World Politics Study Guide for Exam 1
World Politics Study Guide for Exam 1 PSCI/IS/GEOG 2054
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leor Clark on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI/IS/GEOG 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas, Vern Ferguson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 313 views. For similar materials see Introduction to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Midterm 1 Study Guide Stuff to know for first exam: 1648: Treaty of Westphalia o Established sovereignty 1815: Congress of Vienna o European system is set to pre-Napoleonic Wars 1815-1914: Age of Metternich 1914-1918: World War I 1918-1939: Interwar period 1939-1945: World War II 1945-1991: The Cold War 12/25/1991: collapse of the Soviet Union 2001: 9/11- begins the War on Terror Ex- telegram: deterrence, containment of communism 1991-2001: confusing and unfocused time for USA politics, we had a massive military and no war, War on Terror refocuses foreign policy i. Lecture 2 a. 3 concepts: i. International Relations 1. Interactions between or among sovereign states 2. The world is state-centered 3. Legitimacy 4. Established political borders with some kind of political/economic system 5. 193 countries have seats in the UN (last to join was South Sudan) 6. Sovereignty: whatever happens within state boundaries stays there, states cannot interfere in the relations of other countries (until recently), states can choose their government types 7. Legitimacy a. External: recognized by certain states (usually if USA says “no”, it is not recognized as legitimate) i. Ex: Palestine- most countries voted yes, USA and Canada voted no b. Internal: consent of the governed to be governed i. Ex: Syria ii. World Politics 1. Issues that play out on world stage 2. Pretty meaningless and undefined iii. Globalization 1. Transnationalism 2. Independence 3. Super nationality/Sub nationalism 4. Hyperglobalists vs. Skeptics 5. The world has become smaller and more interconnected than ever before because of technology ii. Lecture 3 a. The world has its roots in westernization i. Every bit of politics that we know is only a couple hundred years old b. There was no international system before there were states c. People were originally nomadic and tribal d. Communities prior to the modern world were hungry i. They lived in hostile environments ii. Low birth rates e. First cultural revolution/agricultural revolution in the Fertile Crescent rise in population f. The plague was so significant that it shows up on a population graph g. Second agricultural revolution starts in Britain in the 12 century i. Enlightenment and science th h. Third cultural revolution was a technological revolution in the 20 century i. Each revolution caused the population to skyrocket i. Political Maps: the straighter the line, the more turmoil in the country i. Berlin in the 1800s- European powers divided African continent among themselves, and when it became too expensive, they picked up and left, leaving incredible political turmoil in the whole continent 1. Some African groups are still nomadic, which hurts their legitimacy/citizenship/etc. 2. A common African passport would make more sense to a continent as diverse as Africa j. What if the Bubonic Plague was stronger and the Europeans never colonized the world? i. More countries in Africa with wavier boundaries k. Primordial communities i. Live to survive ii. Disciplined by honor and shame iii. Put the community before themselves iv. Patriarchal v. Rites of passage determine the members vs. the non-members l. Agriculture introduction of surplus i. Began near water and river valleys ii. Communities grew iii. When groups were nomadic, there was little conflict because nobody owned anything iv. Food surplus establishment of civilizations rise and fall of empires 1. Rulers were determined by whoever could conquer the most land and people m. Kleptocracy: government that steals form its people i. Taxes or tribute ii. Need soldiers to protect surplus iii. Farmers work to feed everyone n. Dynasties emerge with rule of blood and dominant blood lines i. Thought of as godly ii. Lasted until very recently o. First two modern states were considered to be France and Britain i. American Revolution starts the whole thing: 1. France supported America Great Britain became broke and taxed their citizens ii. French estates 1. Clergy/church 1% 2. Nobility 2% 3. Everyone else 97% a. Paid all the taxes 4. Estates general: each estate cast one vote, 1 and 2 would vote against 3 5. King decided to tax nobility 3 estate proposes proportional system and dissolves estates general French Revolution iii. Dynasty system shifts to modern statehood 1. People deal with domestic politics in their own countries iv. Emergence of Nations: groups of people who believe they belong together and can govern themselves, common identity or