EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 3244
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Anatomy EXAM 1 1 Body Organization and Anatomic Terminology Anatomy is defined as: (Greek) “to cut up, to dissect”; it is the science concerned with the physical structure of the organism, in this case the human Histology: the study of (normal) tissues Pathology: the study of the disease state and abnormal tissues I. Taxonomic Classification Domain Eukarya Eukaryotic cells o Kingdom Animalia No cell walls, plastids, or photosynthetic pigments Phylum Chordata Dorsal hollow nerve cord, spinal cord Class Mammalia Mammary glands, hair o Order Primates Well developed brain, prehensile hands Family Hominidae Large cerebrum, bipedal locomotion Genus Homo Flattened face, prominent chin and nose, with inferiorly positioned nostrils o Species sapiens Largest cerebrum II. Anatomical characteristics A. Brain weighs: about 1350-1400 grams (~3 lbs) Emotion, thought, reasoning, memory, precise, coordinated movement B. Bipedal locomotion C. Sigmoid curvature of the spine, anatomy of hips and thighs, arched feet D. Opposable thumb –true of all primates E. Well-developed vocal structures, have articulated speech F. Stereoscopic vision: gives us depth perception III.Levels of organization of the human body A. Cellular Level: basic structural and functional component of life. We have 60-100 trillion cells. Organelles – carry out a specific function within the cell. B. Tissue Level: an aggregation of similar cells that perform a common function. Four principal kinds of tissues: Epithelial tissue : covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, and forms glands and ducts Connective tissue : bind, support, and protect body parts; includes the blood 1. Matrix: nonliving intercellular material (liquid, semisolid, solid) secreted by tissue cells Muscle tissue : contracts to produce movement Nervous Tissue : initiates and transmits nerve impulses from one body part to another C. Organ Level: an aggregate of tissue types that perform a specific function. Usually there is a primary tissue and secondary tissue. However, an organ will have all four tissues. D. System Level: a body system consists of various organs that have similar or related functions. Examples – circulatory, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine. The systems of the body are interrelated and make up the organism. 1 IV. Anatomy is a new language. Learning anatomy will be very much like learning another language. We need a starting point. A. All anatomical terms are in relationship to what is known as the anatomical position. The body is erect, the feet parallel, the eyes directed forward, the arms to the sides, and the palms directed forward, with the fingers straight down. It is imperative to learn this position, and remember that all anatomical terms come from this position. V. Terms A. Positions Superior: directional reference meaning above Inferior: directional reference meaning below Anterior: pertaining to the front of the body Posterior: pertaining to the back of the body Ventral: towards the chest or belly Dorsal: towards the back Medial: toward the midline of the body Lateral: away from the midline of the body Proximal: toward the trunk of the body Distal: away from the trunk of the body 1. Frequently, in the digestive system, proximal means closer to the mouth and distal is closer to the anus 2. Sometimes in the circulatory system, proximal means closer to the arterial side, and distal will mean closer to the venous side Ipsilateral: on the same side Contralateral: on the opposite side Rostral (lit.: “towards the beak”) in neuroanatomy, towards the forehead Caudal: in neuroanatomy, away from the forehead, towards the spinal cord B. Movement Flexion: movement that decreases the angle of the parts of the joint Extension: movement that increases the angle of the parts of the joint Hyperextension: extension of the joint past anatomic position- the neck, shoulder, hip Adduction: movement towards the axis or midline of the body Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body Supine/supination: placement of a body part so that the anterior surface is superior Pronate/pronation: placement of a body part so that the posterior surface is superior Circumduction: the distal end of the body part describes a circle, but the bone does not rotate C. Special movements Inversion: a turning inward, as the ankle Eversion: a turning outward, as the ankle Dorsiflexion: with the ankle, the superior surface of the foot approaches the shin Plantar flexion: with the ankle extension of the foot – pointing the toes Retraction: A body part moves posteriorly in a horizontal plane Protraction: A body part moves anteriorly in horizontal plane—moving jaw anteriorly at the TMJ Elevation: moves a body part superiorly—moving shoulders superiorly Depression: moves a body part inferiorly—moving shoulders inferiorly/pressing down Lateral flexion: moves the vertebral column in a lateral direction (to the side) 2 VI. Body Regions There are other ways of describing locations within the human body. Anatomists will talk about regions and quadrants of the abdominopelvic regions as well as the cavities located in the body. In addition, things can be described with respect to various imaginary planes that bisect the body. A. Major Regions of the Body – see text for more complete list Cephalic: head Inguinal: the groin Cervical: neck Lumbar: lower back Thoracic: chest Gluteus: buttocks Brachium: the arm from the shoulder to the Femur: thigh elbow Patella:kneecap Antebrachium: the forearm Crus: leg from the knee to the ankle Antecubital: the front of the elbow Talus: ankle Carpus: wrist Plantar: sole of foot Pubis: the anterior pelvis B. Abdominal quadrant system – frequently used clinically; marked by a mid-sagittal and transverse plane through the umbilicus Left upper quadrant Right upper quadrant Left lower quadrant Right lower quadrant C. Abdominal subdivision System Left and Right Hypochondriac regions – 1. Left and right upper one-third regions of abdomen Left and Right Lumbar (or Lateral) Regions 2. Left and right middle lateral regions of abdomen Left and Right Iliac (or inguinal) regions 3. Left and right lower one-third regions of abdomen Epigastric Region 4. Upper, central one third of abdomen Umbilical region 5. Center of abdomen Hypogastric 6. Lower, central one-third of abdomen VII. Body Planes A. Sagittal and Midsagittal Planes: Sagittal plane: a vertical plane that divides the body into left and right portions Midsagittal plane: the plane that passes through the mid-plane of the body, dividing it equally into right and left halves (plane that goes through middle of body) B. Transverse or horizontal: Divide the body into superior and inferior portions C. Frontal or coronal: A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions