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UF - PSY 2012 - Class Notes - PSY2012

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UF - PSY 2012 - Class Notes - PSY2012

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background image PSY2012 Week 4 Sensation & Perception
­ Do we perceive the world as it actually is?
­Everything is virtual
­Our human world is socially constructed
­Brain cannot interpret all incoming data (TMI)
­Our brains miss some info in the environment 
­"Filling in"
­Our brains also produce info that is not actually present in the environment 
­Sensation: Raw data gathering (form the environment)  ­Perception: Brain's interpretation of raw data 
­Illusions: perception does not match reality 
­Same principles/processes underlie all senses 
­Process of converting external stimuli into electrical signals (the "language" of the nervous 
­Sense receptors
­Specialized for vision, hearing, etc.
­Sensory adaptation
­highest activation when a stimulus is first detected, then decreases
­E.g., repetitive annoying sounds; sitting down 
­Takes place at the level of the receptor 
­Without adaptation, our attention would be stretched thin  ­Gustav Fechner (1860)
­How we perceive sensory stimuli in most basic form
­Basic characteristics of all stimuli:
­(1) Absolute threshold: lowest level of a stimulus we can detect
­50% of the time (human error increases with weaker stimuli)
­Feather on skin
­A single candle 30 miles away
­(2) Just Noticeable Difference
­smallest amount of change in a stimulus we can detect
­Ex. Turning the volume down until you cant hear it anymore, and then gradually turning it up 
until you can just hear it again 
­(3) Weber's law
­Stronger the stimulus, the larger the Just Noticeable Difference
­i.e., when the stimuli is strong, larger changes must occur in order to sense a difference 
­Sensation requires detecting a signal amongst noise
­i.e., how people detect a stimulus under different conditions
­Ex. A telephone conversation with a static line 
background image ­Response Bias
­tendency to answer one way when uncertain whether a weak signal is present or absent
­"seeing stars" in response to pressure on the eyeball or direct stimulation of the visual system 
other than by light (e.g, cortical stimulation)
1. Sensations determined by what sensory receptor is activated (not what's activating it)
­Ex. Both light and touch activate the visual system 
2.Cortical connections between ares not always audio­audio, visual­visual etc. 
­Ex. McGurk Effect (audio­visual interaction)
3. Some brain areas may be multi­purpose, processing multiple senses
­Ex. Both audio and visual system interact with touch
­Reading braille 
­Potnetially an extreme version of cross­modal sensations
­Ex1: Tasting, smelling, or hearing colors
­Selective attention: ­Brain picks and chooses important sensory information
­Other "channels" still processed at some level
­E.g., Hear your name from across the room ­Cocktail party effect
­We mostly try to ignore "background noise" (whatever we are not directly attending to) until the
information is relevant to us ­Inattentional blindness
­Failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere
­Change blindness: failure to detect changes in the environment The Visual System
­Types of visual perception
­Visual Problems ­The ability to use minimal patterns to identify objects 
­Different cells are specialized to respond to different stimuli 
­"Simple" cells: lower level processing; detect simple lines and edges
­"Complex" cells: higher level processing; detect complex shapes, moving objects
­A couple prominent theories ­Trichromatic theory

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School: University of Florida
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Professor Smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology
Name: PSY2012
Description: Class Notes
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
4 Pages 15 Views 12 Unlocks
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