JOUR 201: Exam 1 Study Guide
JOUR 201: Exam 1 Study Guide JOUR 201
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by runnergal on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 201 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Brooke McKeever in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Journalism at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: The Nature of Public Relations o Public relations: a leadership and management function that helps manage an organization and structure any change. Very focused on strategically communicating to create and maintain relationships with shareholders and publics. o PR used to be an art and a social science; now it is a function of management with a two-way communication process between the organization and the publics. o Publics: groups that are important to PR professionals, such as the media, the government, interest groups, employees, the community, and consumers. o Stakeholder: a person who has an interest (a stake) in what the company does. o Both the public and the private sectors use PR, including the government, corporations, nonprofits, and PR firms. o PR is NOT advertising; advertising is paid for, while PR is earned media. o PR is NOT marketing; marketing focuses on building brands, while PR focuses on building relationships. o PR professionals do programming, writing, editing, creating and maintaining relationships, sharing information, conducting media production, hosting special events, giving speeches, counseling management, and conducting research. o PR professionals use communication to persuade and influence public opinion. o PR professionals use their relationships with publics to sense crises before they occur, and then take socially responsible action to prevent said crises. o Crises: events that attract negative national or global news coverage, like: 1. Acts of God 2. Mechanical problems 3. Human error 4. Management decisions and indecisions o Crises need quick responses and a designated spokesperson (crisis communication). o Information used to flow from company news outlets people; with the advent of the internet and social media, information is often first announced by citizen journalists and eyewitnesses, and then the company must react to that coverage. o Globalization requires many PR firms to be more cognizant of local cultures while also maintaining a specific message. Chapter 2 – The History of Public Relations o PR Eras/Models 1. Rhetoritician and Press Agent/Press Agentry and Publicity: attract attention to an issue. 2. Journalistic and Publicity/Public Information: in-resident journalists publish information for publics 3. Persuasive Campaigns/Two-Way Asymmetrical: organizations seek information from publics, which is used to further persuade publics. 4. Relationship Building/Two-Way Symmetrical: organizations use or conduct research on consumer preferences, environmental needs, etc. and then react to that research. 5. PR 2.0/Dialogic Communication: evolving PR. o Early Rhetoriticians and Press Agents Began in the Roman Empire with rhetoricians: people who spoke on behalf of others or themselves for a living. The Catholic Church established the Congregation de Propoganda (the congregation for propagating the faith) in the 1600s. Harvard had the first systemic fundraising campaign in 1641. King’s College had the first press release in 1758. (Now Columbia University) Sam Adams staged the Boston Tea Party during the Revolutionary War to attract positive PR to the cause. Alexander Hamilton, the bastard orphan, son of a whore, the Scotsman, wrote most of the Federalist Papers. Amos Kendall served as President Andrew Jackson’s unofficial press secretary since Jackson couldn’t express himself very well. The government used PR to promote Westernization in the 1800s P.T. Barnum used PR techniques to promote his circus. o Publicity and Public Information The Industrial Revolution made PR a necessity as population increased and transportation became faster. The phrase “public relations” was used for the first time when Yale addressed its graduating class in 1882. Ivy Ledbetter Lee issued the first press release when the railroad company he worked for suffered a devastating railroad accident. He said that the best way to form healthy relationships with the public was by giving them lots of true information. He also wrote the Declaration of Principles (1906), which explained how companies should be open with publics. Gillett Amendment (1913): government funds cannot be used for PR purposes unless they are specifically allocated for that expense. Henry Ford created the first employee magazine, expanding its PR function to its own workers. Westinghouse established the first corporate communications department. Non-profits started using publicists for fundraising drives in 1904-1908. o Persuasive Campaigns Era Edward Bernays used psychology to craft his PR style and is known as the founder of modern PR; he felt that people could be more easily persuaded when messages match their personal beliefs. He thought PR should be used to influence public perception of issues. He married Doris Fleischman, who essentially became the first woman in the PR industry. The Creel Committee on Public Relations (1917), created by President Woodrow Wilson, was used to persuade people to think certain ways about World War I. o Relationship Building and Two-Way Communication Arthur Page established the six principles of PR: 1. Tell the truth 2. Prove it with action 3. Listen to the customer 4. Manage for tomorrow 5. Conduct public relations as if the whole company depends on it 6. Remain calm, patient, and good-humored He was the Vice-President of AT&T, but only agreed to the job under the condition that PR would have a voice in company policy, since all products thrive on consumer feedback. PR is the way that consumer feedback is communicated to a company. The Office of War Information used PR to sell war bonds, recruit military, etc. o Professionalization of the Field Betsey Ann Plank was essentially the First Lady of PR; she first worked for the Edelman agency, started their first European office, became the Vice-President of Edelman, became the first female president of PRSA, and helped found PRSSA. Harold Burson began his own PR agency in 1946 and joined with Bill Marsteller in 1953 to create the Burson-Marsteller agency. This agency still has offices today. Moss Kendrix was an African-American that started his own PR firm in 1944, a point of progress for minorities in the PR field. PRSA was created in 1948. IABC was created in 1970. PRSA and IABC both offer voluntary accreditation programs. Globalization PR firms to globalize a company’s message while still considering other cultures, all in a shorter time period. Chapter 3 o Theory: prediction of how events and actions are related. A structure of ideas that explain or predict something. A set of principles on which certain decisions are made. Helps people understand and explain how communication and PR occur. o Systems Theory: system consists of an organization, its stakeholders, and its