Study Guide Test One
Study Guide Test One ENVS 1126
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Date Created: 09/18/16
S TUDY G UIDE : ENVS 1126 T EST 1 Chapter 1: Science and the Environment The Scientific Method o What we perceive represents and objective in reality (hypothesis) Hypothesis: a tentative guess concerning the cause of an observed phenomenon that is then tested by means of experiments to determine whether it is true and it is logical or empirical consequences o Objective reality functions according to basic principles and natural laws (observe/test) o Every result has a cause; every even will cause other events (data) o Through our powers o observation, manipulation, and reason we can discover and understand the basic principles and natural laws (results/evidence) Easter Island o EI completely deforested by 14001600 o Deforestation occurred because Building boats Clear land Building materials Rope Cremate dead Transport moai o Extinction Native land birds 25 nesting seabirds o 24 no longer breed o EI Losses Raw materials Wildcaught foods Decreased crop yields Soil erosion o Desiccation o Nutrient leaching Starvation Population crash Cannibalism Deforestation of EI Problem o Cold and dry 50in of rain per year 1 o Soil fertility Volcanic ash and dust fallow o High islands verse low islands Why do human behave irresponsible? o Failure to anticipate a problem o Failure to perceive a problem o Failure to try to solve the problem o Try to solve but fail Population o Interactions do not always lead to stable populations o Human Development Index Since 1970 Life Expectancy o 59 >70 o USA spends more on health care per capita than any other country but has the lowest life expectancy because of children in poverty and people in prison School Enrollment o 55%>70% Per Capita GDP o $5,000>$10,000 All but 3 of 135 countries had a higher HDI in 2010 than in 1970 Sustainable Development o Sustainable development a dorm of development or progress that “meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs” o Spontaneous generation theories: complex living organisms generated from decaying organic matter Sound Science o All truth passes through 3 stages 1. Ridicule 2. Opposition 3. Acceptance Spontaneous Generation Theories o Aristotle: Aphids arise from dew, flies from matter, mice from dirty hay, crocodiles from rotting logs o Alexander Ross “to question this is to question reason, sense, and experience. If he doubts of this let him go to Egypt and there he will find the fields swarming with mice, begot of the mud of Nylus, to the great calamity” 2 o 17 Century Microbes are evidence in support of SG because they are incapable of sexual reproduction Chapter 2: Economics, Politics, and Public Policy China o Toxic air china has 16 of the most polluted cities in the world o Dust storms and sulfur dioxide from coalburning power plants and stoves o Toxic water china is the cancer capital of the world: high esophageal and stomach cancer rate o The yellow river is being sucked dry by irrigation and is seriously polluted o Economic growth can lift many people out of poverty but when this growth is at a cost of natural resources and people's health o Per capita supply of fresh water in china is 25% of the world average Northern china of fresh water is 20% the supply of southern china Between 1972 and 1997 the yellow river was almost dry Economics and Environment o Two Models Centrally planned economy—the rulers decide Cuba North Korea Capitalism—the market decides Both the US and China are mixed models o International Trade GAAT (general agreement on tariffs and trade) 19471993 WTO (world trade organization) 1993—present Problems Imports of shrimp caught TEDs Products produced using child labor o Sustainable economics 3 kinds of capital: Produced Natural o Ecosystem capital Renewable Non renewable Intangible o Human capital o Social capital o Knowledge assets Compare Land 3 Labor Capital Most national wealth is intangible Intergenerational Equity o Sustainable development: meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs Discount problem present value A dollar is worth more today than it will be worth 5 years from now o The selfinterest of present individuals and generations is at odds with the longer term sustainable interests of a community or a society Need for Environmental Public Policy o Market vs, Regulatory Capandtrade for SO2 Payment for ecosystem services Payasyouthrow o Subside access to public resources o Policy Life Cycle Recognition formulation implementation control DDT, acid rain, CFCs, P in laundry detergents o Montreal Protocol –1987 o Kyoto Protocol—1997 Costs of pollution control are a powerful incentive to make substitutions, o recycle, or redesign industrial processes Chapter 3: Basic Needs of Living Basic needs of living o Hierarchy Biome Landscape Ecosystems and Ecotones Biota or Biotic Communities Populations Species o EcologyThe study of all processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms and the interactions between living things and their environment Species>genus>family>etc. o Species l members that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Does not work for organisms that do not mate Population Individuals of a species living in a given area o o Biota or Biotic community All living organisms in a natural area Composition of community depends on abiotic factors 4 o Ecosystem Interactive complex of biotic communities and the abiotic environment affecting them within a particular area Ecotone —Transitional region between ecosystems o Landscape Cluster of interacting ecosystems o Biome— large area of Earth’s surface with the same climate and similar vegetation’s Five Major Biomes 1. Desert ittle precipitation ot enough to support vegetation ay be hot or cold 2. Forest oreal o Coniferous tree o Cold temperatures o N. Hemisphere o Variable precipitation ainforest o Warm and wet o Annual precip. 