Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Soci 1311
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Angela Dela Llana
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Dela Llana on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soci 1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Jason Shelton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 169 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
SOCI 1311 Exam 1 Study Guide History of Sociology Industrial Revolution Originated in Europe From the mid to late 1800s Was a major turning point in world history, dramatically changed how people lived Has three major components: industrialization, (im)migration, and urbanization New problems in society emerge because of Industrial Revolution; include crime, competition for jobs, poor living conditions, environmental problems, and poverty Sociology comes around to explain the new problems that arose from the Industrial Revolution Industrialization Driving force of the Industrial Revolution Due to the rise of mass production Comprised of huge transitions due to development, farms to factories People began to leave home to work instead of spending time with family Started because we had figured out how to harness coal and use it to fuel technology for mass production (Im)migration Immigration- when people move from one nation to another Migration- when people move to different locations within the same nation Occurred because people followed opportunities to where it led them Urbanization The growth of cities Related to industrialization through the need to build factories for mass production Related to (im)migration through the need to build homes and other buildings for new people American Sociology Graduate students of Weber and other great sociologists brought sociology to America The University of Chicago- first widely renowned department of sociology, promoted the idea that sociologists should The American Sociological Association (ASA) meets every year to share research, talk about politics, and discuss whatever is going on in the social world Important People and their Contributions August Comte ather of sociology Created Frenchman, had a great advantage in observing the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution Positivism- the idea that the scientific method needed to be applied to sociology in order for it to be taken seriously Herbert Spencer Compared society to an organism Survival of the fittest - those best suited to the environment are the most successful, refers to survival of the fittest people Social Darwinism- survival of the fittest people Said what makes you fit among human beings are hard work, good decision-making, and sacrifice Believed that the people at the top and the bottom in terms of status deserve to be where they are Max Weber German born to a wealthy family, father owned a factory Knew what it was like to be very privileged, studied society from the perspective of someone of a high status Agreed with the use of the scientific method for sociology Verstehen- understanding in German Believed that sociologists are responsible for understanding: 1. How people feel (emotions) 2. Why they feel the way they do (reasons) 3. The connection between Emile Durkheim Jewish, Judaism was important to him Focused on social order, wanted to figure out what keeps society peaceful and prevent riots, crimes and other disturbances from occurring First prominent sociological researcher, first to apply the scientific method in research In study between religion and suicide, concluded that suicide actually had to do with social bonds Social bonds- connections to other people, tion to other people that would prevent you from committing suicide Karl Marx Anti-religion Believed that the Industrial Revolution was not a good thing for humanity Emphasized the impact of economic factors in everyday life Believed that capitalism enhances inequality, that new problems arose in society because of the selfish nature of capitalism Bourgeoisie vs Proletariat- tension between the rich (Bourgeoisie) and the poor (Proletariat) Sociological Imagination Sociological Imagination Way of understanding the world and understanding ourselves within the context of a larger society Developed by C. Wright Mills so people could think critically about who they are Has two parts: history and biography History- what happened to you in the past affects you in the present and in the future Biography- everyone comes from a different walk of life, personal backgrounds vary greatly from person to person Classical Theories Symbolic Interactionism Human beings understand society by gaining meaning through interaction with others Core tenants: 1. Human beings act toward people and things based on the meaning we have for them 2. Meanings derive out of interaction with others 3. Meanings can change over time through continued interactions with others (social sophistication) Weber is the key thinker behind symbolic interactionism, emphasized the importance of verstehen or understanding Microsociological theory Structural Functionalism Most popular of the three theories Views society as a series of interrelated parts that must be working normally and peacefully Emphasizes the connection between social structure and social order People have very specific roles Systems function when people in their individual roles carry out their responsibilities, society stops functioning normally when people stop doing this Macrosociological theory Social equilibrium- society is balanced and regulated Anomie- social disorder, chaos; functionalists want to avoid anomie Tied to both Spencer, who compared society to an organism, and Durkheim, who studied social order Conflict Theory Society is composed of diverse groups with competing values and interests, does not Closely associated with Marx., who argued that there would always be conflict because of diversity During 1960s Stratification- structured inequality in access to resources, rewards, and privileges in society Class consciousness- awareness a person has regarding their social class Social change can be violent or peaceful Social vs. Natural Sciences Natural Sciences Examples include biology, chemistry, astronomy, and physics Generally speak about different aspects of the earth and nature and relate to our planet Rely on fact, less room for debate, questions presented usually have one answer Social Sciences Examples include psychology, political science, anthropology, sociology, social work, economics, and history A lot more room for debate; not just one answer to a problem Culture Culture learned set of beliefs, values, norms, and material goods shared by members of a group consists of everything learned over the life-course Has two parts: material culture and non-material culture Material Culture Includes clothing, food, art, and architecture Represent culture and can be touched Non-material Culture Includes language, beliefs, values, and attitudes Components of Culture Language (symbols) Complex system of symbols with meaning that people use to communicate. