Soc of the Family - Study Guide for Exam 1
Soc of the Family - Study Guide for Exam 1 G St 303
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G St 303
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Collin Wilbanks on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to G St 303 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Elise S Lake in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 232 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Family in Sociology at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Soc 301/G St 303 – Lake Fall 2016 STUDY QUESTIONS FOR UNIT 1 READINGS Lamanna, Riedmann, & Stewart 12 Edition (publ. 2015) EXAM 1: Monday, 9/28/2016 Note: Study guides include questions on the readings only. Exams will, of course, include questions on both reading and lecture materials. Chapter 1: “Marriage, Relationships, and Family Commitments” (227) 1. In general, what are functional definitions—what do they focus on? In contrast, what generally do structural definitions emphasize? What three major functions are fulfilled by today’s families? How does the U.S. Census Bureau define family? How is a household different from a family? What are the two major family structures, and in what kind of society is each most common? Functional definitions point to the purposes for which a thing exists (iPhone – call or text). Structural definitions emphasize the form that a thing takes (iPhone – handheld electronic device. 3 major functions: 1) raising children responsibly – adults have to properly raise and rear children to be positive contributors to society and controlling sexual activity enough that procreation happens at the most convenient and beneficial point in the child’s life for the sake of THEIR child and its rearing (feeding, loving, bathing, teaching etiquette, etc). 2) providing economic and practical support – material security. If one member is laid off, others can provide support. Encouraging kids to get jobs when they are of age that way security for goods can be established. 3) offering emotional security – provide affection, companionship, protection, security, feeling you can be yourself without judgement, etc. Census Bureau defined family as “a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption and residing together in a household” A household is defined as any group of people living together, so the distinction between a household and a family according to the Census Bureau is the adoption, blood, or marriage ties between those in the household. Two major family structures are 1) extended family – most common in preindustrial or traditional societies and includes whole kinship groups (more than 2 generations in the household) and 2) nuclear families – most common in industrial or modern societies and usually has 2 or less generations in the household 2. What do family scholars mean when they refer to the postmodern family? What are some practical reasons in law, government, and business for why the definition of the family is important? The term postmodern is used to acknowledge “the fact that families today exhibit a multiplicity of forms and that new or altered family forms continue to emerge and develop” (pg 7). It has altered family definitions to resemble something similar to this: “a group of people in which people typically live together in a household and function as a cooperative unit, particularly through the sharing of economic resources, in the pursuit of domestic activities” (pg 7) So, postmodern families don’t necessarily have to be bound by marriage, for example, because today there are many who have intimate relationships and live within the same household who are not married. Other types are stayathome fathers, duel earners, and so on. These institutions care about this because it alters rental policies, insurance packages, insurance policies, bills, and also alters and effects Census Bureau statistics. These institutions have to constantly redefine what a family is. 3. What is a social institution? Why do some scholars believe the family is in decline (the “family decline perspective”)? How do their opponents, who adhere to the “family change perspective,” view the family and its changes over time? Do “family change” sociologists think we should try to recreate the “idealized” family of the past? Families have historically been understood as a social institution – social institutions “are patterned and largely predictable ways of thinking and behaving—beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms that are organized around vital aspects of group life and serve essential social functions” (pg 9). The relaxation of institutional control (such as, the newly widespread acceptance of homosexual marriages, and definitions of a “family” being altered to the postmodern viewpoint) over relationships leads to a family decline perspective. Family change perspective argues that families are simply changing, not declining. They view family changes as beneficial, such as the easier access to divorce leading to more avenues to escape domestic violence, for example. They argue that “it makes more sense to provide support to families as they exist today rather than to attempt to turn back the clock to an idealized past” (pg 10) 4. What is a “sociological imagination?” “Placing an individual’s or family’s private troubles within a societywide context is the crux of what sociologists call the sociological imagination” (pg 12). Personal troubles are influenced by and connected to the patterns of the society surrounding the individual. 