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OLEMISS / Religion / REL 103 / When was the quran canonized?

When was the quran canonized?

When was the quran canonized?

Description

Local folklore about beings called jinn


When was the quran canonized?



Poetry: something to entertain or learn from. Like TV and movies today. Great poets often said to have been influenced by jinn

Prophet Muhammed (d. 632 CE)

his tribe was in charge of the Kabba, and he was a vulnerable orphan. Father died before he was born and his mother died soon after birth

in a large and powerful tribe but he was vulnerable as an orphan

worked for his uncle in trade

well known for his honesty and strong character. This made people want to buy from him and his uncle

in his 30’s and 40’s he went on a retreat to meditate, and in the distance he sees a glimmering figure. He approached the figure and it turned out to be the angel Gabriel. Gabriel says to him a word in Hebrew that could either be interpreted as “recite” or “read. According to tradition he didn’t know how to read, Muhammed says this and says he is the wrong 


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person. 

Gabriel then pushes an embroidered cloth to Muhammed, Muhammed says for the second time that he cannot read and he is the wrong person. Gabriel does this again and Muhammed is overwhelmed by the voice of God and is able to read and recite. 

the first recitation 

16 September 2016

Quranic revelation and canonization

Muhammed targeted and followers persecuted If you want to learn more check out What is not an important interest of the positive psychology movement?

many thought he was just another poet inspired by the jinns

Quraysh (merchant tribe who controlled Mecca)/Banu Hashim (family of the prophet Muhammed)

Quraysh didn’t like the idea of there only being one god because it


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was bad for business. They thought about killing him but in a tribal

system it’s an eye-for-an-eye system, so one of their own family

would probably be killed later. Instead, the Quraysh targeted his

followers.

the followers tried to answer back and explaining that Muhammed We also discuss several other topics like How do you read an element symbol?

was not simply inspired by jinn

wahy vs jinn

wahy means direct inspiration from god and not simply from other

poets

“Secretary” Zayn and later Caliph ‘Uthman (d. 656 ce)

Muhammed would write down the inspirational messages from god on the ‘heart’, so basically he’d remember them. His secretary would write “cheat sheets” for Muhammed to help him remember the messages he had received.

puts together all of the cheat sheets, get scribes to write down one

version as fully voweled as possible so that there is no disagreement

about what the the message is (vowels and accents change meaning of word, have to rely on context)

about 100 years after this is when the official Quran was established

So, prophet would receive revelations, followers would write them down, then put them all together. Only organized by what the prophet would speak. No continuous narrative

over 114 suras which are basically chapters. Arranged longest to

shortest.

al-Fatiha (means opening) — the first chapter of the Quran. Opens a bit like the Lord’s prayer, it’s a blessing. Only 7 verses. If you want to learn more check out What is a self-concept?

Meccan and Medinan sura

Meccan verses were revealed early on the prophet’s career

more about god’s nature. One god. You’ll be judged when

you die. etc.

later, they went to Medina and he continued to make revelations

lots of theology still but also rituals, rules, inheritance rules,

etc.

What’s the context?

Something old: god’s “continuous revelations"

prophesies emphasize revelations to previous prophets Adam, Noah,

Abraham, Moses, Jesus, etc. Don't forget about the age old question of Why do we need to know chemistry to study biology?

answers charges of a bid’a (“new”, a fad)

Muhammed is doing nothing new, this is not something that is a fad. It’s something that has been happening or a long time, through these other prophets ^ as well. Muhammed is just continuing.

corrects all the “errors” — things such as the tradition that Noah, after the flood, got drunk and exposed himself to his son. Islam says “no that didn’t happen, he’s a prophet he wouldn’t do that"

Quran emphasizes that Muhammed one in a long line of prophets

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