Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide (9/21)
Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide (9/21) PSY 2401
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2401 at Temple University taught by Melinda Mattingly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Test your knowledge study guide method: Instructions: Study using your own notes or mine, then try answering the questions on your own. To make sure of the correct answer, highlight the already highlighted text and the text will appear. For context and explanations, refer to earlier notes. Chapter 1: Introducing Social Psychology Q1: What does social psychology study? A1: how people think, feel, and behave in a social context / social influence / Phenomena that are shared by most people regardless of personality / explains actions of individuals even though they use groups in experiments and research Q2: What historical event influenced the surge in social psychology? A2: Adolf Hitler’s rise in power. Q3: What was Stanley Milgram's social experiment? What influenced it? A3: Milgram’s obedience study. Stanley Milgram’s interest in Hitler. Q4: What are some of the ideas that influence people’s social interactions? A4: automatic vs. controlled processes / conscious vs. unconscious processes / mind and body influence / neural and social processes / culture / social media Q5: Is social psychology interdisciplinary or not? A5: It is, because it depends on more than one branch/discipline in the field of psychology. Q6: John’s girlfriend just dumped him. When asked why this happened, he answers with, “I was too good for her anyway.” This demonstrates which general theme in social psychology? A6: The need for selfesteem Chapter 2: Social Psychological Research Q7: After conducting a social experiment for his psychology class, John said that the outcome was very obvious and predicted and explained this in relation to his own personal experience. What problem of social psychological research is John demonstrating here? A7: Hindsight bias Q8: What are the two patterns in the scientific method of research? A8: 1) Question → Theory → Hypotheses → Research ,, 2) Question → Hypotheses → Research → Theory → Hypotheses → Research Q9: What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis? A9: Theory: a general statement of observation that can’t be tested. Hypothesis: a simplified form of a theory that can be tested through research Q10: What is the difference between basic research and applied research A10: Basic research aims to ask and answer big, BASIC, and general questions about behavior. Applied research addresses particular problems and is less interested in developing a theory. Q11: This is a specific definition of the details of a research and is important for replication: A11: Operational definition Q12: Mention some of the advantages and disadvantages of surveys and selfreports. A12: Advantages: easy to make, do not need to be an expert in “survey making,” cheap, fast, get a lot of information. Disadvantages: wording effects, ordering of questions can affect how people respond, social desirability, retroactive memory Q13: What is the difference between a random sample and a convenience sample? A13: They are both representative samples of the study, but a perfect random sample is almost impossible because we cannot force all the people that we randomly pick to be in our study. A convenience sample represents a random group of willing participants and is possible to achieve. Q14: What are the two kinds of Observational designs? What are the differences between them? A14: Naturalistic and Laboratory. Naturalistic: happens in natural settings, yields more spontaneous/natural results, but researcher does not have aspect of control and could have the personal bias of ethnography. Laboratory: is studied in a lab, researcher has aspect of control, but it might not yield to natural results. Q15: What is a setback of Observational designs? A15: Infrequent behaviors are hard to get in public settings and behavior that can’t be observed cannot be studied. Q16: What is the purpose of a descriptive research design? A16: It describes behavior and it what situation it happens but not why it happens. Q17: What is a correlational research design? What does a correlation coefficient tell us? A17: A type of descriptive research that shows the relationship between 2 actions/behaviors, but does not show us which causes the other ((Correlation does not mean causation)). The correlation coefficient tells us the strength of the relationship and whether it is positive (increase together, decrease together) or negative (opposite directions) Q18: What is the purpose of an experimentation? What is a confound? A18: Experimentation serves to explain the causal relation between variables/behaviors. Q19: How can we increase internal validity? How can we increase external validity? A19: Internal validity: Conduct a doubleblind or singleblind study. External validity: Experimental realism and mundane realism Q20: What are the 4 important research ethics? A20: Informed consent, confidentiality, debriefing, and deception Q21: What is the difference between selfconcept and selfschemas? A21: Selfconcept: general idea of self. Selfschemas: more specific characteristics and ideas we have about ourselves. Q22: Describe the progression of the sense of self. A22: Starts at 15 months old → develops with physical descriptors and observable characteristics with childhood → develops into abstract and psychological states at about middle school ages. Q23: John was asked to think about himself and assess his social mental processes and behaviors. What method is John using here? A23: Introspection, but we don’t use that as much today because we don’t about ourselves that often Q24: The Daily Diary Study was used by Nisbett & Wilson to test what theory? A24: Telling more than we can know Q25: What subtheory explains our need to justify our feelings, or affect? This is an example of what theory? A25: Affective Forecasting. Telling more than we can know. Q26: What theory explains how we look at our behavior rather than introspection and abstract characteristics? A26: Selfperception theory (Bem) Q27: What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations? A27: Intrinsic: You do it because you find it rewarding and satisfying within yourself. Extrinsic: You do it because there is an external reward or to avoid an external punishment. Q28: How does the overjustification effect affect intrinsic motivation? A28: It downplays it and may destroy it because it prioritizes extrinsic motivation and makes extrinsic motivation take place of intrinsic motivation. Q29: What is the difference between taskcontingent and performancecontingent rewards? A29: taskcontingent: if you complete the task (regardless of how you performed), you get a reward. Performance contingent: the better you perform, the better the reward. Q30: What are two physical states that can affect the way you look at yourself? A30: Facial Feedback and Body Posture (Carney, Cuddy, Yap) Q31: What is the Social Comparison Theory (Leon Festinger)? What are the two types of Social Comparison Theory? A31: It is the method we use to understand ourselves better using others by comparison when we don’t have an objective measure. There is upward (when we compare ourselves to people that are better) and downward (when we compare ourselves to someone we think is lesser/worse than us). We use these methods to make ourselves feel better. Q32: What theory did Schachter develop? What does this theory tell us? A32: Schachter developed the “Twofactor theory of emotion.” This theory tells us how we look to others to explain our own emotions when we don’t find an explanation for them. Q33: What is the most significant memory that we use to explain our behaviors and feelings? What types of memories are most prominent in this memory? A33: Autobiographical memory. Memories of “firsts” and Flashbulb memories. ((Whatever we cover on Monday will be posted/uploaded after that class.))
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