5. What five broad societal trends are affecting families today? [Note that within these broad trends the book cites related subtrends—don’t try to memorize them all, but be able to identify them if you see them; for example, changes in our age structure such that our population is getting older on average are an example of current demographic trends.} 1) Ever new biological and communication technologies a. Biological – birth control, artificial insemination, embryo transfers, donor insemination, etc 2 b. Communication – Twitter, Facebook, Skype, videotaping, etc. Family members who live far away can still be involved in their extended family’s lives, people meet people on the internet and marry them, etc. 2) Economic conditions a. Increase of the inequality gap has made financial conditions very influential on families, can cause a lot of stress or a lot of comfort. Also effects educational opportunities, education quality, probability of drug usage, everything else that goes into socioeconomic risk factors 3) Historical periods or events a. Agricultural societies switching to more industrialized ones, effects of WW1 and WW2, the Great Depression, etc. have shaped where families, and society, are today and the characteristics and opportunities afforded to both. 4) Demographic characteristics (statistical facts about the makeup of a population) such as age, religion, and race or ethnicity a. Age Much more longevity when compared to those born in, say, the 1900s whose life expectancy was 47 and in 2008 was 78. b. Religion Religious affiliations greatly influence family structures. For example, children with deep religious connections are less likely to engage in premarital sex. Religious beliefs affect attitudes, marriages, and family dynamics. c. Race/Ethnicity Race and ethnicity play a pivotal role in the structure of families as, in American and across the world, specific races/ethnicities are at a particular disadvantage as a minority in comparison to the majority group they live with. 5) Family policy a. “Family policy involves all the procedures, regulations, attitudes, and goals of programs and agencies, workplace, educational institutions, and government that affects families” (pg 21). Policies that directly address functions of families such as adoption, partner relationships, childrearing, economic support, child care, divorce, etc. 6. In what ways are social factors important for people’s personal choices? What does it mean to say that people can decide (knowledgeably) about their lives versus “slide” into choices? How do personal values affect the choice between “deciding” and “sliding” through life? 3 ways social factors impact personal choices: 1) it is usually easier to make the common choice. For example, in the 1960s it was common to be married earlier, people felt awkward if they didn’t marry by their early twenties, so a lot of people made it a personal goal to be married by then. 2) expanding people’s options. Such as the widely accepted use of contraceptives and the prevalence of them make keeping the size of one’s family down much easier. 3) social factors can also limit one’s choice. For example, for a long time interracial marriage was illegal. Making informed decisions means knowing about all of the alternatives to your decision and factoring in the social pressures of each while also considering the consequences of each alternative. “Sliding” into a decision entails making a decision unconsciously and simply 3 following suit with either pressures, the norm, or what has been engrained as the right decision without exploring other options. 7. What is family identity, and how does it emerge? Why is the family important for individual selfconcept? “Family identity—ideas and feelings about the uniqueness and value of one’s family unit— emerge via traditions and rituals: family dinner time, birthday and holiday celebrations, vacation trips, and perhaps family hobbies like working together in the garden” (pg 25) Families provide a healthy setting for the development of one’s selfconcept. The self concept is influenced heavily by the significant figures in that individual’s childhood, and the home setting—that allows one to grow, develop, and feel free to selfexpress—facilitates personal identity formation. 8. How are familistic values (communal values) and individualistic values (selffulfillment) different from each other? Do these two kinds of values fit together smoothly in American society, or does one or the other predominate? Familistic values focus on the needs, goals, and identity of the group (family togetherness, loyalty, etc.), while individualistic values encourage people to focus on personal and individual satisfaction and happiness to foster an individual identity. These two value sets cause tension in society, as our culture prizes and encourages individuality and selfexpression but too much individuality puts stress on relationships because there is less contribution from that person to their loved ones. Chapter 2: “Exploring Relationships and Families” (2849) Note: Chapter 2 summarizes several family theories; we will skip some of them, and look at others in class later on. For now, for this chapter, focus on just the theories addressed in the following questions. Chapter 2 also briefly covers some research issues; see question 16 below. 9. In studying families, how can personal experience interfere with accuracy of results? [We have also discussed this issue in class on 9/7] It’s easy for researchers to have bias toward families and family structures based on how a researcher was raised – their own home environment growing up could shift or alter their focus and could lead to them overlooking key details. 10. What is a “theoretical perspective” and why is it important to family researchers? A theoretical perspective is a way of viewing reality. 