VIII.Body Cavities A. Dorsal Body cavity Cranial cavity: contains the brain Vertebral cavity: contains the spinal cord B. Ventral Body Cavity: divided by diaphragm 3 Thoracic cavity: upper or chest cavity 1. Pleural: two pleural cavities surround the right and left lungs 2. Mediastinum: the area between the two lungs 3. Pericardial: the cavity that surrounds the heart Abdominopelvic Cavity: lower ventral cavity 4. Abdomen: upper contains stomach, small intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and spleen 5. Pelvis: contains the terminal portion of the large intestine, the urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs IX. Body Membranes A. Mucous membranes (noun – mucus): Produce thick, sticky fluid. Line various cavities and tubes that enter or exit the body: oral, nasal cavities, respiratory, reproductive, digestive systems. B. Serous Membranes – Line the ventral body cavity: line the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and cover visceral organs, producing a watery lubricant called serous fluid or a transudate. *serous membranes DO NOT produce serous fluids There are two layers: 1. Parietal – the outermost layer, surrounds the cavity 2. Visceral – the innermost layer, surrounds the organ(s) The subdivisions 1 Visceral/parietal pleura; pleural cavity (line lungs) 3. Visceral/parietal pericardium; pericardial cavity (line heart) 4. Visceral /parietal peritoneum; peritoneal cavity (line abdomen) Greater and lesser omentum: folds of peritoneum that extend from the stomach; for protection this perineum is visceral peritoneum; lesser omentum suspends the peritoneum and the greater omentum continues from the lesser omentum; omentum is connective tissue and includes adipose tissue Mesenteries: double folds of peritoneum that connect the parietal peritoneum with the visceral peritoneum.; Mesenteries wrap around bowel; mesenteries hold bowel so it doesn’t drop and sit on the bladder and other body parts; this peritoneum is parietal peritoneum C. Synovial membranes – produce synovial fluid – fluid within certain joints Composed entirely of connective tissue – the exception to the rule that body cavities are lined by epithelium D. Cutaneous membrane – the skin X. Intercellular junctions: found on lateral sides of epithelial cells A. Zonula occludens or tight junctions: protein molecules in adjacent cell membranes fuse together like a zipper, forming an impermeable barrier, which keeps molecules from passing between cells; e.g., the digestive tract Don’t confuse with zonula adherens: an anchoring junction which bind to the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells B. Desmosomes: Anchoring junctions, mechanical couplings like rivets scattered along the sides of adjacent cells. More significant than adhesive belt junctions. Found in tissues under mechanical stress, like the heart, skin, uterus. 4 C. Gap junctions: allows chemical to pass between adjacent cells. Gap junctions exist in electrically excitable tissues like the heart and smooth muscle, where passage of ions from one cell to another helps to synchronize the cells together. Vocabulary (be able to define, use, or give examples of) Anatomy Extension Brachium Parietal Cell Adduction Antebrachium Visceral Tissue Abduction Antecubital Peritoneum Organ Inversion Carpus Pleura Organ system Eversion Pubis Pericardium Superior Dorsiflexion Inguinal Perineum Inferior: Plantar flexion Lumbar Umbilicus Anterior Supination Gluteus Mediastinum Posterior Pronation Femur Epi- Ventral Circumduction Patella Hypo- Dorsal Retraction Crus Gastro- Medial Protraction Talus Osteo- Lateral: Elevation Plantar Chondro- Proximal Depression Hypochondriac Hyper- Distal: Lateral flexion Iliac Peri- Ipsilateral Cephalic Epigastric Histology Contralateral Cervical Umbilical Pathology Flexion Thoracic Hypogastric Matrix 5 Introduction to Epithelial Tissues I General D. Epithelium covers and lines: The skin The coverings of the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive system. It covers the walls and organs of the ventral body cavity Names/types 1. Epithelium: (outer); skin, mucous membranes 2. Mesothelium: (middle); covers visceral organs and lines body cavities 3. Endothelium: (inner); lines inner walls of blood and lymphatic vessels E. Glandular: epithelium makes up the majority of the glands of the body Exocrine glands: secretions pass through ducts Endocrine glands: ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood or lymphatic fluid Functions: -Protect (dehydration, abrasion, destruction by physical, chemical or biological agents) -Absorb -Filter -Selective permeability -Excrete/Secrete -Sensory reception (its in your ears, nose, eyes, parts of skin and works with nervous tissues to facilitate nerve action) XI. Characteristics of Epithelium Covering and lining epithelia can be classified by a number of different morphologic characteristics. These include the presence of a basement membrane, the number of cell layers of the tissue, and the shape of the cell A. Cellularity: composed of closely packed cells, with little extracellular material (or matrix). Cells are bound closely together by intercellular junctions. B. Polarity: have an apical surface (exposed to external environment) and basal surface (exposed to internal environment– next to a basement membrane) Apical specializations 1. Microvilli: fingerlike extensions of the cell that increases the ability to absorb or secrete – kidney tubules, intestinal tract 2. Cilia: propel substances along their free surface, like the trachea C. Attachment: Basement membrane: underlying supportive material; made by both the epithelium and connective tissue Basal lamina: a thin, supportive sheet of non-cellular glycoproteins that lies adjacent to the basal surface of the epithelium Reticular lamina: deep to the basal lamina and is a network of collagen protein fibers that are part of the underlying connective tissue D. Innervated – have nerve fibers to detect changes in the environment at a particular body or organ surface region E. Avascular – lack blood vessels; obtain nutrients either directly across the apical surface or by diffusion across the basal surface from connective tissue F. Regenerate rapidly—frequently damaged or lost by abrasion; can be replaced as fast as they are lost 6 XII. Specific Types of Epithelium A. Classification Based in part on number of cell layers Simple: a single cell layer; all cells are in direct contact with basement membrane (1) Since it is thin, it is concerned with absorption, secretion, and filtration, but not protection. Located in: kidney tubules, linings of the air sacs in lungs, intestines, blood vessels Stratified: consists of 2 or more cell layers stacked on each other; only the cells in the deepest (basal) layer are in contact with basement membrane (2) Found where protection is important. (3) They regenerate from the basal layer and push apically as they mature (from bottom to the top) Located in: top layer of skin, internal lining of esophagus, pharynx or vagina Pseudostratified Simple: the cells are only a single layer thick, but the cells vary in height and have nuclei located at different levels from the basement membrane, giving the appearance that it is several layers thick. Will not contain distinct layers. Located in: Lines nasal cavity, respiratory epithelium which has cilia, also found in male urethra Based in part on cell shape 1 Squamous: flattened laterally with sparse cytoplasm and somewhat irregular in shape. The close fitting, scale-like cells resemble a tiled floor. 