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UTA / Engineering / ART 2312 / What were the names of the two tax acts that angered the colonists?

What were the names of the two tax acts that angered the colonists?

What were the names of the two tax acts that angered the colonists?

Description

School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: Engineering
Course: State & Local Government
Professor: Daniel sledge
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: texas, texasgovernment, state, StateGovernment, local, localgovernment, Politics, politicalscience, politicalculture, Studyguide, Government, sledge, notes, foundation, and political
Cost: 50
Name: Test 1 Study Guide - Weeks 1-4 - POLS 2312
Description: Comprehensive notes over everything covered in the first four weeks or so of POLS 2312 from the Foundations to 1950s.
Uploaded: 09/18/2016
7 Pages 55 Views 6 Unlocks
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Note taker: Sera POLS 2312


What were the names of the two tax acts that angered the colonists?



Test 1 Study Guide 

Foundations 

∙ Factors that led to the American Revolution:

o French and Indian War -> debt left to massive taxation on colonists

1. What were the names of the two tax acts that angered the colonists?

o Boston Tea Party (1773) led to the Intolerable Acts

o First Continental Congress (1774) met and agreed to boycott British goods o War broke out

∙ Articles of Confederation

o No executive of judiciary branches

o Nearly all power was at state level

o Congress could not tax or regulate commerce


What were the two important pieces of that came after the constitution which helped lay the rest of the foundation for america?



o No army or navy

∙ Articles of Confederation led to

o Shay’s Rebellion (1786) – angry farmer’s revote against taxes

o Representatives meet (1787) to create a new constitution

∙ New Constitution led to

o Divisions over how much power the central government should have

▪ Federalists vs Anti-federalists

o Higher taxes

o Weaker power of the states

o Upset that it had no list of rights for Americans

∙ Constitution came into effect in 1788


What does the supremacy clause state?



If you want to learn more check out When was the quran canonized?

2. What were the two important pieces of that came after the Constitution which helped  lay the rest of the foundation for America?

∙ Separation of Powers

o Legislative branch: Congress: Reject Supreme Court nominees, impeach judges &  presidents, and override vetoes

o Executive branch: The President: Can veto congressional bills, nominate federal  judges, and write executive orders

o Judicial branch: Supreme Court and lower court levels: Can declare laws and  executive orders unconstitutional, Chief Justice presides over impeachment trials

3.The Federalist Papers were a series of papers explaining and defending the need for  Federalism, who were they written by?

Note taker: Sera POLS 2312

∙ Powers Granted by the Constitution

o To Congress

▪ Article 1: Tax and spend for the people, coin and borrow money, declare  war, regulate commerce, create any laws “necessary and proper” for the  

good of the people

o To the States

▪ Article 4: Binds privileges and immunities of the citizens of each state to  all states

▪ Article 6: Supremacy Clause Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find the difference quotient of a quadratic function?

4. What does the Supremacy Clause state?

▪ 10th Amendment: Powers not given to the US government by the  We also discuss several other topics like What kind of movements are possible at particular joint?

Constitution are reserved to the states, power to regulate the health, safety  and morals of citizens (Police Power)

Federalism 

5. What is Federalism?

∙ Types of Federalism

o Dual Federalism – federal government and state governments inhabit separate spheres; limited national government

6. What kind of cake is Dual Federalism akin to?

o Cooperative Federalism – federal government and state governments share  responsibilities; more oversight/power to the national government

7. What kind of cake is Cooperative Federalism akin to?

∙ Benefits of Federalism

o Works against concentration of powers If you want to learn more check out What would william james criticize for examining a movie frame by frame instead of seeing the motion?

o States can experiment with new policies on a smaller scale than the national  government

o States and localities are more responsive to local needs

o Allows for more flexibility We also discuss several other topics like How much liquid has left the buret?

∙ Democratic Republicans

o Party of the West and South

Note taker: Sera POLS 2312

o Wanted an agrarian republic with individual liberty grounded in land ownership  and a responsive local government

∙ Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

o Alien & Sedition Act (1798) passed during a quasi-war with France

▪ Alien Act made it harder to become a US citizen and easier to deport  

foreigners

▪ Sedition Acts were used to convict Democratic-Republicans who spoke  out against the government

o Kentucky and Virginia passed bills to nullify these acts

∙ Nullification Crisis

o Tarff of Abominations (1828) and Compromise Tariff (1832) hurt rural  communities in the South

o A Nullification Convention met in SC and declared the two tariffs  

unconstitutional (1832)

o A new Compromise Tariff was drafted with the helped of Henry Clay who made a  deal with John Calhoun to lower the tariffs over a decade (1833)

∙ Civil War

o Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1960 If you want to learn more check out What is a self-concept?

▪ States began to secede from the union almost immediately

o Civil War was fought from 1861-1865 – Union victory

o “Civil War amendments”

▪ 13th (1865): Outlawed slavery

▪ 14th (1868): Created a national citizenship

▪ 15th (1870): National right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous  condition of servitude” – not sex

∙ The New Deal

o 1933: Stock market crashes, sends country into the Great Depression

o FDR passes laws that make the national government stronger

o The “Great Society” – domestic programs launched by the Johnson administration to  eliminate poverty and racial in justice

o Grants-in-aid: programs through which Congress provides money to states and local  governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes chosen by the  federal government

Political Culture and Texas in Transition 

∙ Texas Independence

o Previously apart of Mexico and the Spanish empire

o Gained independence in 1836 and became a republic

o Entered the Union in 1845 as a slave state

∙ The Fight for New Slave States

8. In what state was there violent conflict between pro- and non-slavery residents trying  to sway the state to their side that turned “bloody”?