4 “As a tool of analysis [a theoretical perspective is] equivalent to lenses through which observers view, organize, and then interpret what they see. A theoretical perspective leads family researchers to identifies those aspects of families and relationships that interests them and suggests possible explanations for why patterns and behaviors are the way they are” (pg 32) 11. What is the main focus of the family ecology model? (You needn’t memorize the various environmental components.) Why is it useful, especially for policymakers? How a family is influenced by their surrounding environment, and the constraints it puts on families and opportunities. Including things such as “economic, educational, religious, and cultural institutions” (pg 32) It helps in delineating rules and regulations for policies such as food stamps, federal aid, etc. and helps to pinpoint who is eligible for these and other type of government aid based on an individual’s environment. 12. How does the structurefunctional perspective view the family? Why should we ask “functional for whom” when we consider family functions? Why have contemporary family scholars moved away from the kind of structurefunctionalist ideas that dominated mid20 century sociology? [We are discussing this theory briefly in class on 9/7 and 9/12.] “The structurefunctional perspective investigates how a given social structure functions to fill basic societal needs” (pg 37) “For instance, traditional male authority and higher prestige may be functional for fathers—and in some cultures for brothers—but not necessarily for mothers and sisters. Separating may seem to be functional for one or both of the adults involved, but it’s not necessarily so for the children” (pg 37) “However, as it dominated family sociology in the United States during the 1950s, the structurefunctional perspective gave us an unrealistic image of smoothly working families characterized only by shared values” (pg 37). It also suggested that nuclear, heterosexual families were the normal and functional family structure, and also argued for the functionality of assigned gender roles. 13. What is the basic premise of exchange theory? [We’ll look at this theory’s insights in much greater detail in the second, third, and fourth units of the course.] The basic premise is that in social exchanges people want to minimize their costs and maximize their rewards. Emphasizes decision making, we make decisions after weighing out costs and rewards of the decisions. 14. How does family systems theory view the family? [We’ll examine some insights of this theory in the fourth unit of the course.] “Family systems theory views the family as a whole, or system, comprised of interrelated parts (the family members) and demarcated by boundaries” (pg 40) Parts of the family compose a functioning system that performs predictably, like an organic system in the body. 5 15. What is the focus of the conflict perspective? What kinds of family issues does it (and its feminist version) sensitize researchers to? [Again, some of these issues will come up in lecture over the next units.] Conflict theory is the opposite of the structuralfunctional theory. It focuses on unequal power within families. For example, unequal distribution of household labor between husbands and wives based on power between the two. Sensitizes researchers to gender issues within relationships and households. 16. What five scientific data collection techniques are used in studying families? What briefly are the advantages and disadvantages of each? 1) Interviews and questionnaires – most common. Conducting personal interviews or asking participants to complete surveys/questionnaires. a. Efficient for gathering data from large populations. The answers from interviews and questionnaires can easily be compared with one another. b. But valid responses depend on participants’ honesty. Plus, questionnaires with predetermined answers offer a limited scope through which the participant can answer and they aren’t always the most accurate for each participant. 2) Naturalistic observation – spend time with respondents in their natural environment and take notes. a. Allows the researcher to make observations of family behavior as it actually happens. b. But it has a lot of room for bias as it is up to the researcher to decide what is important and unimportant when taking notes of observations. Also takes a very large amount of time for the researcher to gather data this way, meaning less families will be accounted for. 3) Focus groups – qualitative research where a researcher gathers 1020 participants in a group and asks them questions a. Can gather information using participants’ everyday speech. Can use responses in surveys and questionnaires as part of questions. Useful when a researcher doesn’t know enough about a topic to create closeended questions for surveys. b. Less control than a oneonone interview, so it can be time consuming— especially if there are children involved. Plus, group conversations are casual so it could be difficult to analyze the data. 4) Experiments and laboratory observations – behaviors are carefully monitored and observed under controlled conditions. a. Controlled conditions mean it is much easier to gather data for the researchers. b. But, controlled conditions mean artificial environments which can influence behavior and make it less natural, therefore possibly lessening the validity of the data. 5) Case studies – compiled by clinicians (psychiatrists, psychologists, marriage counselors, etc.) and is focused on one person or one couple over a long period of time. a. Vividly detailed data can be gathered. Can provide hypotheses for future research. 