Test 1 Study Guide - Weeks 1-4 - POLS 2312
Test 1 Study Guide - Weeks 1-4 - POLS 2312 POLS 2312-006
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sera (Notetaker) on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 2312-006 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Daniel D Sledge in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see State & Local Government in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Note taker: Sera POLS 2312 Test 1 Study Guide Foundations Factors that led to the American Revolution: o French and Indian War -> debt left to massive taxation on colonists 1. What were the names of the two tax acts that angered the colonists? o Boston Tea Party (1773) led to the Intolerable Acts o First Continental Congress (1774) met and agreed to boycott British goods o War broke out Articles of Confederation o No executive of judiciary branches o Nearly all power was at state level o Congress could not tax or regulate commerce o No army or navy Articles of Confederation led to o Shay’s Rebellion (1786) – angry farmer’s revote against taxes o Representatives meet (1787) to create a new constitution New Constitution led to o Divisions over how much power the central government should have Federalists vs Anti-federalists o Higher taxes o Weaker power of the states o Upset that it had no list of rights for Americans Constitution came into effect in 1788 2. What were the two important pieces of that came after the Constitution which helped lay the rest of the foundation for America? Separation of Powers o Legislative branch: Congress: Reject Supreme Court nominees, impeach judges & presidents, and override vetoes o Executive branch: The President: Can veto congressional bills, nominate federal judges, and write executive orders o Judicial branch: Supreme Court and lower court levels: Can declare laws and executive orders unconstitutional, Chief Justice presides over impeachment trials 3.The Federalist Papers were a series of papers explaining and defending the need for Federalism, who were they written by? Note taker: Sera POLS 2312 Powers Granted by the Constitution o To Congress Article 1: Tax and spend for the people, coin and borrow money, declare war, regulate commerce, create any laws “necessary and proper” for the good of the people o To the States Article 4: Binds privileges and immunities of the citizens of each state to all states Article 6: Supremacy Clause 4. What does the Supremacy Clause state? 10 Amendment: Powers not given to the US government by the Constitution are reserved to the states, power to regulate the health, safety and morals of citizens (Police Power) Federalism 5. What is Federalism? Types of Federalism o Dual Federalism – federal government and state governments inhabit separate spheres; limited national government 6. What kind of cake is Dual Federalism akin to? o Cooperative Federalism – federal government and state governments share responsibilities; more oversight/power to the national government 7. What kind of cake is Cooperative Federalism akin to? Benefits of Federalism o Works against concentration of powers o States can experiment with new policies on a smaller scale than the national government o States and localities are more responsive to local needs o Allows for more flexibility Democratic Republicans o Party of the West and South Note taker: Sera POLS 2312 o Wanted an agrarian republic with individual liberty grounded in land ownership and a responsive local government Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions o Alien & Sedition Act (1798) passed during a quasi-war with France Alien Act made it harder to become a US citizen and easier to deport foreigners Sedition Acts were used to convict Democratic-Republicans who spoke out against the government o Kentucky and Virginia passed bills to nullify these acts Nullification Crisis o Tarff of Abominations (1828) and Compromise Tariff (1832) hurt rural communities in the South o A Nullification Convention met in SC and declared the two tariffs unconstitutional (1832) o A new Compromise Tariff was drafted with the helped of Henry Clay who made a deal with John Calhoun to lower the tariffs over a decade (1833) Civil War o Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1960 States began to secede from the union almost immediately o Civil War was fought from 1861-1865 – Union victory o “Civil War amendments” 13 (1865): Outlawed slavery 14 (1868): Created a national citizenship th 15 (1870): National right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” – not sex The New Deal o 1933: Stock market crashes, sends country into the Great Depression o FDR passes laws that make the national government stronger o The “Great Society” – domestic programs launched by the Johnson administration to eliminate poverty and racial in justice o Grants-in-aid: programs through which Congress provides money to states and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes chosen by the federal government Political Culture and Texas in Transition Texas Independence o Previously apart of Mexico and the Spanish empire o Gained independence in 1836 and became a republic o Entered the Union in 1845 as a slave state The Fight for New Slave States 8. In what state was there violent conflict between pro- and non-slavery residents trying to sway the state to their side that turned “bloody”? Note taker: Sera