2. Columnar: tall and column shaped; nucleus is oval 3. Cuboidal: are boxlike, about as tall as wide; nucleus is spherical and centered B. Simple epithelia – every cell touches the basement membrane Simple squamous epithelia: 1 layer of flattened cells. Found where filtration or exchange is a priority; extremely delicate and highly specialized to allow rapid movement of molecules across its surface by diffusion, osmosis or filtration. Found only in protected regions where most surfaces reduce friction or abrasion. Found in amnion—inner layer of membrane around the embryo 1. Mesothelium is the epithelium found in serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity 2. Endothelium lines the lumen of blood and lymphatic vessels as well as the cardiovascular system Simple cuboidal epithelia: 1 layer of cubed cells. Functions primarily to absorb fluids and other substances across its apical membrane and to secrete specific molecules. Located in kidney tubules where it reabsorbs nutrients, ions and water that are filtered out of the blood plasma; forms the ducts of exocrine glands and covers the surface of ovaries Simple columnar epithelia: 1 layer of tall, narrow cells. Found where absorption and secretion are important. Located in the linings of the stomach and intestinal tract. 2 types—ciliated and nonciliated Ciliated simple columnar epithelium: goblet cells may be present; function—secretion of mucin and movement of mucus 7 along apical surface and oocyte movement through uterine tube. Lines the uterine tubes and larger bronchioles of respiratory tract Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium: apical regions of cells have microvilli and may contain goblet cells that secrete mucin Pseudostratified columnar epithelia: appears to consist of multiple layers of cells, scattered nuclei. All cells connect to the basement membrane but not all cells reach the apical surface. Ciliated form has goblet cells and cilia and nonciliated form lacks goblet cells and cilia. Functions—protection, ciliated form is involved in secretion of mucin and movement of mucus. Ciliated form lines the respiratory tract, nasal cavity, part of pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi. Nonciliated form is rare and lines the epididymis and part of male urethra C. Stratified epithelia Stratified squamous epithelia: 1.Multiple cell layers; deep layer of cells in direct contact w/ basement membrane, polyhedral in shape; superficial layer of cells on apical surface are flattened, squamous shape; 2 types —keratinized and nonkeratinized 2.Function: protection of underlying tissue 3.Keratinized—superficial cells are dead and made of protein keratin; located in the epidermis of skin. Nonkeratinized—superficial cells are alive and moist. Located in the oral cavity, vagina, part of pharynx, esophagus and anus Stratified cuboidal epithelia: 1 Multiple cell layers, apical cells are cuboidal in shape; rare 4. Function: Protection and secretion 5. Located in—larger ducts of some exocrine glands—sweat 8 Stratified columnar epithelia: 1 Multiple cell layers, apical cells are columnar in shape 6. Function: Protection and secretion 7. Located in—found in some regions of male urethra and in large ducts of some exocrine glands—salivary Transitional epithelia: 1 Cells can readily change their shape or appearance depending upon how stretched or relaxed the epithelium becomes. Cells of its basal layer are cuboidal or columnar, while the apical cells vary in appearance from rounded to flattened 8. Some cells may be binucleated 9. Located in—lining of urinary bladder, ureters and part of urethra D. Epithelium- Review Simple a) Squamous—lines vascular and lymphatic sacs (alveoli), filtration to kidneys b) Cuboidal—kidney tubules, glandular epithelium c) Columnar—stomach, small and large intestine lining d) Pseudostratified—lines the nasal cavity, respiratory passageways 2. Stratified e) Squamous—skin, mouth and esophagus, vagina f) Cuboidal—uncommon; ducts of mammary, sweat and salivary gland g) Columnar—uncommon; male urethra h) Transitional—urinary bladder, ureters, urethra 9 XIII. Glandular Epithelia As with membranous epithelia, glandular epithelia can be characterized depending on several morphologic characteristics as well. These include number of cells, branching patterns, shape, and secretion. Glandular secretions include mucin, hormones, enzymes and waste products. Classified as either endocrine or exocrine depending upon whether they have a duct connecting the secretory cells to the surface of an epithelium. Exocrine: originate from an invagination of epithelium that burrows into deeper connective tissue; have ducts—an epithelium lined tube which secretions of the gland are discharged onto the epithelial surface Endocrine: lack ducts and secrete their products directly into the interstitial fluid and bloodstream; secretions are hormones A. Number of cells Unicellular: single celled glands, like goblet cells found in the epithelial linings of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Multicellular: composed of both secretory and cells that form the walls of the ducts. B. Branching Patterns Simple: single, unbranched duct Compound: branched ducts C. Gland shape Tubular: if the secretory portion and the duct are of uniform diameter; the gland resembles a tube or test tube in chem. Alveolar or acinar: the secretory cells form an expanded sac; the gland resembles a flask; acini are the sacs that produce the secretion D. Secretion Types of Exocrine Glands Mucous glands: secrete glycoproteins (a larger protein attached to a carbohydrate) called mucin that absorb water to form a slippery mucus; occur in the oral cavity, surface of tongue Serous glands: secrete a watery solution that usually contains enzymes, such as the enzyme amylase found in saliva, sweat, milk, tears or digestive juices Mixed exocrine glands contain more than one type of gland cell and may produce two different exocrine secretions, one serous and one mucous. The submandibular gland is an example. E. Mechanisms of Release of Secretion Merocrine/eccrine glands: package their secretions in secretory vesicles