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YSU - ASTR 40053 - Class Notes - Week 4

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YSU - ASTR 40053 - Class Notes - Week 4

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background image Biology 2602 Notes U NIT  2: C HAPTERS  29 &30          Ancestry o  There are some parasitic plants o  Chlorophyll cannot be used to distinguish plants          Distinctive Features of land plants o All bodies are composed of 3D tissues  Other adaptations to avoid water loss Dessication Resistance  -resistance to losing water o Tissues arise from apical meristems at growing tips 
o Tissues and organs with specialized functions
Alternation of generations  Sporophyte and Gametophyte stage  Dessication- resistance and/ or dormancy Specialized structures to generate, protect, and disperse 
reproductive cells
10 Plant Phyla o 1. Liverworts
o 2. Mosses
o 3. Hornworts
o 4. Lycophytes
o 5. Pteridophytes
o 6. Cycads
o 7. Ginkgos
o 8. Conifers 
o 9. Gntopytes
o 10. Angiosperms
1-3 are non-vascular  4-10 vascular 1-5 require water for reproduction 6-10 seed plants 6-9 Gymnosperms Non-Vascular  o  Lack developed structures for moving water and nutrients This constrains body size Vascular o Has a developed system for moving water and nutrients. Xylem  Phloem  Bryophytes and Relatives (Groups 1-3) o They share common structural, reproductive and ecological features
o NO Vascular tissue
Constrains size Constrains possible habitat Flagellated sperm  o Distinguishing Bryophyte Features
background image Gametophytes are the dominant generation As opposed to a dominant sporophyte generation on all 
other plants
Sporophytes are dependent on gametophytes …and they are smaller and short lived, as opposed to 
independent, large and longer lived sporophytes in other 
plants
Non-Vascular Constrains size, causes dependence on water for 
reproduction, and constrains habitat possibilities. 
Lycophytes and Pteridophytes (ferns) o Vascular Plants
o Do NOT produce seeds
o Rely on water for reproduction
o Sporophyte size and vascularization distinguish this group from  Bryophyte  o Diverged prior to the origin of seeds Seedless vascular plants Reproduction via spores limits habitat exploitation Origin of Leaves o Provides a higher surface area that helps leaves to effectively capture 
sunlight for use in photosynthesis 
o Disadvantage is the water loss Seedless Plants Transformed Earth’s Ecology o Liverworts and mosses produce decay-resistant body tissue NON-vascular plants were 1 st  to colonize land This began process of organic carbon burial o Level of CO2 dropped  Earth dried and cooled Also enriched the soil. o Accumulation of nutrients  Ecological Effects of Vascular Plants o first appeared 420-429 mya o Converted huge amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere in to organic 
material that was decay resistant
Fossil Fules o Removed a large amount of CO2 from the atmosphere Made earth cooler and drier Non-seed Plants o Require water for gamete transfer  o Homosporous - no apparent difference between spores destined to be  male/ female Seed Plants o Heterosporous - distinctly different spores to form male/ female  gametophytes o Do NOT require water for gamete transfer  2
background image o Seeds provide  protection & nutrients  for developing embryo after  fertilization Overview of Seed Plants o Evolved from seedless plants  o Major critical innovations- shared by seed plants Pollen     - allows seed plants to disperse male gametophytes Ovules - protect and nourish female gametophytes Seeds  – allow plants to reproduce in diverse habitats without a  reliance on water  THIS INCLUDES GAMETE TRANSFER Wood     -strengthens plants  allowing them to grow tall (and wide)  and produce many branches, leaves, and seeds.  Also, large sporophyte= potential for many gametophytes o NOT ALL SEED PLANTS HAVE WOOD Ecological Advantages of Seeds o Seeds are a key adaptation to reproduction in a land habitat  o Able to remain dormant in soil until favorable conditions occur o Adaptations / selection to improve dispersal o Can store considerable amount of food o Sperm can reach egg without having to go through water Gymnosperms      (“Naked Seeds”) o 4 Groups 1. Conifers 2. Ginkgos  3.  Cycads 4. Gnetophytes o Reproduce using spores and seeds (like angiosperms) o SEED PLANTS Seeds protect and provide energy for young sporophytes o “naked seeds”  because seeds are not enclosed by a fruit Mature fruit = mature ovary  o Produce cones to reproduce Wood o Tissue composed of numerous water-conducting cells strengthened by 
lignin
Allows woody tissue to transport water upward for great 
distance 
Also provides structural support to achieve large size o Vascular Cambium-  produces thick layer of wood and thin layer of  inner bark (girth growth) Inner bark used for transporting water solutions of organic 
compounds 
ex sugar o Tracheids- for water transport  Angiosperms o Distinguished by the presence of flowers and endosperm o Flowers are specialized to enhance pollination and seed production  3

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School: Youngstown State University
Department: Astronomy
Course: Organisms and Ecology (Bio 2)
Professor: Renne and Dr. Walker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology and Ecology
Name: Biology Unit 2 Notes
Description: Cover the first half of notes for Unit two.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
7 Pages 20 Views 16 Unlocks
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