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (linguistic relativity thesis)- the idea that different cultures see the world differently due to speaking different languages Norms Expectations and rules for proper conduct that guide interaction Folkways Minor violations of the norm People will look at you differently when you commit a folkway Examples include picking your nose in public, not washing your hands after using toilet, Mores Can be very controversial, people will look at you very differently Not all of us have the same sense of morality, some actions might be more offensive to some than others. Examples include not standing up for the Pledge of Allegiance, burning the American flag, adultery Laws Formal rules enacted and enforced by the government in order to regulate morality and order Mores that are deemed so important that we make them into law A lot of gray area since not all of us have the same sense of morality All about politics and power For example, there is a lot of debate over the legalization of marijuana Taboos Examples include cannibalism and incest These four norms elicit come kind of response in regards to morals. Sanctions Either a reward for adhering to the norms or a penalty for defying them Values Shared ideas about what is considered desirable and correct Rankings of what we think is good or bad, right or wrong, attractive or unattractive Can differ from person to person More deep-seated, tend not to change Beliefs Opinions about reality; our own judgements about what we think is going on in society, what is right and wrong Based on our values Tend to change Technology Turns old cultures into new cultures Sign of how much society has evolved Material aspect of culture American Culture U.S. Core Values 1. Individualism and Freedom- Americans value independence and ability to make personal choices that are free of social constraints 2. Equality- equality of opportunity, not necessarily equality of outcome 3. Achievement- desire to get ahead and better the circumstances of birth 4. Efficiency and Practicality- Americans value simple and direct approach to life 5. Progress and Technology- Americans value what is new and progressive, place a high value on technology as solution to problems 6. Material Comfort and Consumerism- success and personal worth are measured largly by the quality and quantity of material possessions 7. Work and Leisure- Americans value hard work and labor Diversity and Culture Sub-culture Group that shares many elements of the dominant (mainstream) culture but maintains its own distinct customs, values, norms, and lifestyles They can be based on race, religion, politics, sexual orientation, and other commonalities Provides emotional and social support to members of a group Counter-culture Group that rejects the values and standards of the dominant society and hopes to provide an alternative to the mainstream Can also be considered a threat to the mainstream Some are radical groups that are willing to use violence as a means to change society, but some can be non-violent Culture Shock Feelings of confusion and disorientation when we encounter a culture that is very different from our own Goes on within our own minds Eventually wears off Ethnocentrism Tendency to evaluate another culture based on the standards of our own culture There is fine line between pride and prejudice Cultural Relativism Notion that we should compare one culture to itself instead of comparing it to other cultures Stresses that you are too fundamentally different We can see how a culture has changed over time and figure out how and why they believe something Multiculturalism Respect and appreciation for various groups Theories of Socialization Freudian Theory Sigmund Freud We are driven by our subconscious, the impulses and urges deep within; pleasure is what we ultimately want There is an internal conflict within us because of the id, superego, and ego o Id- your subconscious, the part of you that houses your impulses and urges; goes against the superego o Superego- your conscience, your ultimate sense of right and wrong; goes against the id o Ego- decision making component of your personality, resolves the conflict between id and superego Assumes mind is passive because of id Looking Glass Self Charles Cooley We use our eyes to look out into our world and interpret what we see; we grow out from our interactions and the perceptions of others Has three components: 1. Your opinion about something in society. 2. 3. You adjusting yourself based on your guess about how someone feels. Here is one example that covers each component: 1. I think I look good today. 