which are discharged. Glandular cells remain intact and aren’t damaged by producing the secretion. Ex. Goblet cells, tears, salivary, some sweat, exocrine glands of pancreas, gastric glands of stomach Apocrine glands: composed of cells that accumulate their secretory products within the apical portion of their cytoplasm. The secretion follows as this apical portion decapitates and the apical portion of the cytoplasm begins to pinch off into the lumen of the gland for the secretory product to be transported to the skin surface. Ex. Mammary glands and ceruminous glands Holocrine glands: the entire cell becomes packed with secretory products, and the cell disintegrates as the secretion is released. A holocrine secretion is a mixture of cell fragments and the product the cell synthesized prior to its destruction. Ex. sebaceous hair glands 10 Introduction to Connective Tissues I Functions F. Establish a structural framework for the body G. Transport fluids and dissolved materials from one region of the body to another H. Provide protection for delicate organs I. Supporting, surrounding, and interconnecting other tissue types J. Storing energy reserves, especially as lipids K. Defending the body from invasion by microorganisms XIV. Characteristics A. CT is the most abundant tissues in the body, but are never exposed to the environment outside the body B. CT includes tendons, ligaments, fat, bone, cartilage, and blood – tissues quite varied in appearance and function C. Most CT have multiple functions, but no single tissue performs all of these functions D. Basic components: Specialized cells Extracellular protein fibers A fluid called ground substance – the matrix that surrounds cells 1. The ground substance and protein fibers form an extracellular matrix 2. Most CT is composed of a lot of extracellular matrix w/ relatively small portions of cells XV. General Histology of Connective Tissue A. Protein Fibers Collagen fibers – contain collagen which is extremely strong, flexible and stretch-resistant. It is long, straight and unbranched. Each fiber contains 3 fibrous protein subunits that are wound together like a rope. 1. Tendons are almost entirely collagen, and connect muscle to bone. 2. Ligaments resemble tendons, but connects bone to bone. 3. The parallel alignment of collagen fibers allows them to withstand tremendous forces. Reticular fibers – form a delicate latticework or reticulum by branching. Common in lymphatic glands, liver, spleen Elastic fibers – contain elastin, which is thinner, wavy, branching, and more elastic than collagen. Found in intervertebral ligaments 1 After stretching up to 150% of their original length, they can recoil to their original length B. Intercellular matrices or ground substances Ground substance is usually clear, colorless, and has a consistency similar to maple syrup. Produced by the CT cells. Consists of protein and carbohydrate molecules and variable amounts of water. May be viscous (blood), semisolid (cartilage), solid (bone). It contains a glycosaminoglycan (a protein polysaccharide): hyaluronan. A glycoaminoglycan contains polymers of amino sugars connected to protein. C. Cells General Types 1. –blasts: immature or active cells 2. –cytes: mature or cells in a dormant state 11 3. –clasts: cells that remodel or break down connective tissue, such as osteoclasts in bone Specific types 1 Fibroblasts: most abundant fixed cell in connective tissue proper. Elongate or stellate (star-shaped) are responsible for production and maintenance of CT fibers. Each fibroblast manufactures and secretes protein subunits that interact to form large extracellular fibers. Also product ground substance. In addition, secrete hyaluronan. 4. Macrophages: are large amoeboid cells that are scattered among the fibers. They engulf and destroy damaged cells or pathogens that enter the tissue. When stimulated, they release chemicals that initiate the inflammatory response, and attract large numbers of wandering cells. 5. Wandering cells: type of leukocyte; move throughout CT and involved in immune protection and repair of damaged extracellular matrix 6. White blood cells (leukocytes): protect the body against disease and mount an immune response when the body is exposed to something foreign 7. Adipocytes: fat cells or adipose cells. A typical cell contains a single enormous lipid droplet, squeezing the nucleus and other organelles to one side of the plasma membrane. The number of fat cells will vary from region to region and individual to individual 8. Mast cells: are small CT cells often clustered around blood vessels. They have secretory histamine granules. Also produce heparin, an anticoagulant that prevents blood from clotting within blood vessels. 9. Mesenchymal (stem) cells that can produce daughter cells that are fibroblasts, macrophages, or other CT cells. The first type of CT to emerge and the source of all other CT (blood, bone, cartilage, CT proper). Divide in response to injury to produce new cells. 10. Tissue specific: osteocytes (bone), chondrocytes (cartilage) D. Classification of Connective Tissue Types 1. Connective tissue proper: Loose connective tissue and Dense connective tissue; contains CT cells, extracellular protein fibers (collagen, reticular or elastic fibers), and ground substance (matrix) 2. Supporting connective tissue: 2 types- cartilage and bone 3. Fluid connective tissue: 2 types- blood and lymph 12 Connective Tissue Classification Common origin: mesenchyme C.T. Proper Supporting C.T. Fluid C.T. Loose CT Dense CT Cartilage Bone Blood (fewer fibers, (more fibers, (semisolid (solid matrix) Lymph more ground less ground matrix) substance substance Adipose Regular Hyaline Compact Reticular Elastic Elastic Spongy Areolar Irregular Fibrocartilage IV. Connective Tissue Proper A. Loose Connective Tissue: much of the space is occupied by ground substance, fewer protein fibers and cells. Acts as the body’s “packing” material 1. Adipose Tissue: a) Fat is not only an energy source, but supports and protects, as well as insulates. b) Concentrated around the kidneys, in the hypodermis of the skin, surface of the heart, surrounding joints, under side of groin, buttocks, around eyes, and in breasts of sexually mature females. c) For the most part are formed prenatally and during the first year of life. d) Adipocytes are incapable of dividing, but mesenchymal cells can differentiate into additional adipocytes. Adipocytes are not killed by weight reduction. 