125660 cm o Soils poor due to leaching nutrients o 50% of all living plants and animal species o Important source of drugs to treat illnesses Cancers and malaria o Deciduous Forest Trees lose leaves in winter Temperate latitudes Eastern N. America, Europe, Far East Annual precip. 100150cm 3. Grasslands arge olling terrains of o Grasses o Flowers o Herbs avanna o Rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees 4. Aquatic resh Water alt Water arshlands 5. Tundra 5 Low temperature Low precipitation Chaparral o Hot and dry Law of Limiting factors o Limiting factora factor that limits growth, reproduction, or survival o Law of limiting factors Any factor that is outside optimal range will cause stress and become a limiting factor o Habitat—the biological community and physical environment where a species is adapted to live o Niche—the sum of all conditions and resources under which a species can live Law of Thermodynamics o Apply to all transformations of energy expect for nuclear reactions o First Law of thermodynamics Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another Two major categories of energy 1. Kinetic—motion 2. Potential—stored energy Forms of energy: Electromagnetic radiation Chemical Electrical o Second Law of thermodynamics In any energy transformation, some of the energy is converted to heat Any energy transformation is accompanied by an increase in the degree of disorder (entrophy) of the system Source of energy for most organisms Food=organic matter o Proteins, carbs, fats, nucleic acids Different Concerns about N and P o P (phosphorous) forms precipitates with iron, calcium, and aluminum o N (nitrogen) does not form precipitates N is release from decomposing matter 78% of atmosphere is N 2 Nitrogen is recovered via nitrogen fixation Chapter 4: Populations and Communities Growth o Characteristics of exponential growth 6 Double time is constant Population versus time is Jshaped Populations o Exponential growth Rate of change= rN o Logistic growth N Rate of change= rN(1 ) K Maximum rate of growth occurs at half the carrying capacity o R and K selected species rselected species tend to always be in the exponential growth phase Jcurve= exponential growth Scurve= logistic growth Environmental resistance combination of biotic and abiotic factors that limit the increase of a population Rstrategist have high biotic potential but poor recruitment most of the time Kstrategists have low biotic potential but good recruitment Density dependent limiting factors are needed to regulate a population Helps maintain equilibrium Density independent factors can be very important but are not associated with regulation Critical numberpopulation size below which recovery is unlikely o Keystone species—a species whose role is essential for the survival of many other species in an ecosystem Competition o Competition —to complete with one another over resources o Intraspecific competition Territoriality o Competitive exclusion Natural selectionsurvival of the fittest Diversity of species explained by fact that environments are heterogeneous in space and time o Resource partitioningdivision of a resource and specialization in different parts of it o Character displacement—a physical change that lessens competition when two species cooccur Consequences of Change (biotic or abiotic) Types of Change o Adaptations Migrations 7 Extinction o Acclimation versus adaptation Acclimation Getting along Adaptation Evolution—natural selection Some species are much better able to adjust to changing abiotic conditions than others Implication of adaption for human management Invasive species pest o Continental Drift affecting climate Movement to different latitudes Alteration of ocean currents Creation of mountain ranges Chapter 5: Energy, Patterns, and Disturbance Production of Organic Matter from Inorganic Compounds o Autotrophs produce organic matter o Heterotrophs consumer organic matter o Consumer organic matter goes to: Biomass Excretion Respiration o Primary production—production of organic matter from inorganic compounds using either sunlight or an oxidationreduction reaction as an energy source. Autotrophic production o Secondary production—production of one kind of organic matter from some other kind of organic matter. Heterotrophic production o Ecological efficiencythe efficiency with which energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next Biomagnification o The ecological efficiency in a food chain is 15%. A pollutant is transferred from one trophic level to the next with an efficiency of 