2. I think that she thinks I look good too. 3. ior. Assumes the mind is active Development of Self George Mead Mead agreed with both Freud and Cooley, created a middle ground o I- similar to ego; not socialized, pleasure-seeking and selfish o Me- similar to superego; socialized, knows right and wrong Has both active and passive elements, but mostly passive because of the I Situated Self Newer theory with multiple authors Different people and different situations bring about different aspects of your personality Code-switching- interacting with Assumes the mind is active Impression Management We reveal and conceal information about ourselves to make a favorable impression to others You tell someone certain things about you and not tell them other things Dramaturgic sociology Erving Goffman Social interaction is like a play; interacting with people is like acting/performing Every situation has a script and props Front stage- we Backstage- we re alone, can rehearse our roles Has both active and passive elements Nature vs. Nurture Debate Nature Position Most popular historically Stresses in-born biological characteristics Social Darwinism applies to both individuals and groups Spencer argued that what makes you fit is your in-born biological characteristics o If you compare two different people, he would likely say that person A is going to do really well and that person B will not because of their genetic code. Can rank groups from top to bottom according to how strong their genes are Point to twins separated at birth in support of argument o Have the same genetic code but were raised in different environments o Share many similarities despite being raised apart Nurture Position Growing in popularity in recent years Stresses environment and social forces in society Not your biological makeup that determines things like intelligence, but environmental factors. In their research Have you been in an environment that maximizes your potential for success? Stratification- people are ranked by different categories, which include race, gender, religion Point to feral children in support of argument o Feral child- a child who was raised in isolation, not socialized like the rest of society o Anna and Isabelle Grew up in dark rooms, were barely fed or trained C and were not toilet trained Placed in intense socialization programs so they could catch up Sociobiology Middle ground between nature and nurture Formed from the idea that nature and nurtu mutually exclusive Has three core ideas: 1. All individuals are born with a genetic code. 2. All individuals are shaped by their environment and social forces. 3. Individuals represent the interplay between genetics and the environment. Types of Societies Types of Societies Hunting-gathering- hunts, gathers plants, and fishes with simple technology such as a spear Pastoral- domesticates animals to sustain itself Horticultural- uses hand tools to grow crops Agrarian- depends on crops raised with plows, draft animals (domesticated animals used in drawing heavy loads), and intensive agricultural methods Industrial- relies on advanced technology to produce and distribute food, information, goods, and services Postindustrial- focuses on the production of services instead of the production of goods Postindustrial Society 1950s, more than half of working men worked in a factory Now there is less reliance on manufacturing and factories, less than 20 percent of men work in a factory Other nations are still in the industrial era and need factories, American companies send their factories there In modern world, use your brain more than your hands when you work Socialization Socialization Process by which we learn and internalize the components of culture, develop a sense of self Life-long process, starts at birth and ends at death You learn to become a ing, develop a sense of self Cultural transmission Passing culture onto the next generation, passing on the knowledge to a new group of people We have to pass on the culture for it to survive Sources of Socialization Family Most important source of socialization since our family is our first ever source of interaction Family teaches us the idea of the sex role Education Gives both formal and informal knowledge Teaches formal subjects such as math and science Also teaches more informal lessons on authority, patriotism, and power Peers Peer pressure- conflicting messages from our peers and the authority figures (parents, teachers, and clergy) that we grew up with Period that everyone goes through Religion Fundamentally important to some people but not to everyone Some scholars disagree on it being a major source of socialization Employment Key to people in America Media Affects everyone differently since we each engage in different types of media Mortification Process Mortification Process Also known as degradation ceremony Event or ceremony that embarrasses you You are a different person afterwards D embarrassing or degrading Characteristics of Bureaucracy Specialization and Division of Labor Tasks are accomplished by people trained to perform specific duties Clear-cut division of labor Hierarchical Structure Positions are arranged in hierarchical fashion Rank and authority increases from bottom to top, clearly defined at every level Formal Rules, Regulations, and Procedures Specify goals of organization, work to be performed, what workers can and cannot do Ensure uniformity of operations, provide continuity regardless of changes in personnel or organizational goals Impersonality Interactions with clients and co-workers are guided by rules, not personal feelings Emotional detachment ensures equality and unclouded judgement Merit and Careers Positions are based on qualifications and performance Gives a sense of continuity and security Status and Roles Status Defines our relationship to other people and positions relative to other people. Something that we own Status d others Statuses are ranked; in most situations, one person would have more status than another Status Set All the statuses that a person occupies at any given moment Shows complexity of our lives Some statuses conflict with others Ascribed Status Status that we possess or inherit that has nothing to do with our merits or abilities You can be born with an ascribed status and eventually change it We keep some ascribed statuses for our entire lives Achieved Status Status that we earn based on our talents and decisions, opposite of an ascribed status Can be positive or negative Master Status Status in your status set that most people know you for For most people, their master status is their career Role Set of expectations, rights, and duties that are attached to a particular status To keep your status, you have to fulfill certain obligations Role Conflict When a person cannot fulfill the role of one status without violating the role of another status
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