2. Reticular Tissue: 13 a) Characterized by a tough but flexible network of reticular fibers woven through a jelly-like ground substance. Coated with a glycoprotein. b) Contains fibroblasts and macrophages (leukocytes); the latter are phagocytic and ingest foreign materials or deteriorating cells (like RBC’s in the spleen). c) Liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow contain reticular CT. 3. Areolar: a) Least specialized of CT. d) Separates skin from deeper structures—hypodermic e) Open framework, with ground substance accounting for most of the volume. Ground substance cushions shocks and loose fibers ensure that the tissue can be distorted without damage f) Functions—Binds and packs around organs g) Location—nearly everywhere in body; surrounds nerves, blood vessels, indiv. muscle cells and subcutaneous layer. Vascularized h) Fibers – collagen fibers predominate with some elastic and reticular fibers. i) Cells: fibroblasts predominate. Mast cells are also present j) Intercellular matrices: major feature of the Connective Tissue Proper. Also called interstitial fluid; when it accumulates, as in inflammation or disease, called edema. B. Dense Connective Tissue: composed mostly of protein fibers, less ground substance. Sometimes called collagenous tissue because collagen fibers are the dominant fiber type 1. Regular (Dense Regular Connective Tissue): large amounts of densely packed, parallel collagen fibers that run parallel to the direction of force/stress placed on the tissue. Silvery white in appearance, and sometimes called white fibrous CT. Contains few blood vessels = slow healing a) Tendons – muscles to bones, and transfer force of contraction b) Ligaments – connect bone to bone across articulations (joints) c) Aponeurosis: collagen sheets or ribbons that resemble broad flat tendons 2. Irregular (Dense Irregular Connective Tissue): individual bundles of collagen fibers that extend in all directions in a scattered meshwork (branched). Bundles of fibers appear in clumps throughout tissue, not arranged in a parallel fashion. Provides support and resistance to stress in multiple directions. a) Dermis of skin b) Perichondrium (around cartilage) c) Periosteum (around bone) d) Submucosa of GI tract e) Fibrous capsules of joints and organs 3. Elastic Connective (Yellow Elastic) Tissue: branching, irregularly arranged elastic fibers and collagen fibers that provide resilience and the ability to deform and then return to normal shape. Contains many fibroblasts. Underlies transitional epithelium. 14 a) Walls of large arteries b) Vocal cords c) Suspensory ligament of penis d) Bronchial tubes V. Supporting Connective Tissues A. Cartilage: Consists of cartilage cells or chondrocytes in a firm, gel- like extracellular matrix composed of protein fibers and ground substance. Contains complex polysaccharides called chondroitin sulfates associated with proteins. Chondrocytes are the only cells within cartilage, and live in little pockets known as lacunae. Collagen fibers provide the tensile strength and more flexibility than bone. Cartilage produces a chemical that discourages blood vessel formation, and it is avascular. Chondrocytes must exchange nutrients and waste products with blood vessels outside of the cartilage by diffusion Cartilage grows in 2 ways: 1. Appositional – the perichondrium adds additional chondroblasts to the outside edges of the cartilage to widen it. Allows cartilage to grow wider 2. Interstitial growth – chondrocytes within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix – this thickens the cartilage in the middle 3. Cartilage stops growing in the late teens Types of cartilage 1. Hyaline cartilage: most common. Glassy-appearing matrix, scattered chondrocytes that are housed in lacuna. Densely packed, very fine collagen fibers that are not easily seen; it’s somewhat flexible, so it’s the weakest. Cartilage is surrounded by a perichondrium. Functions: smooth surfaces for movement at joints and supports soft tissues. a) Fetal skeleton—forms most of it and is a model for most future bone growth b) Nose, trachea, most of larynx, costal cartilage, articular ends of long bones w/ synovial joints (knee and elbow) 2. Fibrocartilage: numerous, course, parallel collagen fibers in its extracellular matrix. Fibers arranged as bundles between large chondrocytes which are arranged in parallel rows. Extreme durability. Functions: resists compression and absorbs shock in some joints. No perichondrium present. a) Intervertebral discs of vertebrae b) Pubic symphysis of pelvic bones c) Menisci of knee joint 3. Elastic cartilage: similar to hyaline, except that it has abundant elastic fibers that make it very flexible without compromising its strength. Fibers form weblike mesh around lacuna. Closely packed chondrocytes, minimal extracellular matrix. Elastic fibers are denser and more highly branched. Cartilage is surrounded by a perichondrium. Functions: maintains structure and shape while permitting extensive flexibility. a) Epiglottis of larynx b) External ear c) Auditory canal 15 B. Bone 1. Most rigid of all CT. 2. Supports soft structures 3. Protects vital organs 4. Provides levers for movement 5. Has a rich vascular (blood) supply and is active metabolically. 6. About 1/3 of matrix is cartilage-- collagen fibers – contributes to flexibility 7. Stores calcium and phosphorous 8. Rest of matrix is due to calcium salts – mostly calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate – contributes to hardness 9. Almost all bone surfaces (except for surfaces of joints of long bones) are covered by Dense Irregular CT called periosteum 10.Bone compares favorably to best steel-reinforced concrete on a weight basis Approximate tensile strength of bone and other materials Material Tons/Inch Cast Iron 5-10 Copper 10 BONE 10 Wood 7 Tendon 7 Types of Bone 1. Compact Bone: outer portion of bone. Calcified matrix arranged in osteons or Haversian systems (concentric lamellae arranged around a central canal containing blood vessels); vascular canals 2. Spongy Bone: also known as cancellous bone. Interior portion of bone. Lacks the organization of compact bone; macroscopic spaces; bone arranged in a meshwork pattern. Very strong but lightweight. Site of hemopoiesis which is the process of blood cell formation Features of Bone 1. Osteons—run parallel to the shafts of long bones 2. Lamellae—concentric rings of bone which encircle a central canal which house blood vessels and nerves 3. Lacuna—located between neighboring concentric lamellae; house osteocytes (bone cells) 4. Canaliculi—branching network throughout compact bone; communication system composed of minute passageways where diffusion of nutrients and waste products occur between the blood vessels and osteocytes 16 VI. Fluid Connective Tissue A. Blood: composed of cells and cell fragments called formed elements. These formed elements are erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. Cells are suspended in a liquid extracellular matrix called plasma which transports nutrients, wastes and hormones throughout body. Contains dissolved protein fibers in a watery ground substance. It helps to regulate pH levels and body temperature. Primarily located within blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) and the heart. 