Note taker: Sera POLS 2312

∙ Reconstruction (1867-1874)

o Southern state was divided into military district after the Civil War and occupied  by the Union army

o Focus on black enfranchisement

o Confederate military officers and officials were barred from holding office ∙ Reconstruction Constitution (1869)

o Stronger state government, local governments were closely controlled o Governor was given broad appointive and policy supervision powers

o Taxes and bonds used to support education and railroads

∙ “Redemption” Constitution

o Democrats eventually regained controlled of their states and wrote new  constitutions

o In Texas

▪ Salaries of state officials were reduced

▪ Governor was stripped of a lot of power, a lot of offices were made  

elective

▪ Terms of offices were shortened

∙ Populism

o Response to worsening conditions in rural South and West

9. What were some of the things favored by the Populist party?

o Led to the creation of the Texas Railroad Commission (1891)

o Populism was a challenge to the Democratic dominance in the South

o Democratic Party began to adopt some of their views to prevent them from  merging with the Republican Party  

∙ Segregation

10. What was the name of the Supreme Court case which upheld racial segregation under  the “separate but equal” clause?

o Democratic Dominance – white Democrats controlled the politics of the South  through a Poll tax and Whites Only Primaries

∙ Democratic Dominance in the South

o Election of 1904: Roosevelt vs Parker

▪ North and West voted completely Republican

▪ South voted completely Democratic

o Pappy “Pass the Biscuits” O’Daniel, a Fort Worth flour salesman and radio show  host won the Senate in 1941 due to his radio show following

Note taker: Sera POLS 2312

o Election of 1928: Al Smith was elected to by the Democratic Party Presidential  nominee even though he was from the North, opposed to prohibition, and Catholic  – the opposite of the entire demographic of the Democratic party

▪ Sam Rayburn backed Smith, saying voting for the Republican party was  basically treason and the South mostly maintained a Democratic vote

∙ Great Depression (1932)

o After Herbert Hoover was elected in 1928, the country’s economy collapsed and  sank into depression

o In the next election, almost the entire country voted for Democrat Franklin  Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal coalition- an unprecedented voting pattern ∙ The New Deal

o “Banking holiday”

o Civilian Conservation Corps (1933-1942)

o Tennessee Valley Authority (1933)

o Rural electrification

o Works Program (1935)

o Agricultural Adjustment Act

o Social Security Act (1935)

∙ South Texas Jefes

o “Bosses” that paid people’s poll tax and took them to the polls to vote for certain  candidates who paid for votes

o Lyndon B Johnson brought votes in order to prevent losing the Senate seat again 11. Who was one of the most famous jefes, the “Duke of Duval”?

∙ Texas in Transition

o Big growth in Hispanic population

o Growth of new industries all over

o Massive amounts of urbanization

o Discovery of oil brought most industry and urbanization

o Economy became very mixed

∙ The 1940s

o Tech boom in Texas due to WWII

o Lots of people moving to Texas due to opportunities in new industries o “Texas Regulars” advocated against the re-election of FDR

o Harry S Truman assumes office after FDR, pushes for more civil rights  acceptance from the Democratic party, which it does

o States’ Rights Democrats form as a response to the adoption of pro-civil rights  ideals by the Democratic party

12. States’ Right Democrats were also known as:

Note taker: Sera POLS 2312

∙ Election of 1948

o Truman (Dem) vs Dewey (Rep.) vs Thurmond (SRD)

o States’ Rights Democrats had won 5 Southern states, rest of the South was still  voting Democrat

o Truman won

∙ Election of 1952

o Eisenhower (Rep) vs Stevenson (Dem)

o Nearly the entire country voted for Eisenhower because he was a WWII hero o A break from regular voting pattern for the South

∙ Factors Working For a Two Party System in Texas

o Partisan identification was highly resilient when locked in

o Texas Democrats had a lot of power in Washington because Congress was  Democratic for a very long time

o It was difficult to get high quality candidates in the Republican party because  everyone wanted to run as a Democrat since that was the only way to win an  office

o Texans had a very negative image of Republicans

Note taker: Sera POLS 2312

Answers 

1. Stamp Act and Tea Act

2. Bill of Rights (1791) and Judiciary Act (1789)

3. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote the Federalist Papers 4. Federal law is the supreme law of the land over all the state and local laws 5. A principle of government based on the separation of power between national and  subnational governments

6. Dual federalism is akin to a layer cake. National and state governments work in their own  separate spheres.

7. Cooperative federalism is like a marble cake. National and state governments work  together in certain realms.

8. Kansas, dubbed “bloody Kansas” during the time, was a place of violent conflict between  pro-slave voters and anti-slave voters.

9. The Populist party favored agricultural cooperatives, a “sub-treasury” system, and a  looser money system

10. Plessy v Ferguson (1896) upheld racial segregation

11. Archie Parr was the “Duke of Duval,” a powerful Jefe in south Texas

12. States’ Rights Democrats were also known as the Dixiecrats

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