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Study Guide Test One

by: Lexie Notetaker

Study Guide Test One ENVS 1126

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16 pages long because i added an extra information section and a vocabulary section
Intro to Environmental Science
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lexie Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENVS 1126 at Louisiana State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

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Date Created: 09/18/16
S TUDY G UIDE : ENVS 1126 T EST 1 Chapter 1: Science and the Environment  The Scientific Method o What we perceive represents and objective in reality (hypothesis)  Hypothesis: a tentative guess concerning the cause of an observed  phenomenon that is then tested by means of experiments to  determine whether it is true and it is logical or empirical  consequences o Objective reality functions according to basic principles and natural laws  (observe/test) o Every result has a cause; every even will cause other events (data) o Through our powers o observation, manipulation, and reason we can  discover and understand the basic principles and natural laws  (results/evidence)  Easter Island o EI completely deforested by 1400­1600 o Deforestation occurred because  Building boats  Clear land  Building materials  Rope  Cremate dead   Transport moai o Extinction  Native land birds  25 nesting seabirds o 24 no longer breed o EI  Losses  Raw materials  Wild­caught foods  Decreased crop yields  Soil erosion o Desiccation o Nutrient leaching  Starvation  Population crash  Cannibalism  Deforestation of EI  Problem o Cold and dry  50in of rain per year 1 o Soil fertility  Volcanic ash and dust fallow o High islands verse low islands  Why do human behave irresponsible? o Failure to anticipate a problem o Failure to perceive a problem o Failure to try to solve the problem o Try to solve but fail  Population o Interactions do not always lead to stable populations o Human Development Index  Since 1970  Life Expectancy o 59 >70 o USA spends more on health care per capita than any other country but has the lowest life expectancy  because of children in poverty and people in prison  School Enrollment o 55%>70%  Per Capita GDP o $5,000>$10,000  All but 3 of 135 countries had a higher HDI in 2010 than in 1970  Sustainable Development o Sustainable development­ a dorm of development or progress that “meet  the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future  generation to meet their own needs” o Spontaneous generation theories: complex living organisms generated  from decaying organic matter  Sound Science o All truth passes through 3 stages 1. Ridicule 2. Opposition 3. Acceptance  Spontaneous Generation Theories o Aristotle:  Aphids arise from dew, flies from matter, mice from dirty hay,  crocodiles from rotting logs o Alexander Ross  “to question this is to question reason, sense, and experience. If he  doubts of this let him go to Egypt and there he will find the fields  swarming with mice, begot of the mud of Nylus, to the great  calamity” 2 o 17  Century  Microbes are evidence in support of SG because they are incapable of sexual reproduction Chapter 2: Economics, Politics, and Public Policy  China o Toxic air­ china has 16 of the most polluted cities in the world o Dust storms and sulfur dioxide from coal­burning power plants and stoves o Toxic water­ china is the cancer capital of the world: high esophageal and  stomach cancer rate o The yellow river is being sucked dry by irrigation and is seriously polluted o Economic growth can lift many people out of poverty but when this  growth is at a cost of natural resources and people's health o Per capita supply of fresh water in china is 25% of the world average  Northern china of fresh water is 20% the supply of southern china  Between 1972 and 1997 the yellow river was almost dry  Economics and Environment o Two Models  Centrally planned economy—the rulers decide  Cuba  North Korea  Capitalism—the market decides  Both the US and China are mixed models o International Trade  GAAT (general agreement on tariffs and trade)  1947­1993  WTO (world trade organization)  1993—present  Problems  Imports of shrimp caught TEDs  Products produced using child labor o Sustainable economics  3 kinds of capital:  Produced  Natural o Ecosystem capital  Renewable  Non