anthropology exam guide
anthropology exam guide ANTH 1000
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Bilek on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher D Berk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Exam 1 Review Sheet: Anthropology Lecture #1: “ What is anthropology” Kottak ch 1 CC 31 “Body rituals among the Nacierma” 1. Anthropology: the study of human species and its immediate ancestors 2. Holism: the study of the whole of the human condition: past, present and the future, biology, society, language, and culture 3. Enculturation: the culture we are taught at birth, these instructions are direct and indirect 4. 4 fields of anthropology a. cultural b. archaeology c. biological/ physical d. linguistic 5. applied anthropology: the application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory and methods to identify, assess and solve contemporary social problems lecture 2: “ Ethnographic Fieldwork Kottak ch 3 CC 3 and 4 “Fieldwork on prostitution” and “Nice girls don’t talk to Rastas”. 1. Quantatative vs Qualtatative Quantative: in depth data from small samples Qualitative: numbers, stats from larger samples 2. ethnography vs ethnology ethnography: based on fieldwork and provides an account of a particular community, society and culture. This is first hand research ethnology: based on cross cultural comparison and examines, compares, analyzes and interprets the results of ethnography. This is second hand research – it takes work done by other people and studies that 3. participant observation: when the anthropologist takes part in the community where they’re studying in 4. bronislaw Malinowski father of contemporary anthropology argonguts of the western patcific trobiana islands 1914 (WW1) polish, got stranded years on islands Malinowski’s approach a. cut yourself off from your own kind of people b. immerse yourself in the social world you’re studying c. find patterns, structures, and anatomy of social life d. fill in details of everyday life, the “imponderbilia” through close observation e. collect a “corpus insctiptionum” a set of telling examples f. do all of this in order to “grasp the natives point of view” his relation to life, his world, his vision 5. rapport: good, friendly, working relationships with the people you are working around- trust, they trust you 6. emic vs etic emic: local experimental view (within the culture) etic: outsiders point of view, more scientific view 7. genealogical method: family trees, who do they live with? How is their marriage arranged? 8. Key cultural consultants: informant, helping you to get involved in the larger community 9. Life history: extended knowledge on someone’s life history 10. Forensic anthropology: the application of the science of anthropology, can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated 11. Stratigraphy: a branch of geology that studies rock layers and layering 12. Longitudinal research: long term studies of an area based on repeadly visiting there, then returning on a regular basis to look at change over time 13. Problem- oriented research: trying to respond to a problem in the area ex: diet 14. Multi- sided ethnography: conducting research in lots of places on the same study 15. Team research: working as part of a team, within different fields of study 16. Ethics: the defense and recommending of right from wrong concepts 17. Questionnaire: a set of questions with a choice of answers, devised for the purposes of a survey or statistical study 18. Survey research: list of questions aimed at extracting specific data from a specific group of people 19. Informed consent: agreement to take part in research after being told what’s happening 20. Naive realism: the assumption that everyone does that everyone does the same thing as you Lecture #3 “ What is culture?” Kottak ch 2 Ch 2 and 5 “Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” and “Shakespeare in the bush” 1. Culture: culture, taken in its wide ethnographical sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by men as a member of society 2. Distinctive features of culture: a. It is learning b. It is shared c. It shapes and channels nature d. It is symbolic e. It is all encompassing f. It is integrated g. It is adaptive and maladaptive h. It is changing i. It is inclusive and exclusive 3. Ethnocentrism: similar to naïve realism, tendency to view one’s culture as superior and to apply one’s own cultural views in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raising cultures 4. Cultural relativism: the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standard of another culture, it should be understood relative to its own system of meaning Analytical tool to help think of others 5. Diffusion: borrowing of cultures between cultures 6. Acculturation: ongoing exchange of culture- 1 hand contact 7. Independent invention: humans innovate face with problems- solved them in similar ways 8. Globalization: the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture 9. International culture: something that is popular around the world National culture: something that is big in your own nation ex: football is big in the US 10. Subcultures: race/ ethnicity cliques 11. Symbol: a thing that represents something else 12. Cultural dimenstions a. Universality: year round sexuality, share food, incest b. Generality: cross cousin marriage, marriage, transregional languages c. Particularly: polygamy, many husbands/ wives Lecure #4 “languages and communications” Kottak ch 10 CC 7 “conversation style: talking on the job” 1. Primate call system: other primates rely on call systems, where a particular sound is associated with a particular circumstance they have a fixed and immediate relationship with what they signify 2. Non-human primate language: the manupilation of language (ASC) American sign language (ex: kanzi, koko, washoe, lucy) : animals that know sign language 3. Distinctive features of language a. Cultural transmission: a way of people or animals within a society or culture tend to learn and pass information b. Productivity: the state or quality of producing something c. Displacement: moving something from its place or position d. Conventionality: based on or in accordance with what is generally done or believed 4. Lexicon: the vocabulary of a person, language or branch of knowledge 5. FOXP2 gene: protein in humans that is required for proper development of speech and language, mutation that allows us to speak 6. Nonverbal communication: human symbol systems are complex Vocalizations and ritual gestures 7. Semantics: a languages meaning system 8. Syntax: the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences 9. Focal vocabulary: specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important 10. Phoneme: sounds contrast that make a difference, discernable sounds and the differences between sounds are what differentiate meanings. 11. Minimal pairs: pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element Ex: pit/bit, cat/bat, bit/beat 12. Morphemes: words and their meaningful parts 13. Phonology: the study of speech sounds, it considers what sounds are present and meaningful in a given language 14. Morphology: studies how sounds combine to form words 15. Nom Chomsky and the universal grammar: argues that the ability to learn language is innate, distinctly human and distinct from all other aspects of human cognition 16. Surface structure: an abstract representation of an utterance in the mind of the speaker Deep structure: having undergone transformation pronounced afterthey pass through phonetic form 17. Sapir- whorf hypothesis: claims that language determines thought and that linguistic cateogries limit and determine cognitive categories 18. Style shifts: a situation in which languages are used under diferent conditions within a community often by the same speaker 19. Historical linguistics: relationhsips between languages and groups over space and time 20. Social linguistics: investigate the relationship between social and linguistic varation- focuses on features that vary systematically with sounds, and postitions 21. Diglossia: a situation in which 2 languages are used under different conditions within a community 22. Symbolic capital: reasources available to an individual on the basis of honor, prestige or recognition and serves as the value that holds within a culture 23. BEV: black English vernacular: stigmatized, viewed as negative because African americans are viewed as negative 24. Stigma: extreme disapproval with a person or a group on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived and serve to distinguish them from other members of a society 25. American Tongues: social linguistic documentary examining American English dialects and accents and perceptions Lecture 5 “ethnicity and race” Kottak Ch 16 Ch 22 “mixed blood” 1. Human biological diversity: the varability among living organisms from all sources 2. Ethnic group: a group of people that share the same beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms and common language, religion, history, geography, kinship and or race 3. Ethnicity: based on similarities and differences in a society or nation 4. Race: an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis 5. Racism: a belief that all members of each race possess characteristics specific to that race, especially to distinguish it as inferior or superior to their race 6. Prejudice: dislike, hostility or unjust behavior towards someone else 7. Sterotype: believed image of a person or thing 8. Discrimination: unjust treatment of different categories of people 9. Thomas Theorm a. Thomas’s version: “If men define situations as real, they are not in their consequence” b. Our version: “if people define a thing to be real, it is real in its consequences: 10. Race and ethnicity as folk models: they help us make sense of the diversity we see in this classroom 11. Race and ethnicity as social construction: they are not a set of natural distinctions that appear to us out of the “real world” they are things we create and impose on the real world 12. Genocide: the mass killing of a certain type of people (holocaust, bosnia Rawanda 13. Ethnocide: the killing of people based off their ethnicity (native americans) 14. Cultural colonialism: 2 related practices : the extension of colonial powers through cultural activities 15. Assimilation vs acculturation a. Assimilation: take in information, ideas and understand fully, absorb and integrate people, ideas and culture into a wider society and culture b. Acculturation: assimilate to different culture, typically the dominant one- those who have accultured to the US 16. Minority vs majority a. Minority: subordinate groups in a political hierarchy with inferior power and less access to resources than majority groups b. Majority: dominant or controlling groups in social political hierarchy c. Stratified society: categories of people based off their occupation income, wealth, and social status 17. Hypodescent: automatic assignment of children in a mixed union or mating between members of different socio economic groups to the subordinate group. 18. Burakamin in Japan: physically and genetically indistinguishable from other japanese, but seen as "not us." they are residentially segregated, face discrimination. 