6 b. Personal bias can influence the observations made by the clinician. Clinician’s professional training may also “lead them to misinterpret aspects of family life” (pg. 50) Chapter 3: “Our Gendered Identities” (5277) 17. How do the authors distinguish between gender and sex? What are gender role and gender identity? In what ways is the simple duality of masculinity/maleness and femininity/femaleness complicated? Gender is used to describe how the individual classifies their own self. Sex is used to reference the physical and biological anatomy of an individual’s body. Gender role describes the societal attitudes and behavioral expectations of certain sexes (women cook, men work) while gender identity degree to which an individual sees themselves as masculine or feminine. Transsexual, transgendered, intersex, and gender roles greatly challenge the duality of masculinity and femininity. Sociallyconstructed gender roles create gendered institutions that, in essence, provide guidelines for the “correct” ways for each gender to behave – however, being that these institutions are constructed solely from social views, they cannot be true and are challenged by anyone who steps outside of these carefully created boxes. 18. What is the difference between “traditional sexism” and “modern sexism”? “Traditional sexism – the belief that women’s roles should be confined to the family and that women are not as qualified as men for leadership positions…contemporary sexists agree with statements such as, ‘Discrimination in the labor force is no longer a problem’ and, ‘In order not to appear sexist, many men are inclined to overcompensate women’…Contemporary sexism denies that gender discrimination persists and may include the idea that women are asking for too much, a situation that results in resistance to their demands” (pg 73). 19. What are instrumental (also called “agentic”) and expressive (also called “relationship oriented”) character traits? What messages about each sex does our culture give us? Why do some scholars refer to “masculinities” and “femininities” in the plural? To what extent do people actually follow cultural expectations? Males are thought to have instrumental traits – traits involving characteristics for accomplishing goals such as strength, confidence, selfreliance, ambition, assertiveness, etc. Females are thought to have expressive traits that focus on relationship maintenance – traits like warmth, sensitivity, nurturance, selflessness, etc. Culture tells us that men are supposed to be stoic figures of strength and direction while women are supposed to be dutifully loyal to being the emotional stability in a relationship. Men don’t talk about feelings and be tall and muscular – women are expected to be small and quiet and gentle and supportive. “Masculinities” and “femininities” refer to the culturally expected behaviors associated with each. Men being leaders, assertive, and independent are masculinities – women taking care of the household, being nurturing, and being gentle are femininities. 7 Research shows that there are few actual gender differentiations among women and men, though there are some. Such as women having greater feelings of interconnectedness. However, cultural expectations play a large role in society and many people do try to uphold what they feel is socially expected of them. 20. How do race and ethnicity interact with gender roles? Earlier scholars based their understandings of gender roles primarily on white people, but today’s researchers pay much more attention to the fact that how gender roles “play out” among whites may not always resemble how these issues play out for people of color or of different ethnicities. What are some of the differences we see when looking at other groups’ gender roles? Are these differences large or subtler, in general? “When race, social class, sexual orientation, physical abilities, and immigrant or national status are taken into account, we can see that in some circumstances ‘male privilege’ is partly—sometimes substantially—muted” (pg 59) The same male privileges experienced by white men are not at all the same as the experiences other racial/ethnic groups. Hispanic women in high school are at a cross road as they may have to battle their own desires for further education to get good jobs and their cultural expectation that women should be good household caretakers. Research also finds that black couples prefer role flexibility and a power sharing than white couples, and that black husbands tend to do more than other U.S. husands. It also shows that partly because of the U.S.’s history of slavery in which both black males and females labored incessantly, more black women are employed than white women. 21. How do biological approaches generally explain gender differences? How do sociologists look at the causes of gender differences? Biologybased arguments approach gender differences through the lens of evolutionary psychology, positing that biosocial behavior evolved to facilitate survival – leading to men being more aggressive and protective of their families and taking up survivalbased duties while women generally gave birth and were expected to be the nurturer and developmental caretaker while the men gathered essentials for their survival as a group (or, family). This does not mean that these behaviors or mindsets cannot be influenced, however. These practices and mindsets are passed on through genetics through generations upon generations. Sociologists look into the social environment to see what influences gender differences, mainly through four economic stages in human history: foraging and hoe (men forage for food while women take charge of gardenbased food production, which was compatible with taking care of children and breastfeeding and was also where the majority of food came from, thus, women were very dominant in this economic culture), agricultural (required greater physical strength leaving men to take charge in this economic society for food production as women tended more to childrearing as opposed to strenuous physical labor), industrial (began to further separate work and family life, therefore pushing women more toward the home while men left to work – creation of the public and private sphere as these became two different spheres of life that were almost genderexclusive), and postindustrial societies (more inclusive of women as it focuses on informationbased work and not simply the manufacturing of things). 