renewable  Intangible o Human capital o Social capital o Knowledge assets  Compare  Land 3  Labor  Capital  Most national wealth is intangible  Intergenerational Equity o Sustainable development: meeting the needs of the present without  compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs  Discount problem­ present value  A dollar is worth more today than it will be worth 5 years from  now o The self­interest of present individuals and generations is at odds with the  longer term sustainable interests of a community or a society  Need for Environmental Public Policy o Market vs, Regulatory  Cap­and­trade for SO2  Payment for ecosystem services  Pay­as­you­throw o Subside access to public resources o Policy Life Cycle  Recognition formulation implementation control  DDT, acid rain, CFCs, P in laundry detergents o Montreal Protocol –1987 o Kyoto Protocol—1997 Costs of pollution control are a powerful incentive to make substitutions,  o recycle, or redesign industrial processes Chapter 3: Basic Needs of Living  Basic needs of living  o Hierarchy  Biome  Landscape  Ecosystems and Ecotones  Biota or Biotic Communities  Populations  Species o Ecology­­The study of all processes influencing the distribution and  abundance of organisms and the interactions between living things and  their environment  Species>genus>family>etc. o Species­­ l members that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring  Does not work for organisms that do not mate Population­­ Individuals of a species living in a given area o o Biota or Biotic community All living organisms in a natural area  Composition of community depends on abiotic factors 4 o Ecosystem ­­Interactive complex of biotic communities and the abiotic  environment affecting them within a particular area  Ecotone —Transitional region between ecosystems o Landscape­­ Cluster of interacting ecosystems o Biome— large area of Earth’s surface with the same climate and similar  vegetation’s      Five Major Biomes 1.   Desert ittle precipitation ot enough to support vegetation ay be hot or cold 2.   Forest oreal o Coniferous tree o Cold temperatures o N. Hemisphere o Variable precipitation ainforest o Warm and wet o Annual precip. 125­660 cm o Soils poor due to leaching nutrients o 50% of all living plants and animal species o Important source of drugs to treat illnesses  Cancers and malaria o Deciduous Forest  Trees lose leaves in winter  Temperate latitudes  Eastern N. America, Europe, Far East  Annual precip. 100­150cm 3.   Grasslands arge olling terrains of  o Grasses o Flowers o Herbs avanna o Rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees 4.  Aquatic resh Water alt Water arshlands 5.   Tundra 5 Low temperature Low precipitation Chaparral o Hot and dry  Law of Limiting factors o Limiting factora factor that limits growth, reproduction, or survival o Law of limiting factors  Any factor that is outside optimal range will cause stress and  become a limiting factor o Habitat—the biological community and physical environment where a  species is adapted to live o Niche—the sum of all conditions and resources under which a species can  live Law of Thermodynamics o Apply to all transformations of energy expect for nuclear reactions o First Law of thermodynamics  Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be converted  from one form to another  Two major categories of energy 1.   Kinetic—motion 2.   Potential—stored energy  Forms of energy: Electromagnetic radiation Chemical Electrical o Second Law of thermodynamics  In any energy transformation, some of the energy is converted to  heat  Any energy transformation is accompanied by an increase in the  degree of disorder (entrophy) of the system  Source of energy for most organisms Food=organic matter o Proteins, carbs, fats, nucleic acids Different Concerns about N and P  o P (phosphorous) forms precipitates with iron, calcium, and aluminum o N (nitrogen) does not form precipitates  N is release from decomposing matter  78% of atmosphere is N 2  Nitrogen is recovered via nitrogen fixation Chapter 4: Populations and Communities Growth o Characteristics of exponential growth 6  Double time is constant  Population versus time is J­shaped Populations  o Exponential growth  Rate of change= rN o Logistic growth N  Rate of change= rN(1­ ) K  Maximum rate of growth occurs at half the carrying capacity o R­ and K­ selected species  r­selected