood of low birth weight among women with Arabic names ∙ 50% increase with stronger ethnic affiliationGiving the babies Arabic names ∙ Lingering effects of racism

o Diabetes

o Heart failure

∙ Alcoholism on reservations

Alcoholism on Reservations

∙ Mixed research results

o Variants protecting against dependence

o Link between alcoholism and other dependencies

∙ Social conditions are more significant

∙ Blood type

Ancestry and Blood Type

∙ Despite the persistence of racial categories, human diversity is incredibly varied ∙ Blood types

o A&B diverged 20 mya

o O arose in Africa before diaspora

∙ O most common worldwide, AB least common

∙ Bureau of Ethnology

The Bureau of Ethnology

∙ Anthropology “professionalized” after the Civil War

∙ Established by congress in 1879

o John Wesley Powell

 Consolidation of maps, geographical and ethnographic knowledge

 Indian Problem

∙ Move Native Americans out of their lands

∙ They collected data to use it against them 

∙ Dred Scott

Dred Scott Decision (1857)

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

∙ 7­2 opposed

∙ He was financed by abolitionists

∙ Majority

o Never citizens; never have been, never will be

o Always seen as inferior

o Impassible barrier: no way to change these facts

∙ Dissent

o Black voters

o Slavery unprotected

o Slaves as humans 

∙ Residential segregation and health

Effects of Racism on the body

∙ Interpersonal and institutionalized racism has health effects

o Constrains opportunities for success

o Creates pathogenic social contexts

 Residential segregation

 Chicago study on hypertension 

∙ Sickle Cell Anemia (geography, consequences)

Sickle Cell Trait

∙ AA, SS, AS 

∙ Heterozygous carriers have “Sickle cell trait”

o 1 in 13 African Americans

o 1 in 10,000 Caucasians

∙ Under stress can cause cell deformation

Racism and Sickle Cell

∙ First identified in 1910 — Afro­Caribbean student in the U.S.

∙ Assumptions: 

o Only people of African descent had the disease

o Higher prevalence among African­Americans than Africans

∙ Tool for anti­miscegenation laws, segregation (1950s)

o Mixture of African Americans with Euro Americans was the problem  Sickle Cell and the Civil Rights Movement

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

∙ Dr. Robert Scott (Howard)

o Just as many cases of SCA, way less funding

o 1972 — National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act

o 1980s — rising awareness

o 2003 — Sickle Cell Treatment Act

o 2006 — sickle­cell testing becomes standard 

Sickle Cell Trait & Athletes

∙ Athletes families sued NCAA

∙ 2010 NCAA changes its requirements

o Get tested, prove previous testing, or release liability

∙ Potential for racist practices

∙ Scientific community emphasized universal safety practices 

Recent Developments

∙ Stanford University study

o 4800 active­duty soldiers

o August 2016

o Increased risk of injury form overexertion but not death

Susceptibility

∙ Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, many cancers o Not entirely genetic

o Diet, physical activity, environmental factors

∙ Causation vs. Correlation

o Example — Identity theft and Low altitude

∙ Skin Pigmentation (including Vitamin D Hypothesis)

Skin Pigmentation

∙ Natural selection

∙ Polygenic inheritance

∙ Melanin

∙ High pigmentation is the ancestral state

∙ Occurred after diaspora

ANG 3451 Race and Racism

Review  ­  Mid­term #1

9/17/16

Variation in Skin Pigmentation

∙ Directional selection

o Outside of Africa – reduction of pigmentation

 Dramatic change – “selective sweep”

o Within Africa – purifying selection

 Resulted in low diversity 

Vitamin D Hypothesis

∙ Sun exposure and reproductive health

o Folate

o Vitamin D

∙ Health trade­off

o Low folateHigh vitamin D (UV radiation)

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