threat unites them 1. Nationalism: self-described and usually caused the most political turmoil in the last 30 years despite being extremely unifying 2. Gives governments legitimacy 3. Constantly changing 4. Boundaries don’t really mean anything unless they are recognized as legitimate a. Ex: Pakistan and Afghanistan (Stateless nations) iii. Lecture 4 a. Treaties of Westphalia: (1648) i. Gives us the Doctrine of Sovereignty 1. Right of a state to do whatever in its boundaries 2. Protected from threat of neighboring countries interfering 3. All European monarchs were connected somehow (by blood or by marriage) 4. Includes religious freedoms and early recognition of citizenship ii. Holy Roman Empire is a mess iii. Germany is broken up into many small principalities iv. Politics are bloody v. Huge step in world politics b. Napoleonic Wars: (1803-1815) i. Extension of French Revolution ii. Convinced people to die in the name of being French iii. Collapsed Spanish Empire and Holy Roman Empire iv. Convinced soldiers to fight in extreme conditions v. Massive slave rebellion in Haiti led by Toussaint Louverture weakens Napoleon 1. Sent his best troops and lost them all 2. Tried to take over Russia with weak troops and losses to cold Russian winter c. Peace of Vienna i. Leaders of Europe met in Vienna to decide what to do next d. Age of Metternich (100-year peace) i. Decided to ignore the last 20 y ears ii. Reinstated political systems pre-Napoleon iii. 1814-1915: Europe was relatively stable and peaceful with little upscale conflict iv. 5 powers running the whole thing: France, Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria 1. Britain was economically, politically, and militarily the strongest (controlled most of the world) 2. Known as The Great Power System 3. Britain was making money off of diplomacy to keep Europe stable v. Germany and Italy are still not united vi. Colonialism, industrialism, changing ideas e. Prussia and Bismarck (chancellor) i. Sought to unite Germany under Prussian crown ii. Austro-Prussian War (1866) iii. Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) iv. German Unification (1871) v. Messes in small conflicts to create common enemy and common identity in Germany vi. France and Germany constantly fought over Alsace-Lorraine because it was rich in coal and iron (steel) 1. Important to build military, infrastructure, rails, cars, etc. f. Mercantilism: using colonies for resources and bringing it back to main land i. Self-sufficiency g. Ottoman empire is starting to collapse h. Austro-Hungarian empire weakens (nationalism in Hungary strengthens) i. Germany and Italy now exist j. Great Britain faces competition k. No real war in 100 years l. World War I i. Nationalism, arrogance, over-confidence, militarism ii. All military strategy based on 100 years ago iii. Bloody, hideous example of how bad politics can get iv. Marks end of Age of Metternich v. Total War 1. Arms race, nationalization, imperialism, alliances, political failure, industrialization, militarization 2. Effected the Americas as well 3. Secret alliances were made and nobody noticed until too late 4. Failure of diplomacy vi. Allied powers: France, Italy, Russia, Portugal vii. Central powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria viii. Neutral: Spain ix. Woodrow Wilson submitted his 14 points to France and Britain for ideas for peace after the war, but it was ignored x. Treaty of Versailles 1. Revenge for the war 2. Punishes and humiliates Germany even though they lost the war 3. War reparations took almost a century to be paid off 4. League of Nations was created, but unsuccessful m. The Interwar Period (early 1930s) i. Economic boom economic bust ii. Isolationism of USA iii. Rise of Hitler, Mussolini, Facism iv. Appeasement: makes aggressor more aggressive 1. Stalled outbreak of war 2. Germany invades Poland in 1939 n. End of WWII i. Allies determined not to repeat mistakes of 1918 ii. Non-aggression pact iii. Germany is split up and ceases to exist as a country until the 1950s iv. Decolonization/de-imperialism iv. Lecture 5: The Cold War a. Capitalism vs. Communism i. one threatened the other’s existence ii. competing ideologies iii. land grabs and spheres of influence iv. arms race v. 1917: Russian Revolution 1. Reds: communists, Leninists 2. Whites: pro-czar vi. Hitler invaded USSR 1. USSR and USA were not allies, they just had a common enemy 2. Greatest kept secret: USA cracked Nazi codes a. Alan Turing b. USA never told the Soviets, but millions of Soviet lives could have been saved if they did vii. Nuclear weapons change everything b. 1946 crisis in Iran i. Controlled by Britain in WWII ii. Major pipeline for oil iii. Britain promised to give Iran independence under USSR watch 1. Given to USA instead, which establishes USA and USSR as enemies c. The role of The Bomb i. Changed the way the world looks at war ii. WWIII possibility of nuclear war and annihilation iii. Deterrence: way to check nuclear monopoly 1. If someone shot, everyone will die iv. Communication, capability, and credibility 1. The point of the arms race was so that we would NEVER have to use them (keeps the world kind of safe???) Mutually Assured Destruction 2. Only USA had all three C’s in 1945, but Russia catches up within a decade 3. There is one set of rules for nuclear states and another for everybody else d. Triads and Targets i. Nuclear Triad 1. Bombs 2. Land-based missiles 3. Submarine missiles ii. AND 1. 