species tend to always be in the exponential growth  phase  J­curve= exponential growth  S­curve= logistic growth  Environmental resistance­­ combination of biotic and abiotic  factors that limit the increase of a population  R­strategist have high biotic potential but poor recruitment  most of the time  K­strategists have low biotic potential but good recruitment  Density dependent limiting factors are needed to regulate a  population  Helps maintain equilibrium  Density independent factors can be very important but are not  associated with regulation  Critical number­­population size below which recovery is unlikely o Keystone species—a species whose role is essential for the survival of  many other species in an ecosystem Competition  o Competition —to complete with one another over resources o Intraspecific competition  Territoriality o Competitive exclusion  Natural selectionsurvival of the fittest  Diversity of species explained by fact that environments are  heterogeneous in space and time o Resource partitioningdivision of a resource and specialization in  different parts of it o Character displacement—a physical change that lessens competition  when two species co­occur  Consequences of Change (biotic or abiotic) Types of Change o  Adaptations  Migrations 7  Extinction o Acclimation versus adaptation  Acclimation  Getting along  Adaptation  Evolution—natural selection  Some species are much better able to adjust to changing abiotic  conditions than others  Implication of adaption for human management  Invasive species pest  o Continental Drift affecting climate  Movement to different latitudes  Alteration of ocean currents  Creation of mountain ranges Chapter 5: Energy, Patterns, and Disturbance Production of Organic Matter from Inorganic Compounds o Autotrophs produce organic matter o Heterotrophs consumer organic matter o Consumer organic matter goes to:  Biomass  Excretion  Respiration o Primary production—production of organic matter from inorganic  compounds using either sunlight or an oxidation­reduction reaction as an  energy source. Autotrophic production o Secondary production—production of one kind of organic matter from  some other kind of organic matter. Heterotrophic production o Ecological efficiencythe efficiency with which energy is transferred  from one trophic level to the next Biomagnification o The ecological efficiency in a food chain is 15%. A pollutant is transferred from one trophic level to the next with an efficiency of 60% o The magnification factor between trophic levels is a factor of 4 o Bioaccumulation —the accumulation of higher and higher concentrations  of potentially toxic chemicals in organisms o Biomagnification—bioaccumulation occurring through several levels of a  food chain Biomes o Classified on the basis of climate and vegetation o Terrestrial  Abiotic factors> temperature and rainfall o Aquatic 8  Abiotic factors> salinity, light, temperature, O2, permanence of  water o Recovery from disturbance: primary and secondary succession  Plants must start the process. They are the only autotrophic  organisms in most communities  Primary succession—area initially lacks plants and soil First appear on bare rocks are lichens and algae o Acids begin to extract nutrients from rocks and  breaking cracks to allow mosses to take hold Larger cracks have enough soil to support grasses and  small shrubs  Secondary succession—starts with preexisting soil Triggering’s mechanisms: forest fire, hurricane, agriculture, forestry o Species adapted to periodic fires  Pines  Grasses  Redwoods o Species not well adapted to periodic fire  Broad­leaved trees o Resilience—ability of ecosystems to return to normal functioning after a  disturbance o The value of ecosystems services should be considered when considering  land use changes     Extra Information o Easter Island  History  Discovered around 900AD by Polynesians  EI is fragile, little resilience, and initially forested o 21 other species of trees  Records indicate  Chiefs and priests replaced by military leaders  Statues  Last stature erected—1620  Toppling – 1680  Last erect statue – 1838  None standing – 1868 o Biodiversity  Medicines and Pharmaceuticals  Rosy periwinkle o Source of vincristine and vinblastine­­1960s o Used to treat childhood leukemia and Hodgkin's  disease 9 o Before: Leukemia almost always fatal n children o Now: 99% Chance of remission  