POLS 2312 Reconstruction (1867-1874) o Southern state was divided into military district after the Civil War and occupied by the Union army o Focus on black enfranchisement o Confederate military officers and officials were barred from holding office Reconstruction Constitution (1869) o Stronger state government, local governments were closely controlled o Governor was given broad appointive and policy supervision powers o Taxes and bonds used to support education and railroads “Redemption” Constitution o Democrats eventually regained controlled of their states and wrote new constitutions o In Texas Salaries of state officials were reduced Governor was stripped of a lot of power, a lot of offices were made elective Terms of offices were shortened Populism o Response to worsening conditions in rural South and West 9. What were some of the things favored by the Populist party? o Led to the creation of the Texas Railroad Commission (1891) o Populism was a challenge to the Democratic dominance in the South o Democratic Party began to adopt some of their views to prevent them from merging with the Republican Party Segregation 10. What was the name of the Supreme Court case which upheld racial segregation under the “separate but equal” clause? o Democratic Dominance – white Democrats controlled the politics of the South through a Poll tax and Whites Only Primaries Democratic Dominance in the South o Election of 1904: Roosevelt vs Parker North and West voted completely Republican South voted completely Democratic o Pappy “Pass the Biscuits” O’Daniel, a Fort Worth flour salesman and radio show host won the Senate in 1941 due to his radio show following Note taker: Sera POLS 2312 o Election of 1928: Al Smith was elected to by the Democratic Party Presidential nominee even though he was from the North, opposed to prohibition, and Catholic – the opposite of the entire demographic of the Democratic party Sam Rayburn backed Smith, saying voting for the Republican party was basically treason and the South mostly maintained a Democratic vote Great Depression (1932) o After Herbert Hoover was elected in 1928, the country’s economy collapsed and sank into depression o In the next election, almost the entire country voted for Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal coalition- an unprecedented voting pattern The New Deal o “Banking holiday” o Civilian Conservation Corps (1933-1942) o Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) o Rural electrification o Works Program (1935) o Agricultural Adjustment Act o Social Security Act (1935) South Texas Jefes o “Bosses” that paid people’s poll tax and took them to the polls to vote for certain candidates who paid for votes o Lyndon B Johnson brought votes in order to prevent losing the Senate seat again 11. Who was one of the most famous jefes, the “Duke of Duval”? Texas in Transition o Big growth in Hispanic population o Growth of new industries all over o Massive amounts of urbanization o Discovery of oil brought most industry and urbanization o Economy became very mixed The 1940s o Tech boom in Texas due to WWII o Lots of people moving to Texas due to opportunities in new industries o “Texas Regulars” advocated against the re-election of FDR o Harry S Truman assumes office after FDR, pushes for more civil rights acceptance from the Democratic party, which it does o States’ Rights Democrats form as a response to the adoption of pro-civil rights ideals by the Democratic party 12. States’ Right Democrats were also known as: Note taker: Sera POLS 2312 Election of 1948 o Truman (Dem) vs Dewey (Rep.) vs Thurmond (SRD) o States’ Rights Democrats had won 5 Southern states, rest of the South was still voting Democrat o Truman won Election of 1952 o Eisenhower (Rep) vs Stevenson (Dem) o Nearly the entire country voted for Eisenhower because he was a WWII hero o A break from regular voting pattern for the South Factors Working For a Two Party System in Texas o Partisan identification was highly resilient when locked in o Texas Democrats had a lot of power in Washington because Congress was Democratic for a very long time o It was difficult to get high quality candidates in the Republican party because everyone wanted to run as a Democrat since that was the only way to win an office o Texans had a very negative image of Republicans Note taker: Sera POLS 2312 Answers 1. Stamp Act and Tea Act 2. Bill of Rights (1791) and Judiciary Act (1789) 3. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote the Federalist Papers 4. Federal law is the supreme law of the land over all the state and local laws 5. A principle of government based on the separation of power between national and subnational governments 6. Dual federalism is akin to a layer cake. National and state governments work in their own separate spheres. 7. Cooperative federalism is like a marble cake. National and state governments work together in certain realms. 8. Kansas, dubbed “bloody Kansas” during the time, was a place of violent conflict between pro-slave voters and anti-slave voters. 9. The Populist party favored agricultural cooperatives, a “sub-treasury” system, and a looser money system 10. Plessy v Ferguson (1896) upheld racial segregation 11. Archie Parr was the “Duke of Duval,” a powerful Jefe in south Texas 12. States’ Rights Democrats were also known as the Dixiecrats
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