Psych: Midterm 1 Study Guide
Psych: Midterm 1 Study Guide 101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Motz on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Study Guide for Ch.13 Psychology Test Ch.1 Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Critical Thinking the process of thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating evidence. Wilhelm Wundt: came up with the idea of structuralism Structuralism looking inside at the structures of the mind, systematic and detailed self reports William James: came up with the idea of functionalism Functionalism the function or purpose of the mind, and the minds interactions with the outside world Contemporary Approaches PsychodynamicConflicts between biological drives and demands of society Sigmund Freud: came up with the idea of psychoanalysis the unconscious mind Behavioral How behavior is shaped by the environment Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning B.F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning Cognitive Mental processes involved in thinking and knowing Social Cognitive Behavior determined by thoughts, modify impact on environment and behavior. Albert Bandura: Reciprocal determinism interaction of behavior and environment Biological Approach: Chemical changes in the brain, thoughts and emotions have a physical basis in the brain, Neuroscience Sociocultural Approach: How social and cultural environment influence behavior and mental processes Humanistic Approach: Capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose your destiny Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Created Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Ch.2 Scientific Method 1. Observe some phenomenon 2. Formulate a Hypothesis 3. Test through Empirical Research 4. Draw Conclusions 5. Evaluate the Theory Types of Research Descriptive Research to describe a phenomenon done by observation (both naturalistic and laboratory), surveys and interviews, or case studies Correlational Research Identify the relationship between two variables, the strength and direction of the relationship Experimental Research To determine causation, one of the few that allows you to directly test why something happens Bias and Expectations Experimenter Bias scientist performing research influences results Participant Bias participants act certain way to influence results Placebo Effect Fake treatment that accommodates for participant’s expectations Double Blind Both participant and researcher don’t know who has the real treatment and who has the placebo (the control group) Research Ethics APA guidelines Experiment beneficial to society Participant has given informed consent and can withdraw at anytime Participant has confidentiality Any deception is not harmful to participant and is necessary for experiment An Institutional Research Board has reviewed the experiment Ch.3 Biological Foundations of Behavior Neuroscience study of body’s electrochemical communication circuitry Nervous System Electrochemical communication system (has two parts) Central Nervous System The brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System Carries messages to and from the central nervous system to the organs and muscles (has two parts) Somatic Nervous System muscles Autonomic Nervous System organs (has two parts) o Sympathetic Nervous System Arousal o Parasympathetic Nervous System Calming Nervous Systems Pathways Nerves Carry Information Afferent Nerves (sensory) receive incoming information from the body and carry it to the brain and spinal cord *INPUT Efferent Nerves (motor) send commands from the brain to the body *OUTPUT Cells Glial Cells provide support and nutrition Neurons process information Cell body contains the nucleus and preserves cells Dendrites receive messages from other neurons Axon carry messages away from the cell body and transmit them to the next neuron Myelin Sheath Speeds up neural transmission Synaptic Gap space between two neurons Neurotransmitters chemicals that cross the synapse Synaptic Transmission An electrical impulse is converted into a chemical signal, the axon then releases a neurotransmitter into the gap, then the dendrite receptor site detects the neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters Acetylcholinemuscle actions, learning and memory, low levels associated with Alzheimer’s GABA low levels associated with anxiety Norepinephrine regulates sleep states in conjunction with Ach, low levels linked with depression, and high levels stress and mania Dopamine voluntary movements, reward anticipation, low levels Parkinson’s, high levels Schizophrenia Serotonin regulation of sleep, mood, attention. and learning, low levels linked to depression Endorphins mediate feelings of pleasure and pain Oxytocin related to attachment and emotional bonding Components of the Brain Hindbrain Medulla controls breathing, regulates reflexes Pons sleep and arousal Cerebellum motor coordination Midbrain Reticular Formation connects the hindbrain to the forebrain Stereotyped Behavior Patterns Ex: Walking Forebrain Limbic System memory and emotion Amygdala emotional awareness and expression Hippocampus formation and recall of memories Way to remember: You wouldn’t forget if you saw a hippo on campus Thalamus relay station for sensory information Basal Ganglia coordination and voluntary movements Hypothalamus eating, drinking, and sexual behaviors, regulates body’s internal state, and emotion, stress, and reward Cerebral Cortex Mental functions like thinking and planning Four Lobes: 1. Occipital vision 2. Temporal hearing and language processing, memory 3. Frontal intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles 4. Parietal spatial location, attention, motor control
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