60% o The magnification factor between trophic levels is a factor of 4 o Bioaccumulation —the accumulation of higher and higher concentrations of potentially toxic chemicals in organisms o Biomagnification—bioaccumulation occurring through several levels of a food chain Biomes o Classified on the basis of climate and vegetation o Terrestrial Abiotic factors> temperature and rainfall o Aquatic 8 Abiotic factors> salinity, light, temperature, O2, permanence of water o Recovery from disturbance: primary and secondary succession Plants must start the process. They are the only autotrophic organisms in most communities Primary succession—area initially lacks plants and soil First appear on bare rocks are lichens and algae o Acids begin to extract nutrients from rocks and breaking cracks to allow mosses to take hold Larger cracks have enough soil to support grasses and small shrubs Secondary succession—starts with preexisting soil Triggering’s mechanisms: forest fire, hurricane, agriculture, forestry o Species adapted to periodic fires Pines Grasses Redwoods o Species not well adapted to periodic fire Broadleaved trees o Resilience—ability of ecosystems to return to normal functioning after a disturbance o The value of ecosystems services should be considered when considering land use changes Extra Information o Easter Island History Discovered around 900AD by Polynesians EI is fragile, little resilience, and initially forested o 21 other species of trees Records indicate Chiefs and priests replaced by military leaders Statues Last stature erected—1620 Toppling – 1680 Last erect statue – 1838 None standing – 1868 o Biodiversity Medicines and Pharmaceuticals Rosy periwinkle o Source of vincristine and vinblastine1960s o Used to treat childhood leukemia and Hodgkin's disease 9 o Before: Leukemia almost always fatal n children o Now: 99% Chance of remission Taxol o Isolated bark of pacific yew tree in 1967 o Used to treat lung, ovarian, and breast cancer, head and neck cancer, and advanced forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. Most prescribed antitumor drug o Problem: six tree required to treat one patient for a tear o Solution: now extracted from leaves of English yew o Sustainable Development The fastest source of electricity is wind energy globally o Stewardship A steward is one to whom a trust is given Involves caring for something on behalf of someone else Action and programs that manage natural resources and human well being for the common good Professor Wangari Maathair founded the Green Belt Movement (GBM) in 1977 and has planted over 51 million trees in Kenya GBM works with grassroots, national and international levels to promote environmental conservation o Greenland The rise of 36’C over Greenland will cause the ice to melt It is unclear how long it will take to melt all the ice but the estimation is between 5001000 years If all the ice on Greenland melts, sea levels will rise 7 meters o US success in Policies Average blood levels of lead for children decline 90% by removing lead from gasoline More than 400,000 underground leaking gasoline storage tanks have been cleaned up Recovery of solid waste by recycling has increase 35% Only 11 states have passed bottle laws o Environmental Factors Conditions: Temperature Salinity Rainfall/water Sunlight Oxygen Resources Nutrients Water 10 Sunlight Oxygen Food o Mangroves in LA Historically distribution constrained by “hard” freezes Black and red mangroves species survive 100% exposure to 5C for up to 48 hours At 0C black mangroves show damage (24048 hours after). Red mangroves completely dead after 48 hours 5C completely kills both species after 48 hours o Need for Environmental Public Policy Costs of environmental regulations in US National Defenses—20% Medicare, Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program21% Social Security 22% Compliance with Environmental Regulations 5% Law of Thermodynamics o Forms of energy: Electromagnetic radiation o Ultraviolet o Visible o IR Chemical o Think meals and chemical reactions Electrical o Currents Transformations Fuel to electricity Turning on light Photosynthesis Working out Most organic matter is synthesize by plants using sunlight an as energy source Synthesis of sugar 6CO 2+ 12H 2 à C H6 12 6 + 6O 2+ 6H 2 o N and P cycles P 11 N o Populations The dynamics of species are intermediate between rs and ks o Population of Cheetahs All but Jubatus species of cheetahs died out about 10,000 years ago Low genetic diversity has made reproduction and recruitment of cheetahs difficult Only 5% survive to adulthood o Consequences of change Brown bears > polar bears about 150,000 years ago (adaptation) California condor Population as of December 2015 = 435 left Ingestion of lead shot Power lines K selected o First reproduction at 6 o Raise one chick every 2 years o Lifespan greater than 50 years Continental Drift affecting climate o 12 Movement to different latitudes Antarctica to south pole Alteration of ocean currents Closing of isthmas of Panama, opening of drake passage Creation of mountain ranges Himalayas Causes of current Ice Age Himalaya Mountains—4050 mya (million years ago) Drake Passage—32.8 mya Separation of Australia from Antarctica o Tasmanian gateway 36.5mya