8 22. What is meant by “gender structure”? How do men and women tend to differ in where they are positioned in their own society’s institutional gender structures? “Gender structures have implications for socialization and for the development of identities and selves…But gender structures also shape the social roles women and men are expected to follow, what “doing gender” means in any given interactional encounter, and how marriage is understood and defined. Gender structures also are formalized into institutional laws, rules, and organizational norms” (pg 64) In religion, even though more women make up the congregations, men still generally hold the most leadership positions within the churches. Religion also affects structures within the family as some believe that the bible dictates the man must be the “head” or leader of the household. Women hold less government positions when compared to men, such as Supreme Court judges and Congress. More women far exceed men who are enrolled in college and therefore there are not more women with degrees than men. However, many men and women still follow “traditional” expectations in college and it ultimately effects their choice of majors. 23. How do childhood experiences in the family influence differences between boys and girls? Do all families deliberately try to create differences? What subtle messages may influence children? Having single father, single mother, or nuclear families greatly effects how boys and girls see their own “roles” and factor in to how they will develop against these social structures. Other experiences such as fathers telling their sons not to cry but consoling their daughters when they do, mothers encouraging their daughters to play dress up and play with princesses and encouraging sons to play with guns and army men, television shows that parents allow children to watch that show boys and girls doing different things, Disney movies that portray helpless women being rescued by strong/handsome men, and colors associated with accessories and toys that target specific sexes all influence children and their views of “men vs women”. 24. How do school experiences create differences? Historically, research has focused on the disadvantages girls experience, particularly in school. But in what ways have boys been falling behind? Boys do not have many positive male role models in their elementary and middle schools. Studies have also shown that a lack of emotional expression in boys, instilled by gender structures, has negative impacts on academic performance. Chapter 4: “Our Sexual Selves” (78105) 25. Do children express any sexual activity before age 5, or are they essentially nonsexual? How has the onset of more mature sexuality changed in the last century or so, and why do scientists think these changes have occurred? 9 “‘Human beings are sexual beings throughout their entire lives’…As early as twenty four hours after birth, male newborns get erections, and infants may touch their genitals. Research indicates that between ages 2 and 5, a substantial number of children engage in ‘rhythmic manipulation’ of their genitals, which researchers consider to be a ‘natural form of sexual expression’” (pg 80) Girls are getting their menarche at much earlier age in the last century, and development breasts and puberty at happening as young as 10 as well. Scientists believe better nutrition, obesity, and pollution are some positive and negative changes in our society that have affected these changes. 26. What is sexual orientation, and does it necessarily predict a person’s sexual behavior? What does it mean to say that sexual orientation may be a “continuum”? What is asexuality? [Please note: the section on sexual identity (pp. 8081) discusses several terms used to describe varying sexrelated statuses. These terms change frequently with politics, with social norms, with religious ideology, with popular culture, and so on, a point I will address briefly in class.] “Sexual orientation refers to whether one is attracted to one’s own gender or a different gender” (pg 80). It does not necessarily predict one’s sexual behavior, as one may choose to be abstinent or have relations with a partner of a nonpreferred sex. That it their own choice. Sexual orientation as a continuum simply argues the dichotomy of orientation. Meaning, it is not true to simply say one is either “gay” or “straight”, sociologists and psychologists alike agree that all are inherently bisexual with latent attraction to the opposite sex, though in most one sex is preferred. Asexuals do not experience sexual attraction to others. Differs from celibacy or abstinence as these are decisions made by the individual, asexuality is inherent. 27. Do researchers know definitively how sexual orientation develops? Not definitively. Sexual orientation develops from a mix of environmental, genetic, hormonal, and sociocultural factors that affect the individual throughout childhood into their pubescent stage. (I could not find this in the book. This answer is my opinion.) 