19. Race in Brazil 20. Benedict Anderson: the nation state is imagined, limited, sovereign, a community 21. Nation state as an imagined country: we never see most members of our nation. we are like each other because we are a nation; "anonymous community" of citizens 22. Characteristics of a nation state: a. Imagined b. Limited c. Soverign 28. Plural society: a society combining ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization, and the economic interdependence of those groups. 29. Multiculturalism: view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable. 30. Metaphors for assimilation and multiculturalism a. Tossed salad: America accepts the differences of families and differences of culture, accepts people’s differences and their rights to be different. a. Melting pot: heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous the different elements melting together in a harmonious whole with a common culture. EX: immigrants to the US. Works because people want to identify with their ethnic identity because they’re proud of it. 31. Race: The power of an allusion: Newsreel that investigated race in society, science and history Lecure #6 “evolution and genetics Kottak ch 4 1. Creationism: part of a Biblical worldview, it assumes that God created the universe and all living things. The differences and similarities we see among living things are parts of God’s will 2. catastrophism: developed as an alternative attempt to make sense of the fossil record 3. Evolutionism or transformations assumes that existing animal species evolved gradually out of common ancestors. 4. Uniformitarianism: is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe. 1. Lamarckianism vs Darwinism a. Lamarckianism: the idea that an organism can pas on characteristics that it has acquired during its lifetime to its offspring b. Darwinism: mutations make an organism better adapted to its environment will be encouraged and developed by natural selection c. Lamarck’s view: the earliest ancestor possessed a short trunk d. Throughout continued stretching of the trunk to obtain food, it grew longer, ensuring generations possessed longer trunks **VS** e. Darwin’s view: in a population with short trunked elephants, those individuals with slightly longer trunks obtain more food, therefore leave more off spring f. Many generations later, natural selection has changed the species to an elephant that possesses a long trunk 2. Mendelian genetics: Gregor Mendel (18221884) a. Father of genetics b. Austrian monk who did experiments with pea plants in the 1850s to find out that heredity is determined by discrete individual units, now called genes c. Mendel looked at the inheritance of contrasting traits in pea plants (tall and short ; smooth and wrinkled, green and yellow) d. Population genetics: studies gene pools, or breeding populations e. Evolution, in this context is defined as change in allele frequency of gene within a “gene pool” 5. Gene: A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. 6. Allele: biochemically different forms of a given gene 7. Recessive: within an allele, Bb, the b would be recessive to the dominant B 3. Dominant: A dominant trait can be based on different; YY and Yg, and 2 yellow peas can produce green ones depending on how traits combine. 4. Heterozygous: possessing 2 different alleles of the same gene EX: Tt, tT 5. Homozygous: possessing 2 identical alleles of the same gene (TT,tt) 8. Genotype: the genetic constitution of an individual organism. 9. Phenotype: the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. 10. Independent assortment: and recombination of genetic traits provides one of the main ways by which variety is produced in any population 11. Evolution, in this context is defined as change in allele frequency of gene within a “gene pool” 12. Natural selection: directional, sexual, stabilizing/ balanced polymorphism 13. Mutation: occur spontaneously 14. Random genetic drift: change regular change in allele frequency that occurs by chance ex: natural disaster 15. Gene flow: exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species 16. sexual selection: a gene given only to a boy or only to a girl 17. melanin: the idea that the more melanin in your body the longer you can stay in the sun, and it was designed to be that you live in a sunny place 18. cline: One of the crucial innovations in reconceptualizing genotypic and phenotypic variation was anthropologist C. Loring Brace's observation that such variations, insofar as they are affected by natural selection, migration, or genetic drift, are distributed along geographic gradations; these gradations are called "clines". 19. Skin color and environment: the idea that you live in whatever fits your skin color the best (amount of melanin), the paler people live in less sunny places, the more tan people live in the sunnier places 20. Rickets: Rickets is a disease caused by lack of vitamin D in the human body. This disease is mainly responsible for skeletal deformities and hunchbacks among children, as well as crooked legs. 21. Phenotypical adaption: the idea that your phenotype adapts to your environment 22. Thomson’s nose rule: Nose length increases in colder and drier climates 23. Bergmanns rule: the smaller 2 bodies similar in shape sheds heat more efficiently 24. Allen’s rule: relative size of protruding body parts increases with average temperature 25. If you have sickle cell anemia, you are immune to malaria 26. Blood types and microbes: Certain blood types can cause certain microbes, and can protect you from others 27. Smallpox and type A blood: mimics type A blood, so if you have type A blood and get smallpox, your body wont recognize it as foreign and wont attack it. 28. Type O blood and bubonic plague: type O blood makes you more susceptible to the bubonic plague 29. Type O blood and syphilis: Type O blood makes you immune to syphilis 30. Race: the power of an illusion: Movie we watched in class on Friday.
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