1. Leukocytes: white blood cells; mount an adaptive immune response and others respond to foreign pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites; located in lymphatic organs and can migrate to infected or inflamed tissues in the body 2. Erythrocytes: red blood cells; transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and body tissues 3. Platelets: cellular fragments that assist in blood clotting B. Lymph: Matrix is interstitial fluid – mainly fluid that has left the vascular system and needs to be returned to it. Cells are mainly lymphocytes – a type of WBC VII. Functions of Muscle Tissue 1. Movement 2. Heat Production 3. Posture 4. Body Support 5. Protection (guards entrances and exits to the body) VIII. Classifications of Muscle Tissue A. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: composed of cylindrical cells called muscle fibers. Individual skeletal muscle cells are slender and often long. Each fiber is multinucleated. It’s striated and voluntary. The striations appear as alternate dark and light bands which reflect the overlapping pattern of parallel thick and think contractile protein filaments inside the cell. This type of muscle attached to the bones of the skeleton and forms muscles associated with the skin (facial expression and body sphincters). Contraction and relaxation of muscles produce heat for the body. 17 1. Functions: Contractility—muscle responds to stimulation by contracting lengthwise. This tension can be harnessed by CT Excitability—muscle tissue is sensitive to stimuli from nerve impulses Extensibility—muscle can still contract, even when stretched Elasticity (or tone)—muscle fibers rebound to their original length after contraction or extension B. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: confined to the thick middle layer of the heart wall (myocardium). Visible striations. Much shorter cells and cells contain 1 or 2 centrally located nuclei. Cells often bifurcate (branch) and resembled a Y in shape. Cells are connected by intercalated discs which have strong desmosomes and gap junctions between the cells which provide rapid transport of electrical stimulus through many cardiac cells at once which allow the entire muscle wall to contract as a unit. Cells are responsible for the rhythmic heart contractions that pump blood throughout the blood vessels of the body. Involuntary. C. Smooth Muscle Tissue: lacks striations and cells appear smooth. Also called visceral muscle tissue because it’s found in the walls of most viscera—stomach, uterus, urinary bladder, blood vessels. The contraction of this muscle helps propel and control the movement of material through these organs; assists in child birth. Cells are fusiform (spindle-shaped) and are relatively short. Each cell has a centrally placed nucleus. Involuntary. Vocabulary (be able to define, use, or give examples of) Histology Serous Fascia Cytology Mucoid Collagen Basement membrane Apocrine Reticular Matrix Merocrine Elastic fibers Loose connective tissue Epithelium Holocrine Erythrocytes Dense regular and Stratified Acinar (alveolar) Leukocytes irregular connective Simple (tissue) Microvilli Macrophages tissue Pseudostratified Simple glands Mast cells Elastic connective tissue Hyaline cartilage Squamous Compound glands Tendons Fibrocartilage Transitional epithelium -blast Ligaments Elastic cartilage Mesothelium -cyte Adipose Endothelium -clast Chondrocytes Cilia Mesenchyme Regular fibers Apical Fibroblast Irregular fibers 18 Integumentary System This will be the first system we will discuss this semester, and it will be a discussion of the largest organ in the body as well, the skin. There are numerous part to this system that include: Skin, Hair, Nails, Sweat glands and Sebaceous gands. I General Features of Skin Determines initial impression: consider the time devoted to acne commercials on TV compared to blood pressure medication Mirrors general health of other body systems Largest organ of the body – accounting for ~7% body weight It covers about 21 sq. feet in the average adult Averages 1.5 mm thick, depending on location, varying from 6 mm on palms and soles to 0.5mm on tympanic membrane. Coordinates immune response to pathogens and cancers in skin Skin is also know as the cutaneous membrane XVI.Embryology The 2 week embryo: 1. Develops the epidermis from the outer layer of the ectoderm 2. Develops the dermis from the mesoderm XVII. Layers of Integument Epidermis and Dermis—2 layers of skin Epidermis: Stratified Squamous Epithelium (keratinized) Dermis: Dense Irregular CT and Areolar CT Some references include the hypodermis: Areolar and Adipose CT b) Functions of the Skin a. Protection Physical barrier—protects body from physical injury, trauma, bumps, scrapes Protection—harmful chemicals, toxins, microbes, excessive heat or cold Oily secretions – form an acidic film that retards growth of microorganisms, and makes the skin water-resistant and helps prevent unnecessary water loss Selectively permeable—allows some materials to pass through it and blocks others Protects deeper tissues—from solar radiation, UV light b. Temperature Regulation Normal body temperature is maintained by: 1. Dissipate heat through the dilation of blood vessels: when the body is warm 2. Evaporation or perspiration – sweat about 100-150 ml/day for every 1-degree increase in body temp. 3. Retention of heat through the constriction of blood vessels: when the body is cold; arrectores pilorum, smooth muscle attached to hair follicles contract and cause goose bumps c. Secretion Excretes water, electrolytes, drugs, and urea when the body sweats (sensible perspiration) d. Synthesis Small amounts of UV light are necessary for the synthesis of Vitamin D – which3 helps to regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the blood 19 e. Sensory Reception Cutaneous receptors- sensory nerve cells that respond to heat, cold, pressure, touch, vibration; monitor changes in temp., not actual/absolute temp. Vary in distribution- some on hands, face, etc. f. Communication Emotions are expressed in skin color Contraction of facial muscles express a variety of emotions Secretions from integumentary glands have odors which may stimulate subconscious responses from others c) Epidermis a. General Features Most superficial protective layer Varies in thickness from 0.007-0.12 mm thick Deeper layers are living cells Avascular and acquires nutrients through diffusion from underlying dermis Thick skin-the palms and soles have 5 layers, Thin skin-the rest of the body has 4 layers b. The Five Layers of the Epidermis – deep to superficial 1. Stratum Basale (stratum germinativum): a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells along the dermis; attached to the basal lamina/basement membrane. Keratinocytes, Melanocytes and Tactile cells (Merkel cells) are