28. Theoretical perspectives: How does the exchange perspective explain sexual satisfaction? According to the interactionist perspective, what is a “sexual script”? “From a general exchange theory perspective, women’s sexuality and associated fertility are resources that can be exchanged for economic support, protection, and status in society… satisfaction depends on the costs and rewards of a sexual relationship, as well as the participant’s comparison level—what the person expects out of the relationship” (pg 83). It also states that the alternatives to their current sexual relationship are important to, as someone else may be able to offer more. Lastly, equality of sexual rewards and costs is an important factor. Sexual scripts are basically what an individual’s culture tells them about sex. Such as, how important an orgasm is, how important monogamy is, how often sex should be had, where it should be had, with what kind of people, what positions are acceptable or not, etc. 10 29. How have sexual scripts in America changed since colonial times? What is patriarchal sexuality, and does it still exist today? What is expressive sexuality, and when did this pattern of behavior develop? What general changes related to sexuality took place during st the 1960s? in the 1980s and 1990s? in the 21 century? [NOTE: Don’t memorize all those statistics, just look at the trends.] th “From colonial times until the 19 century, the purpose of sex in America was defined as reproductive. A new definition of sexuality emerged…Sex became significant for many people as a means of communication and intimiacy” (pg 84) Patriarchal sexuality “is characterized by many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors developed to protect the male line of descent. Men are to control women’s sexuality. Exclusive sexual position of a woman by a man in monogamous marriage ensures that her children will be legitimately his. Men are thought to be born with an urgent sex drive, whereas women are seen as naturally sexually passive; orgasm is expected for men but not for women. Unmarried men and husbands whose wives do not meet their sexual needs may gratify those needs outside marriage. Sex outside marriage is considered wrong for women, however” (pg 84). It persists to some extent but has been greatly challenged in modern society. Expressive sexuality emerged in the 20 century. It is more emotional and intimate: orgasm is expected for both men and women, it is not onesided, not primarily for reproduction, etc. The sexual revolution of using sex for pleasure came in the 1960s. One reason for this revolution was the introduction of birth control pill. The 1980s and 1990s presented challenges to heterosexism: the belief that heterosexuality is “normal” and all other types of relstionships are “abnormal” or “wrong”, and homophobia became very widespread. In the 21 century, sex is seen through a lens of risk and caution against STDs, AIDS, and the like, as well as the emergence of vast consumption of pornography and a very sexualized media. 30. What is meant by each of the four standards for sex outside committed relationships: (1) abstinence, (2) sex with affection, (3) sex without affection/recreational sex, and (4) the double standard? Does the double standard still exist? Abstinence is the choice of refraining from sexual activity as a moral imperative before marriage. Sex with affection is maintaining sexual exclusivity with one partner that you care about, but do not have a committed or exclusive relationship with. Sex without affection/recreational sex falls in line with “hooking up” and “friends with benefits”. Sex is simply a pleasure outlet or stress release, you may or may not necessarily care about this individual other than as a sexual outlet. The double standard definitely still exists. It is the notion that women’s sexual activity must be more conservative than men’s. Men’s sexual activity is celebrated while women’s sexual activity is shamed – women who have frequent sexual activity are labeled as sluts, but those who do not engage in frequent sexual activity are considered pretentious or prudes. 31. Are Americans generally more or less tolerant of extramarital sex than people in other parts of the world? 11 The U.S. is much less tolerant of extramarital sex than people in other parts of the world. 32. How does age affect sexual behavior over the course of marriage? “Younger couples have sexual intercourse more frequently than do older couples” (pg 96). After the first few years of marriage sexual frequency declines. As couples grow with age, so do their responsibilities. This leads to distraction from sexual activity as both couples become very engrossed in an actively busy life. But, sexual activity does not necessarily cease as couples get older. Many older couples rate sex as a very important aspect of their relationship 33. Are teenagers more or less likely to have sexual intercourse now than they were about twenty years ago (1991)? Why have teen rates of intercourse changed over this period? Do teenagers define sex the same way today that they did a number of decades ago? Teen sexual activity has declined since 1991. In 1991, 54% of teens were sexually active and in 2011 47% were. Experts suggest that this has happened because of sex education programs and a fear of STDs, as well as religiosity and an emphasis on abstinence. 34. Which groups are at highest risk for HIV/AIDS? African American men and women and gay and bisexual men. 12
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