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Psych: Midterm 1 Study Guide

by: Jessica Motz

Psych: Midterm 1 Study Guide 101

Marketplace > Towson University > 101 > Psych Midterm 1 Study Guide
Jessica Motz

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About this Document

This study guide is an overview of the material covered in Chapters 1-3 that will be on our test Tuesday.
Introductory Psychology
Beth A. Gallihue
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Motz on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Study Guide for Ch.1­3 Psychology Test Ch.1  Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.  Critical Thinking­ the process of thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating  evidence.  Wilhelm Wundt: came up with the idea of structuralism  Structuralism­ looking inside at the structures of the mind, systematic and detailed self­ reports  William James: came up with the idea of functionalism  Functionalism­ the function or purpose of the mind, and the minds interactions with the  outside world Contemporary Approaches  Psychodynamic­Conflicts between biological drives and demands of society  Sigmund Freud: came up with the idea of psychoanalysis­ the unconscious  mind  Behavioral­ How behavior is shaped by the environment  Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning  B.F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning  Cognitive­ Mental processes involved in thinking and knowing  Social Cognitive­ Behavior determined by thoughts, modify impact on environment  and behavior.   Albert Bandura: Reciprocal determinism­ interaction of behavior and  environment  Biological Approach: Chemical changes in the brain, thoughts and emotions have a  physical basis in the brain, Neuroscience  Sociocultural Approach: How social and cultural environment influence behavior and mental processes  Humanistic Approach: Capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose your destiny  Carl Rogers  Abraham Maslow­ Created Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Ch.2  Scientific Method  1. Observe some phenomenon  2. Formulate a Hypothesis  3. Test through Empirical Research 4. Draw Conclusions 5. Evaluate the Theory Types of Research Descriptive Research­ to describe a phenomenon done by observation (both naturalistic and  laboratory), surveys and interviews, or case studies  Correlational Research­ Identify the relationship between two variables, the strength and  direction of the relationship Experimental Research­ To determine causation, one of the few that allows you to directly test  why something happens  Bias and Expectations  Experimenter Bias­ scientist performing research influences results  Participant Bias­ participants act certain way to influence results Placebo Effect­ Fake treatment that accommodates for participant’s expectations Double Blind­ Both participant and researcher don’t know who has the real treatment and who  has the placebo (the control group) Research Ethics  APA guidelines   Experiment beneficial to society  Participant has given informed consent and can withdraw at anytime  Participant has confidentiality   Any deception is not harmful to participant and is necessary for experiment  An Institutional Research Board has reviewed the experiment  Ch.3 Biological Foundations of Behavior Neuroscience­ study of body’s electrochemical communication circuitry Nervous System­ Electrochemical communication system (has two parts)  Central Nervous System­ The brain and spinal cord  Peripheral Nervous System­ Carries messages to and from the central nervous system to  the organs and muscles (has two parts)  Somatic Nervous System­ muscles  Autonomic Nervous System­ organs (has two parts) o Sympathetic Nervous System­ Arousal o Parasympathetic Nervous System­ Calming Nervous Systems Pathways­ Nerves Carry Information  Afferent Nerves­ (sensory) receive incoming information from the body and carry it to  the brain and spinal cord *INPUT  Efferent Nerves­ (motor) send commands from the brain to the body *OUTPUT Cells  Glial Cells­ provide support and nutrition  Neurons­ process information Cell body­ contains the nucleus and preserves cells  Dendrites­ receive messages from other neurons Axon­ carry messages away from the cell body and transmit them to the next neuron Myelin Sheath­ Speeds up neural transmission Synaptic Gap­ space between two neurons  Neurotransmitters­ chemicals that cross the synapse Synaptic Transmission An electrical impulse is converted into a chemical signal, the axon then releases a  neurotransmitter into the gap, then the dendrite receptor site detects the neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine­muscle actions, learning and memory, low levels associated with Alzheimer’s  GABA­ low levels associated with anxiety Norepinephrine­ regulates sleep states in conjunction with Ach, low levels linked with  depression, and high levels stress and mania  Dopamine­ voluntary movements, reward anticipation, low levels Parkinson’s, high levels  Schizophrenia Serotonin­ regulation of sleep, mood, attention. and learning, low levels linked to depression Endorphins­ mediate feelings of pleasure and pain Oxytocin­ related to attachment and emotional bonding Components of the Brain Hindbrain Medulla­ controls breathing, regulates reflexes Pons­ sleep and arousal Cerebellum­ motor coordination Midbrain Reticular Formation­ connects the hindbrain to the forebrain Stereotyped Behavior Patterns Ex: Walking Forebrain Limbic System­ memory and emotion  Amygdala­ emotional awareness and expression  Hippocampus­ formation and recall of memories Way to remember: You wouldn’t forget  if you saw a hippo on campus Thalamus­ relay station for sensory information Basal Ganglia­ coordination and voluntary movements  Hypothalamus­ eating, drinking, and sexual behaviors, regulates body’s internal state, and  emotion, stress, and reward Cerebral Cortex ­Mental functions like thinking and planning Four Lobes: 1. Occipital­ vision  2. Temporal­ hearing and language processing, memory 3. Frontal­ intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles 4. Parietal­ spatial location, attention, motor control   


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