Closing of Isthmus of Panama—34 mya o Important concepts for chapter 5 Ecological efficiency and biomagnification Biomes—characteristics and abiotic determinants Recovery from disturbances Primary and secondary succession Eutrophication—natural and cultural Ecosystem services Kinds and value o Ecological Efficiencies Ecological efficiencies tend to be higher in aquatic systems because most aquatic organisms are coldblooded, and they invest less energy in supporting their body weight TABLES o Fertility Rate Country Fertility Rates Country Fertility Rates US 2.01 Afghanistan 5.43 Sweden 1.88 India 2.51 Canada 1.59 Iraq 3.41 Spain 1.48 Burkina Faso 5.93 Italy 1.42 Haiti 2.79 Japan 1.40 Indonesia 2.18 Egypt 2.87 China 1.55 13 o Life Expectancy Country Life Expectancy Country Life Expectancy o Environ mental Japan 83.7 Sweden 82.4 Problems Switzerlan 83.4 France 82.4 d Environmental Effect of Health Effect on Problem Productivity Australia Air pollution CaAcute and chronic2 Acid rain and Spain 82.8 Norwayalth impac81.8 ozone impact forests, crops, water, artifacts Iceland Solid and UK 81.2 Hazardous Diseases are spread Groundwater Italy 82.7 Portugal 81.1 Waters by rotting garbage resources are Germany 81 USAd blocked dr79.3, polluted acute impact Soil degradation Effects include 23% of land used reduced nutrition for for crops, grazing, farmers on depleted and forestry. soils and greater Productivity losses susceptibility t o .5%1.5% of GNP drought deforestation Localized flooding reduced logging leads to death and and prevention of disease erosion, increased watershed, diminished carbon storage Loss of biodiversity Potential loss of new Ecosystem drugs adaptability is reduced and genetic resources are lost 14 Atmospheric changes Such changes result Coastal in possible shifts in investments are waterborne diseases, damaged, regional risks from climatic changes in natural disasters, skin agriculture cancers from ozone productivity occur shield o Rivers River Country Discharge Amazon Brazil 212,375 Congo Congo 39,375 GangesBrahmaputra IndiaBangladesh 38,525 Yangtze China 21,003 ParanaLa Plata ArgentinaUruguay 18,773 Yenisey Russia 17,405 Mississippi US 17,287 Orinoco Venezuela 16,974 Lena Russia 15,488 o Doubling times example Doubling times Population size 0 1 1 2 2 4 3 8 4 16 5 32 o Strategist Characteristics RStrategists K Strategists Environment Advantage if less stable Advantage if more stable Size Smaller larger Life Span Shorter Longer Age of Reproduction Younger Older Offspring More Fewer Parental care Little or none Long and involved Population Stability Wild fluctuations Mostly stable Vocabulary 15 o Bioaccumulation—the accumulation of higher and higher concentrations of potentially toxic chemicals in organisms o Biomagnification—bioaccumulation occurring through several levels of a food chain o Biome—large area of Earth’s surface with the same climate and similar vegetation’s o Biota or Biotic community All living organisms in a natural area o Character displacement—a physical change that lessens competition when two species cooccur o Competition—to complete with one another over resources o Critical numberpopulation size below which recovery is unlikely o Ecological efficiencythe efficiency with which energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next o EcologyThe study of all processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms and the interactions between living things and their environment o EcosystemInteractive complex of biotic communities and the abiotic environment affecting them within a particular area o Ecotone—Transitional region between ecosystems o Environmental resistance combination of biotic and abiotic factors that limit the increase of a population o Habitat—the biological community and physical environment where a species is adapted to live o Hypothesis: a tentative guess concerning the cause of an observed phenomenon that is then tested by means of experiments to determine whether it is true and it is logical or empirical consequences o LandscapeCluster of interacting ecosystems o Limiting factor—a factor that limits growth, reproduction, or survival o Natural selection—survival of the fittest o Niche—the sum of all conditions and resources under which a species can live o Population Individuals of a species living in a given area o Primary production—production of organic matter from inorganic compounds using either sunlight or an oxidationreduction reaction as an energy source. Autotrophic production o rselected species tend to always be in the exponential growth phase o Resilience—ability of ecosystems to return to normal functioning after a disturbance o Resource partitioning—division of a resource and specialization in different parts of it Secondary production—production of one kind of organic matter from o some other kind of organic matter. Heterotrophic production o Species All members that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring 16 o Spontaneous generation theories: complex living organisms generated from decaying organic matter o Sustainable development a dorm of development or progress that “meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs” 17
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