1 strike targets: nuclear military and command targets a. Completely destroys arsenal nd 2. 2rd strike targets: cities, highly populated areas 3. 3 strike targets: long-term infrastructure iii. One wrong step in any direction and the whole world blows up e. The Iron Curtain: buffer zone between East and West i. Split Germany in four ii. Article 5 of NATO treaty: attack one NATO country, attack them all 1. Solidified mutually assured destruction 2. Still in effect today 3. NATO in West, Warsaw Pact in East iii. First world: USA and allies iv. Second world: Russia and its allies (doesn’t exist anymore) v. Third world: everyone else (including Switzerland) vi. Berlin was the constant tipping point f. The Berlin Crisis i. First crisis: Soviets cut off access to West Berlin Berlin airlift ii. Second crisis: soviets do it again, but the city has grown so it’s too hard to bring airlift iii. Kennedy runs the blockade iv. Construction of Berlin Wall splits Berlin in half (1961-1989) Becomes symbol for the war g. Cuban Missile Crisis i. Closest we ever came to nuclear war ii. USA placed missiles in Turkey that could reach Moscow iii. Adley Stevenson: called USSR out on their bluff about the nuclear weapons in Cuba in front of the United Nations 1. Whole world turned against Soviets 2. Called for appeasement to pull weapons out of Turkey and Cuba but was laughed out of politics 3. Back room deal bring missiles out of Cuba and then a few months later, USA would take missiles out of Turkey (USA replaced missiles with better missiles h. The emergence of Détente (communication to avoid war) made world more diplomatic i. Red telephone system: fosters direct communication between leaders of USSR and USA i. The Proxy Wars (times the Cold War got hot) i. The Korean War ii. Vietnam iii. Afghanistan iv. Latin America v. Containment: Soviet communism had to expand or it would die 1. Contain it, and the USSR would die 2. Justified intervention vi. Ronald Reagan led 2 ndarms race, which bankrupted social security j. End of the Cold war i. Berlin wall comes down in 1989 ii. US’s military caused economic death spiral in USSR, but it had been in a death spiral for decades v. Lecture 6 a. Theory: simplifies complex things into smaller ideas or facts and numbers b. Post-war predicament i. War disrupts trade ii. People die iii. Exception: USA in WWII helped bring us out of Great Depression (military Industrial Complex) c. Aftermath of WWII i. Recognition of mistakes, end Treaty of Versailles ii. Wipe Germany off the map iii. Self-determination = sovereignty 1. Ideas of sovereignty change because of genocide, gross violations of human rights, etc. iv. Creation of United Nations d. Post war visions i. General George Marshall 1. Skilled diplomat 2. Marshall plan: united Europe is in the interest of the USA a. Functionalism: Europe CANNOT afford to go to war again b. Take USA tax money to rebuild Europe and see what happens c. Catch: $12 billion dollars given to Europe without a loan d. Hyperinflation in Germany killed middle class e. Let’s find some way not to go to war again f. USSR didn’t take the money, so they look like the bad guy ii. What if nobody owned the coal and steel? 1. Socialism 2. European coal and Steel Community 3. France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands 4. Took control of the steel supply and industry 5. Surrendered sovereignty and gave up ability to go to war 6. Used American money from Marshall Plan 7. Accepted new members (socially created a United States of Europe) 8. Made mining safer iii. European Economic Community (European Union) 1. Treaty of Rome: established it (1957) 2. Freedom of movement for goods, people, capital, and services 3. Common internal and external policies 4. Britain is forced in in the 1970s 5. Europe can finally compete with the United States 6. 