present. Mitosis occurs here. 4 cell types a. Keratinocytes – most abundant cell type in epidermis and occur throughout strata. Specialized keratin-producing cells. Keratin toughens and waterproofs the skin. As the cells are pushed superficially, the nuclei degenerate, and the keratin completely dominates the cell. Purpose—to form a strong cytoskeleton, form intracellular bonds and as the cell dies, the keratin is left in place. i. These are the ONLY cells found apical (superficial) to the stratum spinosum b. Melanocytes – synthesize the pigment melanin, which provides a protective barrier to UV radiation for the basal cells and DNA within the nucleus. Melanin is transferred from melanocytes to keratinocytes. In light-skinned people, some of the melanin is digested by lysosomes above the basal layer. Darker skinned people have melanocytes that produce more melanin and therefore, the cells are more active. i. Expressions of melanocytic variations 1. Tanning - Gradual exposure to UV results in increased production of melanin within melanocytes 2. Racial variation - Individual and racial differences in skin color result from different levels of melanocyte activity, not different numbers of melanocytes. 3. Albinism - Even albinos have normal numbers of melanocytes. Albinism is due to inability to convert tyrosine to melanin 4. Freckles – collections of patches of melanin 5. Vitiligo – localized whitening of skin due to lack of melanocytes 6. Seborrheic keratosis – “liver spots”: after ~50, brown, plaque-like growths on exposed skin c. Merkel (tactile) cells – sensory cells aiding in touch reception; light touch perception- superficial; attached to neurons. Few in number in S. basale 20 d. Langerhans (dendritic) cells – immune cells that help fight infection in the epidermis; protective macrophages which are mobile and patrol the skin for microorganisms that are looking for wayward bacteria 2. Stratum Spinosum (“spiny layer”): several layers of polygonal keratinocytes; each time a stem cell in the S. basale divides, a daughter cell is pushed into the next layer, where it begins to differentiate into a keratinocyte. The non-dividing keratinocytes in the S. spinosum attach to their neighbors by many intercellular junctions called desmosomes. The desmosomes specialize in cell-to-cell adhesion and when they dry out and shrink, they are still attached which lends to its spiny appearance. Langerhans cells (dendritic) are also present in this layer. 1. Cell division can continue in this layer – therefore the S. basale and S. spinosum are collectively called the stratum germinativum 3. Stratum Granulosum: granular layer; consists of 3-5 layers of keratinocytes. 2 types of granules present—keratohyalin granules which are involved in the keratinization process and lamellar granules which fuse with the plasma membrane and secrete lipids (glycoprotein- waxy protein) into the extracellular space. These lipids serve as a water barrier and prevent water loss. Keratinization process: cells become flatter and thinner, cell membranes become thicker and the nuclei and other organelles disintegrate and the cell starts to die. 4. Stratum Lucidum: clear layer; think, translucent region about 2-3 cell layers thick. Only found in thick skin such as soles of feet and palms of hands. Cells appear pale and featureless, have indistinct boundaries. Keratinocytes are flattened and filled w/ protein eleidin. 1. Appears glassy, and doesn’t stain well with standard stains 5. Stratum Corneum: 15-30 layers of flattened, dead, interlocking keratinized cells called corneocytes. Dead cells lack a nucleus or organelles. Contains large amounts of keratin. Cells are eventually sloughed off from its external surface in large groups of sheets, not individually. Migration of the keratinocyte to the S. corneum from the S. basale occurs in 2 weeks of its life. The dead, keratinized cells remain for an additional 2 weeks in the exposed S. corneum layer before they are shed. Connections from the S. spinosum remain intact, adding strength. Layer is relatively dry, therefore unsuitable for many microorganisms. Water- resistant but not waterproof. Humans lose about 500 ml (~1 pt) of water a day through the skin. Present everywhere except on anterior surface of eyes. Stratum basale Stratum germinativum – older terminology Stratum spinosum Stratum granulosum Stratum lucidum – only in palms and soles Stratum corneum d) The Dermis a. General Features Deep to epidermis and much thicker 21 Areolar CT, Dense Irregular CT Integumentary effectors: muscles or glands that respond to motor impulses from the nervous system Vascular supply – helps regulate body temperature and BP Lines of tension – primarily collagen fibers, elastic and reticular fibers are present 1. Decreasing elastic fibers is associated with aging 2. Vascularized – to support epidermis 3. Contains many sweat glands, oil-secreting glands, sensory nerve endings, and hair follicles b. Layers Papillary layer: top 20% of the dermis 1. Areolar CT 2. Superficial layer in contact with the epidermis 3. Dermal papillae (nipples) – fingerlike projections/wave patterns that extend from the dermis into the epidermis; contain the capillaries that supply nutrients to the cells of the epidermis 4. Sensory receptors continuously monitor touch on the surface of the epidermis Reticular layer: bottom 80% of the dermis 1. Dense Irregular CT, that surrounds blood vessels, hair follicles, nerves, and sweat and sebaceous glands 2. Bundles of collagen fibers that project in all directions 3. Deeper and thicker than the papillary layer 4. Can be “torn” during pregnancy or obese individuals a. Repair leaves a white mark called a linea albicans e) Hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue a. Characteristics 1. Not part of the skin but binds the dermis to underlying organs 2. Areolar CT, Adipose CT, blood vessels 3. Females have an 8% thicker hypodermis than males 4. Stores lipids, insulates, cushions and regulates temperature 5. Subcutaneous fat—present in some locations of the body where Adipose CT predominates Men – neck, upper arms, along lower back, over buttocks Women – breasts, buttocks, hips, and thighs f) Glands of the integument We spent some time earlier talking about the various types of glands in the body based on cell structure, branching patterns, and secretion patterns. In the skin we can talk about three very specific types of glands, sudoriferous glands, sebaceous glands, and ceruminous glands a. Sudoriferous glands (sweat glands)– 2 types: Eccrine (Merocrine) and Apocrine. Functions—evaporative cooling and secretion of wastes. “Odor” in its name. Coiled, tubular secretory portion located in reticular layer of dermis or hypodermis. Eccrine (Merocrine) – widely distributed over skin, especially forehead, back, palms, and soles. Function in evaporative cooling, thermoregulation, provide some antibacterial protection. Controlled by nervous system. Apocrine – much larger. Found in axillary and pubic regions and secrete into hair follicles. Contains extra fats and lipids that give rise to bacteria which cause bad odor. Secretion influenced by hormones—secrete pheromones. May act as a sexual attractant; don’t function until puberty. Apocrine secretions of mature women have been shown to alter the menstrual timing of other women. 