surrounding environment. Emphasizes interdependence. o Open systems: when organizations uses PR practitioners to find out how productive the organizations’ relationships are with their customers (seeks information from publics). This allows for the flow of two-way communication and the adaption of organizations to their respective environments. o Closed system: when organizations do not use two-way communication when interacting with their shareholders and environments. o Stakeholders: people in the environment that create problems and opportunities for organizations. o Situational theory of publics: PR practitioners are more likely to effectively communicate with stakeholders by grouping them into different publics: subgroups that actively communicate with the organization or passively receive information. A public’s involvement depends on their levels of problem recognition, levels of involvement, and constraint recognition. o The source of the message (the organization), the message (what the organization says), and the message receiver (the consumer/client/public/etc.) all contribute to the effectiveness of persuasion. o Social exchange theory: uses costs and benefits to predict consumer behavior; assumes that people think about the consequences of their actions before making a decision. Keep costs low and increase rewards in order to entice consumers. o Diffusion of Innovations theory: individuals adopt ideas and make decisions after going through this process: 1. Awareness: expose people to the idea 2. Interest: create interest in people 3. Evaluation: people must see the idea as useful 4. Trial: people try out the idea on other people 5. Adoption: final acceptance of the idea o Social learning theory: people learn certain behaviors by watching other people. If other people get a successful outcome from a certain behavior, then the people watching them will imitate that behavior, especially in a similar setting. People can observe other people in advertisements, PR, etc. o Uses and gratifications theory: people use media for many different reasons, such as entertainment, a diversion, a check on personal identity, in place of relationships, and a way to scan the environment for things important to them. Since people interact with media all of the time, organizations must send messages through multiple media to ensure their messages are received. o Framing theory: when receivers draw out themes from messages using their own preexisting beliefs and ideas. The media focuses attention on certain events and then places them within a field of meaning. o Agenda setting theory: the idea that the media focuses on certain ideas and positions, which publics then consider important. o Agenda building theory: PR professionals influence the media agenda through “information subsidies,” such as press releases, VNRs, etc. o PR Roles: Technician role: people in this role create the media that is distributed from the organization to the media. Manager role: help identify and solve potential PR problems. o Theory of reasoned action: attitudes and subjective norms influence people’s intentions, which then influence their behavior. o Theory of planned behavior: organizations influence attitudes towards certain behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived control of one’s own actions. These things influence people’s intentions, which then influences their behavior. o Case Study Methods SWOT: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. ITAL: issues, tactics, analysis, and lessons learned. Chapter 4 o Law in PR is important because PR professionals deal with information every day and therefore need to understand their legal rights and obligations in regards to this information. o First Amendment: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of press, right to peaceably assemble, and right to petition the government. o Courts want to protect free speech, but they also want to ensure that advertising is not misleading. o Defamation: public speech designed to injure a person’s reputation due to spite, hatred, contempt, or ridicule. o Libel: written defamation. o Slander: spoken defamation. o Since everything is open to interpretation, almost all PR materials could be interpreted as libelous. o Criminal libel: libel designed to start riots or interrupt peace. o Civil libel: only defamation. These are the type of suits that PR professionals typically deal with. o Invasion of privacy: when one’s rational expectation of privacy is broken. o Appropriation: use of a person’s name, likeness, or picture without the person’s permission. Ex. catfishing. o Publication of private information: true, private information that is published without the individual(s)’s consent. Ex. recent breach of Democratic Congressional Committee’s information. o Intrusion: videoing or bugging someone’s home, work, etc. Ex. Watergate. o False light: true information that is published but is exaggerated or put out of context. Ex. pretty much any media coverage in this election cycle! o Freedom of Information Act (FOIA, 1966): requires all governmental records to be accessible to the public. o The Federal Trade Commission (FTC): watches over all advertising and product press releases to ensure they are true. o Food and Drug Administration (FDA): watches over labeling and sale of food, cosmetics, and medications. These products must conform to public safety standards set by the FDA. o Federal Communications Commission (FCC): watches over broadcasting to ensure that those stations are operating in the public interest and giving equal media time to political parties. o Copyright law: 1) it is not taken out of its original context; 2) credit is given to the copyrighter; 3) use of the material does not affect the market of the material; 4) use is for scholarly, news, or research purposes; and 5) it does not exceed a specified percentage of the entire material, depending on the material. o Fair use: when 1) the material is intended for a commercial or nonprofit use; 2) the intent of the copyrighted work is debatable; 3) the portion of the material used is verified by the copyright holder; and 4) the effect of the use of the copyrighted work is considered. o Trademark law: protects businesses’ and organizations’ names and logos. o Contract: a legal document that, in this case, allows one party to use another party’s trademarked or copyrighted material(s). o Ethics regulate what is morally right and wrong in social settings. They represent a commitment to high standards, regardless of consequences. o Ethics are especially important in PR because PR professionals are essentially the voice of ethics from organizations to the outside world. o Absolutist ethics: the same rule applies every time, regardless of the situation. o Situational ethics: rules can be interpreted differently depending on the situation. o PRSA values: honesty, advocacy, expertise, independence, fairness, and loyalty. o The PRSA code of ethics was created in 1948 and established behavioral guidelines for PR professionals.
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