Taxol o Isolated bark of pacific yew tree in 1967 o Used to treat lung, ovarian, and breast cancer, head  and neck cancer, and advanced forms of Kaposi's  sarcoma. Most prescribed antitumor drug o Problem: six tree required to treat one patient for a  tear o Solution: now extracted from leaves of English yew o Sustainable Development  The fastest source of electricity is wind energy globally o Stewardship  A steward is one to whom a trust is given  Involves caring for something on behalf of someone else  Action and programs that manage natural resources and human  well being for the common good  Professor Wangari Maathair founded the Green Belt Movement  (GBM) in 1977 and has planted over 51 million trees in Kenya  GBM works with grassroots, national and international  levels to promote environmental conservation o Greenland  The rise of 3­6’C over Greenland will cause the ice to melt  It is unclear how long it will take to melt all the ice but the  estimation is between 500­1000 years  If all the ice on Greenland melts, sea levels will rise 7 meters o US success in Policies  Average blood levels of lead for children decline 90% by removing lead from gasoline  More than 400,000 underground leaking gasoline storage tanks  have been cleaned up  Recovery of solid waste by recycling has increase 35%  Only 11 states have passed bottle laws o Environmental Factors  Conditions:  Temperature  Salinity  Rainfall/water  Sunlight  Oxygen  Resources  Nutrients  Water 10  Sunlight  Oxygen   Food o Mangroves in LA  Historically distribution constrained by “hard” freezes  Black and red mangroves species survive 100% exposure to 5C for up to 48 hours  At 0C black mangroves show damage (24048 hours after). Red  mangroves completely dead after 48 hours  ­5C completely kills both species after 48 hours o Need for Environmental Public Policy  Costs of environmental regulations in US  National Defenses—20%  Medicare, Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance  Program­­21%  Social Security­­ 22%  Compliance with Environmental Regulations­­ 5% Law of Thermodynamics o  Forms of energy: Electromagnetic radiation o Ultraviolet o Visible o IR Chemical o Think meals and chemical reactions Electrical  o Currents  Transformations  Fuel to electricity  Turning on light  Photosynthesis  Working out  Most organic matter is synthesize by plants using sunlight an as  energy source  Synthesis of sugar  6CO 2+ 12H 2 à C H6 12 6  + 6O 2+ 6H 2 o N and P cycles  P 11  N o Populations  The dynamics of species are intermediate between r­s and k­s o Population of Cheetahs  All but Jubatus species of cheetahs died out about 10,000 years ago  Low genetic diversity has made reproduction and recruitment of  cheetahs difficult  Only 5% survive to adulthood o Consequences of change  Brown bears > polar bears about 150,000 years ago (adaptation)  California condor  Population as of December 2015 = 435 left  Ingestion of lead shot  Power lines  K selected  o First reproduction at 6 o Raise one chick every 2 years o Lifespan greater than 50 years Continental Drift affecting climate o 12  Movement to different latitudes  Antarctica to south pole  Alteration of ocean currents  Closing of isthmas of Panama, opening of drake passage  Creation of mountain ranges  Himalayas  Causes of current Ice Age  Himalaya Mountains—40­50 mya (million years ago)  Drake Passage—32.8 mya  Separation of Australia from Antarctica o Tasmanian gateway 36.5mya   Closing of Isthmus of Panama—3­4 mya o Important concepts for chapter 5  Ecological efficiency and biomagnification  Biomes—characteristics and abiotic determinants  Recovery from disturbances  Primary and secondary succession  Eutrophication—natural and cultural  Ecosystem services   Kinds and value o Ecological Efficiencies  Ecological efficiencies tend to be higher in aquatic systems  because most aquatic organisms are cold­blooded, and they invest  less energy in supporting their body weight   TABLES o Fertility Rate  Country Fertility Rates Country Fertility Rates US 2.01 Afghanistan 5.43 Sweden 1.88 India 2.51 Canada 1.59 Iraq 3.41 Spain 1.48 Burkina Faso 5.93 Italy 1.42 Haiti 2.79 Japan 1.40 Indonesia 2.18 Egypt 2.87 China 1.55 13 o Life Expectancy   Country Life Expectancy Country Life Expectancy o Environ mental  Japan 83.7 Sweden 82.4 Problems Switzerlan 83.4 France 82.4 d Environmental Effect of Health Effect on Problem Productivity Australia