1. Mammary glands – specialized sudoriferous glands that secrete milk during lactation 22 b. Sebaceous glands Oil glands that secrete sebum onto shaft of hair root Sebum has bacteria-killing properties Commonly associated with hair follicles Lubricates and waterproofs S. corneum Holocrine glands Regulated by sex hormones, and hyperactivity can result in acne c. Ceruminous glands True Apocrine glands Found only in external auditory canal (ear canal) Secrete cerumen or earwax Water and insect repellant Keeps tympanic membrane (ear drum) flexible g) FYI a. Skin cancer: Melanoma 1. Arises from melanocytes in skin. 2. Ultraviolet radiation causes epidermal cells to mutate and become cancerous. Squamous cell 1. Arise from epidermal cells in skin 2. Associated with sites of skin damage: including UV light exposure Basal cell 1. Accounts for 75% of skin cancers 3. Resemble the normal basal layer of the epidermis 4. Usually associated with skin damage from UV light b. UV light also contributes to age related cataracts, and macular degeneration People who spent more than 5 hours a day in the sun as youths were more likely to develop macular degeneration when older Vocabulary Integument Stratum spinosum Albinism Epidermis Stratum granulosum Vitiligo Dermis Stratum lucidum Sudoriferous Hypodermis (subcutaneous) Stratum corneum Sebaceous Stratum basale or stratum Keratinocytes Ceruminous germinativum Merkel cells 23 24 The Axial and Appendicular Skeleton • The human skeleton is divided into two different divisions –Axial Skeleton: the skull, bones of the thorax, and the vertebral column, including the sacrum and coccyx –Appendicular Skeleton: the extremities and their supporting elements-- the shoulder and pelvis girdle. * You will be covering the gross anatomy of both of these divisions in the lab. In lecture, we will be covering the histology and general anatomy of compact bone. I Functions of the Skeletal System At birth the skeleton consists of about 270 bones, which decreases to about 206 bones by adulthood due to bone fusion. a. Support Rigid structure to which softer tissues and organs are attached The skeleton can support a weight of up to 5 times the weight of the bones themselves b. Protection The skull protects the brain The vertebral column the spinal cord The rib cage, the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen The pelvic girdle cradles the digestive and reproductive organs c. Hematopoiesis (Hemopoiesis) RBC’S, WBC’s, and platelets are produced from stem cells within the red marrow. An average of 2.5 million RBC’s are produced every second d. Storage The calcium salts of the bone act as a reservoir for valuable minerals like calcium and phosphate. 1. 95% of calcium is stored in the bones and teeth 2. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body; it is necessary for blood clotting, movement of ions across cell membranes, and muscle contraction e. 90% of phosphorus is stored in the skeleton; it is necessary for the activities of the nucleic acids. Magnesium, sodium, fluorine, and heavy metals like strontium are stored in bone tissue Fat stored in the yellow marrow acts as an energy reserve h) Types of bone a. Long bones Longer than they are wide Function as levers Most of the bones of the upper and lower extremities: 1. Humerus 4. Metacarpal bones 2. Radius 5. Femur 3. Ulna 6. Tibia 25 7. Fibula 9. Phalanges 8. Metatarsal bones b. Short bones Somewhat cube-shaped Transfer forces of movement 1. Carpals 2. Tarsals c. Flat bones Broad surface for muscle attachment or protection of underlying organs 1. Cranial bones 2. Ribs 3. Bones of shoulder girdle (scapula) 4. Sternum d. Irregular bones Varied shapes Many surface attachments for muscles or articulation 1. Bones of skull, face, vertebrae 2. Bones of os coxae e. Sesamoid bones Additional bones that develop in tendons in response to stress across a joint 1. Patella f. Accessory bones Bones that are supernumerary or not usually present Usually short or flat and occur in hands and feet g. Sutural bones Extra bones within the sutures of the skull 26 i) Gross Anatomy of the “Typical” Long Bone A typical long bone is composed of several different parts that are the same regardless of the bone. These include: a. Diaphysis The shaft of a long bone, the cylinder of compact bone surrounding a central cavity. Provides for the leverage and major weight support of long bones The shaft normally applies forces from one epiphysis to the other, and is very strong when stressed along that axis. However when stressed tangentially (from the sides), it is more likely to fracture. b. Epiphysis The ends of a long bone, knobby regions, consists of spongy bone surrounded by compact bone Distal/proximal ends 1. Compact bone (dense bone) – is hard and dense, and is the protective exterior portion of all bones. 2. Spongy bone (cancellous bone) – is deep to the compact bone, and quite porous, forms an open network of struts and branching plates (trabeculae) which are oriented along stress lines, but with extensive cross bracing. c. Metaphysis or Epiphyseal Endplate Region in a mature bone A relatively narrow zone where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis Epiphyseal line (adult)—thin layer of compact bone Epiphyseal cartilage (juvenile)—thin layers of hyaline cartilage d. Medullary cavity containing red marrow or yellow marrow Central cavity found in long bones, usually surrounded by spongy bone Yellow marrow – contains large amounts of fat Red marrow—contains stem cells that form all of the formed elements in the blood. Where hemopoiesis (process of blood cell formation) occurs – portions of the vertebrae, sternum, ribs, skull, hip bones, humerus and femur e. Endosteum Incomplete layer of cells that covers all internal surfaces of bone Lines the medullary cavity by a thin layer of connective tissue Contains osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts Active during bone growth, repair and remodeling f. Periosteum The tough sheath covering the outer surface of bone except over articular cartilage; it consists of a layer of Dense Irregular CT with an outer fibrous layer and an inner cellular layer. g. Articular cartilage Thin layer of hyaline cartilage that caps long bone epiphyses, and facilitates joint movement, reduce friction and absorb shock in moveable joints. j) Histology of Bone a. Comp
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