1979: Cassis de Dijon Crisis France and Germany fight over standards of alcohol regulations and what could be sold in each country (almost dissolved union over stupid crisis) a. Solution: let the market do what the market does b. Ruling: if the product is safe for sale in one country, it is safe to sell in all countries (Established agencies would regulate this and set rules) e. The end of the Cold War i. Berlin wall comes down in 1989 ii. Germany unifies without telling the rest of the Union iii. USSR collapses on 12/21/1991 1. Maastricht Treaty: holds Germany to the EU, incorporates Eastern Europe over time a. Creates common European currency b. European politics spread from West to East f. Since 1991 i. Peace in France and Germany ii. But… 1. Integration slowed down 2. Failure of European Constitution in 2007 3. Economic recession 4. Brexit (2016) vi. Lecture 7: Realism a. Theory: idea, takes complex system and simplifies it into something that tells you what’s important b. Power: military power (size, reach, technology), religious and cultural power, nuclear power, economic power, resources, territory c. Realism i. Military power is the only power that realists care about ii. States (sovereign and independent) iii. Billiard ball politics: Nobody cares about what goes on inside the country 1. All states, given the right set of variables, will react the same way iv. Countries are relatively the same except for military power v. Don’t care about domestic politics vi. Anarchy: no government higher than the state, so international government cannot stop a state vii. the job of a state is to survive viii. Zero sum game: power is finite, some have more BECAUSE others have less ix. International system reflects human nature combative, competitive, aggressive x. States should do anything necessary to survive (dual moral standard of realism)- people should be morally good but states can do anything xi. Realism is reductionist, good at explaining conflict, but not cooperation xii. Realist countries are predictable xiii. Guns vs. Butter: when 2 countries spend money on “butter” (infrastructure, health care, education, etc.), they both thrive. When 2 countries spend money on military, they don’t thrive, but they survive. When one spends on guns and one on butter, the one with guns takes over the one with butter. If you don’t spend on guns, you fail. 1. Whoever has the guns and the guts to use them makes the rules 2. There is no exception to Rule #1 xiv. If you are a realist and you are given the choice to cooperate of defect, you always defect vii. Lecture 8 Notes: Liberalism (“idealism”) a. Problem with Realism i. Reductionist, cannot explain cooperation, integration, and globalization (transnationalism) ii. Realists don’t care about alliances iii. Don’t focus on other powers except military iv. Liberalism is more inclusive b. Foundations of Liberalism i. Seek diplomacy rather than military ii. Self-restraint 1. Being calm and collective iii. Compromise 1. You don’t always get the best deal 2. Holding back, not responding on time, taking hits, being certain that there are other options of responding 3. Give a little to gain a lot iv. Peace 1. Peace is possible without war 2. We can find ways for both sides to benefit v. Progress vi. Individualism 1. Individual people can choose their own ways to govern themselves (unalienable rights) vii. Tolerance 1. Tolerate other country’s systems (mutual respect) as long as they don’t violate the balance of power and force ideas onto others viii. Freedom ix. Constitutionalism 1. Good ideas Write them down x. Self-determination 1. Legitimacy and recognition c. The Liberal Tradition i. States have the right to choose their own way of government ii. Cultures and histories are so different that two countries can’t possibly have the same political systems iii. “Life, Liberty, and property.” -Locke d. The State and the Individual i. Like sovereignty, it’s like a social contract instead of the most important value ii. Can be taken away because it’s not an absolute right 1. Once you commit gross violations of human rights, your sovereignty is taken away through intervention, so it HAS to be limited e. Functionalism (emerged before WWI) i. Free trade will stop wars ii. War is bad for business if countries are so economically connected 1. Countries HAVE to use diplomacy to solve problems iii. Necessary institutions will be created to promote diplomacy iv. Woodrow Wilson was a functionalist (14 Points) v. Functionalists are not wrong 1. Ex) USA and China are so deeply economically connected, so we haven’t gone to war f. Neo-Functionalism i. Make a political decision that will force openness and both sides have to deal with it ii. Prevents the outbreak of war iii. General Marshall was the American Neo-Functionalist (the Marshall Plan) g. The Role of Institutions i. Trust and accountability ii. The United Nations is the best thing iii. Alliances put something on the table iv. Transparency and predictability 1. Reduces risks of defection and increases cooperation and diplomacy h. Weaknesses of Liberalism i. Doesn’t explain war, defection, aggression, etc. ii. What “could be” vs. what “is” iii. The world is still at war iv. Liberal state is vulnerable to be defected against 1. Ex) USSR was so sure they could trust Nazis a. Possibility of defection threatens the survival of the stat
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