Air pollution CaAcute and chronic2 Acid rain and Spain 82.8 Norwayalth impac81.8 ozone impact forests, crops, water, artifacts Iceland Solid and UK 81.2 Hazardous Diseases are spread Groundwater Italy 82.7 Portugal 81.1 Waters by rotting garbage resources are Germany 81 USAd blocked dr79.3, polluted acute impact Soil degradation Effects include 23% of land used reduced nutrition for for crops, grazing, farmers on depleted and forestry. soils and greater Productivity losses susceptibility t o .5%­1.5% of GNP drought deforestation Localized flooding reduced logging leads to death and and prevention of disease erosion, increased watershed, diminished carbon storage Loss of biodiversity Potential loss of new Ecosystem drugs adaptability is reduced and genetic resources are lost 14 Atmospheric changes Such changes result Coastal in possible shifts in investments are water­borne diseases, damaged, regional risks from climatic changes in natural disasters, skin agriculture cancers from ozone productivity occur shield o Rivers River Country Discharge Amazon Brazil 212,375 Congo Congo 39,375 Ganges­Brahmaputra India­Bangladesh 38,525 Yangtze China 21,003 Parana­La Plata Argentina­Uruguay 18,773 Yenisey Russia 17,405 Mississippi US 17,287 Orinoco Venezuela 16,974 Lena Russia 15,488 o Doubling times example Doubling times Population size 0 1 1 2 2 4 3 8 4 16 5 32 o Strategist Characteristics R­Strategists K Strategists Environment Advantage if less stable Advantage if more stable Size Smaller larger Life Span Shorter Longer Age of Reproduction Younger Older Offspring More Fewer Parental care Little or none Long and involved Population Stability Wild fluctuations Mostly stable  Vocabulary 15 o Bioaccumulation—the accumulation of higher and higher concentrations  of potentially toxic chemicals in organisms o Biomagnification—bioaccumulation occurring through several levels of a  food chain o Biome—large area of Earth’s surface with the same climate and similar  vegetation’s o Biota or Biotic community­­ All living organisms in a natural area o Character displacement—a physical change that lessens competition when two species co­occur o Competition—to complete with one another over resources o Critical number­­population size below which recovery is unlikely o Ecological efficiencythe efficiency with which energy is transferred  from one trophic level to the next o Ecology­­The study of all processes influencing the distribution and  abundance of organisms and the interactions between living things and  their environment o Ecosystem­­Interactive complex of biotic communities and the abiotic  environment affecting them within a particular area o Ecotone—Transitional region between ecosystems o Environmental resistance­­ combination of biotic and abiotic factors that  limit the increase of a population o Habitat—the biological community and physical environment where a  species is adapted to live o Hypothesis: a tentative guess concerning the cause of an observed  phenomenon that is then tested by means of experiments to determine  whether it is true and it is logical or empirical consequences o Landscape­­Cluster of interacting ecosystems o Limiting factor—a factor that limits growth, reproduction, or survival o Natural selection—survival of the fittest o Niche—the sum of all conditions and resources under which a species can  live o Population­­ Individuals of a species living in a given area o Primary production—production of organic matter from inorganic  compounds using either sunlight or an oxidation­reduction reaction as an  energy source. Autotrophic production o r­selected species tend to always be in the exponential growth phase o Resilience—ability of ecosystems to return to normal functioning after a  disturbance o Resource partitioning—division of a resource and specialization in  different parts of it Secondary production—production of one kind of organic matter from  o some other kind of organic matter. Heterotrophic production o Species­­ All members that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring 16 o Spontaneous generation theories: complex living organisms generated  from decaying organic matter o Sustainable development­ a dorm of development or progress that “meet  the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future  generation to meet their own needs” 17


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