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UA - BSC 108 - Class Notes - Chapter 4 Notes

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UA - BSC 108 - Class Notes - Chapter 4 Notes

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background image Drugs that target bacterial cells Antibiotics were first isolated from mold in 1928 The widespread use of antibiotics drastically decreased deaths 
from bacterial infections
Most antibiotics kill bacteria while minimally harming the human 
host by binding to structures found only on bacterial cells
Some antibiotics bind to the bacterial ribosome, leaving human 
ribosomes unaffected
Other antibiotics target enzyme found only in the cells Microscopes as windows on the world of cells Light microscopes can be used to explore the structures and 
functions of cells
When scientists examine a specimen on a microscope slide o Light passes through the specimen
o Lenses enlarge, or magnify, the image
Two factors that determine the quality of microscopy o Magnification is an increase in the specimen’s apparent  size o Resolving power is the ability of an optical instrument to  show two objects as separate Microscopes Cells were first described in 1665 by Robert Hooke The accumulation of scientific evidence led to the cell theory o All living things are composed of cells
o All cells come from other cells 
The light microscope is used by many scientists o Light passes through the specimen
o Lenses enlarge, or magnify, the image
The electron microscope (EM) uses a beam of electrons o Results in better resolving power than the light microscope Two kinds of electron microscopes reveal different parts of cells o Scanning electron microscopes examine cell surfaces o Transmission electron microscopes (TEM) are useful for  internal details of cells Features common to all cells All cells have a plasma membrane o Phospholipid bilayer, selective barrier All cells have a cytosol or cytoplasm o The area within the membrane not including organelles All cells have at least one chromosome o Containing DNA
background image All cells have ribosomes o Sites of protein synthesis The two major categories of cells The countless cells on Earth fall into two categories o Prokaryotic cells Bacteria and Archaea Smaller than eukaryotic cells Lack internal structures surrounded by membranes Lack a nucleus Have a rigid cell wall Prokaryotes have cell walls that are unique Bacterial walls are made of  peptidoglycan A target for antibiotics o Eukaryotic cells Plants, fungi, and animals All cells have several basic features o They are all bound by a thin plasma membrane
o All cells have DNA and ribosomes, tiny structures that build
proteins Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have important differences o Prokaryotic cells are older than eukaryotic cells Prokaryotes appeared about 3.5 billion years ago; 
eukaryotes about 2.1 billion years ago
Membrane structure The plasma membrane separates the living cell from its nonliving
The membranes of a cell are composed mostly of  o Lipids
o Proteins
The lipids belong to a special category called phospholipids Phospholipids form a two-layered membrane, the phospholipid 
Membranes are not static sheets of molecules locked rigidly in 
Membrane phospholipids and proteins can drift about in the 
plane of the membrane
This behavior leads to the description of a membrane as a fluid 
o A high diversity of proteins exists within the membrane
o The proteins can move freely within the membranes

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Intro to Biology Non-Maj
Professor: Yates
Term: Fall 2016
Name: Chapter 4 Notes
Description: These notes cover everything discussed in class regarding chapter 4.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
6 Pages 18 Views 14 Unlocks
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