Biology 1107 Study Guide
Biology 1107 Study Guide Bio 1107, 02
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Parsons on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1107, 02 at University of West Georgia taught by Micheal Arterburn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Biology 1107- T est 2 Study Guide Secondary Active Transport- brings glucose into the blood stream Fluid Mosaic Model- general structure of membranes. Phospholipids form a bilayer in which proteins float. Hydrophilic head/hydrophobic tails/hydrophilic head BONUS: 7 kJ/mole breaks phosphate bonds in ATP Cell Junctions: o Tight junctions: help ensure and form a seal for directional movement of materials. o Desmosomes: link cells tightly, permit materials to move o Gap junctions: allow communication Selective Permeability- (permeable and impermeable) o Passive transportation: no outside energy, higher to lower (diffusion and osmosis) o Active transportation: requires ATP help Diffusion (passive)- random movement towards equilibrium- no “net” movement o Diffusion rate depends on: Temperature of solution Concentration gradient Diameter of molecules or ions in solute o Simple Diffusion- higher concentration to lower concentration Lipid-soluble passes easily (not sodium chloride) Polar and charged molecules cannot easily pass Osmosis- diffusion of water o Depends on number of particles present, not type Hypertonic: more solute particles outside than inside, water moves outside, cell shrinks (crenation) Hypotonic: more solute particles inside cell than outside, water moves inside, cell bursts Isotonic: equal amount of solute particles Facilitated diffusion (still passive)- o channel proteins: lined with polar amino acids in bilayer (bridge) o carrier proteins: carrier gets particles in membrane (taxi) Energy is capacity to do work or change o Potential- stored energy o Kinetic- energy of movement Metabolism- sum total of all chemical reactions in an organism Anabolic Reaction- making (building) something from simpler things Catabolic Reaction- breaking down things Main storage molecule of glucose- glycogen o Anabolic reaction Thermodynamics- changing energy into heat o Law 1: Energy is neither created nor destroyed o Law 2: Once converted, some is unable to do work 2 No energy transfer is 100% efficient Entropy: all over the place (randomness) ex: steam or gas Enthalpy: total energy of the system o Enthalpy(H)= free energy(G) + entropy (S) or H=G+TS or G=H-TS Kelvin- F to C to K o F= (C)1.8+32 o C=(F-32) x 5/9 o K=C+273.15 Free energy (G)- difference in products and reactants o Delta G=Delta H –TdeltaS o – Delta G: spontaneous (goes without stopping)- free energy is released o + Delta G: non-spontaneous (add heat, etc.) - energy is consumed o No G: nothing happens Exergonic: release free energy (-Delta G): ATP -> ADP Get energy Endergonic: consume free energy (+ Delta G): ADP-ATP use energy Chemical equilibrium: Free energy=0 no net reaction Delta G values closer to 0 are more reversible ATP can phosphorylate (donate phosphate groups) to other molecules Hydrolysis of ATP: o ATP+H2O—ADP +Pi + Free Energy o Free Energy= -7.3 to -14 kcal/mole 3 Formation of ATP (endergonic): o ADP+ P+ free energy—ATP +H2O Allosteric: different shape o Active form- binds substrate o Inactive form- binds inhibitor Allosteric regulation: effector molecule binds to subunit to change its shape either inhibits or activates Metabolic pathways: First reaction is commitment step o Feedback inhibition (end product): “too much”- final product acts as non-competitive inhibitor, shuts down pathway o Enzymes are most active at particular pH Increase in pH and temp-denature o Isozymes: enzymes that catalyze same reaction but have diff prop ex: temp Principles governing metabolic pathways: o Complex chemical transformations occur in series of reactions o Each reaction catalyzed by specific enzyme o Metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms Burning or metabolism of glucose: o C6H2O6+6O2—6CO2 +6H2O+ free energy o Traps free energy in ATP Metabolic Pathways: o Glycolysis-glucose to pyruvate o Cellular respiration- pyruvate to H2O, CO2 and ATP o Fermentation- pyruvate to lactic acid and ethanol 4 Oxygen accepts electrons from NADH Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm o Results in 2 pyruvates, 2 ATP, 2 NADH –net ATP o Total is 4 Phosphorylation- addition of phosphate groups 5
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