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UF - PSY 2012 - Class Notes - PSY2012

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UF - PSY 2012 - Class Notes - PSY2012

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background image PSY2012 Week 4 Sensation & Perception
­ Do we perceive the world as it actually is?
­Everything is virtual
­Our human world is socially constructed
­Brain cannot interpret all incoming data (TMI)
­Our brains miss some info in the environment 
­"Filling in"
­Our brains also produce info that is not actually present in the environment 
­Sensation: Raw data gathering (form the environment)  ­Perception: Brain's interpretation of raw data 
­Illusions: perception does not match reality 
­Same principles/processes underlie all senses 
­Transduction
­Process of converting external stimuli into electrical signals (the "language" of the nervous 
system)
­Sense receptors
­Specialized for vision, hearing, etc.
­Sensory adaptation
­highest activation when a stimulus is first detected, then decreases
­E.g., repetitive annoying sounds; sitting down 
­Takes place at the level of the receptor 
­Without adaptation, our attention would be stretched thin  ­Gustav Fechner (1860)
­How we perceive sensory stimuli in most basic form
­Basic characteristics of all stimuli:
­(1) Absolute threshold: lowest level of a stimulus we can detect
­50% of the time (human error increases with weaker stimuli)
­Exs:
­Feather on skin
­A single candle 30 miles away
­(2) Just Noticeable Difference
­smallest amount of change in a stimulus we can detect
­Ex. Turning the volume down until you cant hear it anymore, and then gradually turning it up 
until you can just hear it again 
­(3) Weber's law
­Stronger the stimulus, the larger the Just Noticeable Difference
­i.e., when the stimuli is strong, larger changes must occur in order to sense a difference 
­Sensation requires detecting a signal amongst noise
­i.e., how people detect a stimulus under different conditions
­Ex. A telephone conversation with a static line 
background image ­Response Bias
­tendency to answer one way when uncertain whether a weak signal is present or absent
­Phosphenes
­"seeing stars" in response to pressure on the eyeball or direct stimulation of the visual system 
other than by light (e.g, cortical stimulation)
­Explanations:
1. Sensations determined by what sensory receptor is activated (not what's activating it)
­Ex. Both light and touch activate the visual system 
2.Cortical connections between ares not always audio­audio, visual­visual etc. 
­Ex. McGurk Effect (audio­visual interaction)
3. Some brain areas may be multi­purpose, processing multiple senses
­Ex. Both audio and visual system interact with touch
­Reading braille 
­Synesthesia 
­Potnetially an extreme version of cross­modal sensations
­Ex1: Tasting, smelling, or hearing colors
­Selective attention: ­Brain picks and chooses important sensory information
­Other "channels" still processed at some level
­E.g., Hear your name from across the room ­Cocktail party effect
­We mostly try to ignore "background noise" (whatever we are not directly attending to) until the
information is relevant to us ­Inattentional blindness
­Failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere
­Change blindness: failure to detect changes in the environment The Visual System
­Types of visual perception
­Visual Problems ­The ability to use minimal patterns to identify objects 
­Different cells are specialized to respond to different stimuli 
­"Simple" cells: lower level processing; detect simple lines and edges
­"Complex" cells: higher level processing; detect complex shapes, moving objects
­A couple prominent theories ­Trichromatic theory
­Opponent...

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School: University of Florida
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Professor Smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology
Name: PSY2012
Description: Class Notes
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
4 Pages 15 Views 12 Unlocks
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