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Biol Exam 1 Chap 1 study guide

by: Neha simon

Biol Exam 1 Chap 1 study guide 70855

Marketplace > George Mason University > Science > 70855 > Biol Exam 1 Chap 1 study guide
Neha simon

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This is just the chapter 1 study guide. I will be uploaded chap 2 and 3 shortly.
cell structure and function
Study Guide
BIOL, 213
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Neha simon on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 70855 at George Mason University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see cell structure and function in Science at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Biology 213 study guide Chapters: 1 Chapter 1 Concepts & definitions I. What is biology?  A. Biology: Scientific study of living things (organisms).  B. Basic description of biological life 1. Most living things contain: carbs, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic  acids. 2. Consists of cells, which are the building blocks of all living things.  3. Have metabolism: convert molecules in their environment into new biological molecules.   4. Can regulate their environment (homeostasis).  5. Contain genetic information (DNA) 6. Can be unicellular or multicellular  Unicellular: a single cell carries out all functions of life   Multicellular: may cells specialize in different functions.  a. All multicellular organisms have the same genome  (sets of DNA).  b. Mutations (errors) occur when the genome has to be  reproduced. c. Genome: sum of entire DNA in a cell  7. There are 3 domains of life   Bacteria (prokaryotes)  Archaea (prokaryotes)  Eukarya (eukaryotes) C. Living things are organized in taxonomy: grouped based on shared  characteristics.  1. Kingdom 2. Phylum  3. Class  4. Order  5. Family  6   Genus: species are named based on genus and species.  7. Species  D. Levels of biological organization:  1. Cells specialized into tissues.  2. Tissues: group of similar cells.  3. Organs: composed of different integrated tissue  4. Organ systems: organs working together in a physiological  function.  Biology 213 study guide Chapters: 1 5. Population: individuals of the same species.  6. Community: Population of all species living together.  7. Ecosystem: communities living together with their abiotic  environment.  8. Ecology: species interaction with one another and their  environment.  E. Cellular work: 1. Movement of molecules or the organisms.  2. Synthesis: building complex molecules from simple units.  3. Electrical work of the nervous system.  F. Difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes 1. Prokaryotes: simple, single celled, no nucleus.   Ex: Archaea, Bacteria 2. Eukaryotes: Complex, many cells, nucleated   Protista   Fungi   Plants   Animals  G. Phylogenetic tree: illustrates the evolutionary histories of different groups of organisms.  1. Systematics: study the evolution and classification of organisms.  Biology 213 study guide Chapters: 1 H. Evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes:  st 1. 1  billion years life consisted of single celled prokaryotes.   Some early prokaryotes merged to form eukaryotes.   Endosymbiosis: cells ingested smaller cells to form  eukaryotes.  a. Mitochondria and chloroplast are said to be originated  this way.  I. Evolution of photosynthesis: 1. 2.5 billion years photosynthesis changes a lot of things on earth.   Early photosynthetic cells were similar to cyanobacteria.   O 2 creased as photosynthetic prokaryotes increased.  a. Organisms that could tolerate the oxygen increased.  b. Made the Ozone layer, which protected animals from  the UV rays.  II. How do you investigate life?  A. The hypothesis approach:  1. Making observations 2. Asking questions  3. Forming hypotheses  4. Making predictions based on the hypotheses 5. Testing the predictions 6. Scientific hypotheses must be testable and have the potential of  being rejected.   B. Inductive logic: uses observation or facts to develop a hypothesis. C. Deductive logic: Used to make predictions.  D. Controlled experiments: manipulate one or more factors being tested.  E. Comparative experiments: looks for differences between samples or  groups.  III. Why does biology matter? A. Helps increase food production.  B. Is the basis of medical practice. C. Evolutionary principals help us understand how disease organisms evolve  resistance to our drugs. 


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