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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Phuong Nguyen

Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 2041

Phuong Nguyen
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

This study guide includes the main materials that will be on exam 1. I added information that was not on her lecture notes. I also only highlighted the material that Dr. Kim said would be on the ex...
Dr. Kim
Study Guide
Bacteria, archaea, domain, Microscope, Microbiology
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phuong Nguyen on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Kim in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Microbiology Exam #1 Study Guide Prokaryotes Eukaryotes  “Before the nucleus”  “True nucleus”  No nucleus, rather nucleoid (DNA)  Nucleus (DNA)  Domains: archaea and bacteria  Membrane­bound organelles  Most diverse and numerous of cells   Cell wall sometimes on Earth  No peptidoglycan  Unicellular  May be unicellular or multicellular  Peptidoglycan in cell wall Microbiology = study of microorganisms too small to be seen with the naked eye, all  prokaryotes are studied in microbiology, but not all eukaryotes because some can be seen with  unaided eye Several ways microbes affect our lives: 1. pathogenic microbes cause human illness (only bacteria, not archaea) 2. make a preserve food 3. natural pesticides 4. soil fertility 5. make vitamins (B2, B12, C) 6. antibiotics (vaccines) 7. decomposers 8. mechanisms for maintenance and reproduction was first studied at molecular level of  bacteria 9. inhibits pathogens 6 Subgroups of Microorganisms: archaea, bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, viruses  13  14 The human body has 10 cells and 10  bacteria   What is the longest bacterium known to humans?  Epulopiscium fishelsoni reaches 80 Mm x 600 Mm  What spherical bacterium is larger than Epulop. Fish?  Thiomargaritia namibienisis 100 ­ 750 Mm in diameter  What eukaryotic cell is smaller than many bacteria? Nanochlorum Eukaryotum 1 ­2 Mm Coccus = spherical shaped bacteria, comes is single, pairs, tetrads, streptococcus (chains),  staphylococcus (clusters) Bacilli = rod shaped, diplobacillus for pairs and streptobacillus for chains Spiral and others – spirrella are wavy, vibro is comma shaped, some bacteria are square or star­ shaped  Visible light is 400­700nm  Refractions = slows down the light when light transmits into another media of a different  refractive index, an object of different density Microscopes: 1. Phase contrast = rings in objective and condenser, increase contrast of denser parts of  specimen, surfaces only 2. Darkfield = light scattered off object, light only hit specimen 3. Fluorescence = illuminated by UV light Who am I?  Antonie van Leeuwenhoek = Father of microbiology. He was the first to observe  microorganisms with  microscope  Ernst Abbe = Invented immersion oil  Louis Pasteur = disproves spontaneous generation and est. germ theory of disease  Edward Jenner = used cowpox to vaccinate people from smallpox  Ingaz Semmelweiss = hand washing to reduce deaths in women giving labor, cause of  childbed fever  Joseph Lister = introduced antiseptic technique, washed wound with phenol  Christian Gram = Gram stain, differentiated Gram + from Gram –  Robert Hooke = coined the term “cells”  Frau Frannie Hesse = helped develop Agar as an ideal solid medium  Rudolf Virchow = living things can only arise from living things, cell theory  Dmitri Iwanowski = discovers viruses, TMV  Paul Ehrlich = selective toxicity, used against syphilis, Father of the Magic Bullet  Alexander Fleming = discovers penicillin, first antibiotic used  Woese = classifies archaea  John Tyndall = discovered heat resistant bacteria and how to sterilize solutions by  killing endospores  Julius Richard Petri = invented Petri dish  Hans and Zaccharis Janssen = invented compound microscope Prokaryotes  Lipid bilayer includes phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, lipid A,  porins, and lipoproteins that anchor to cell wall  The cell wall provides shape, withstands turgor pressure, and made of peptidoglycan  (murein)  L­amino acids – found in nature and in our bodies to make proteins  D­amino acids – found in cell wall (peptidoglycan) Appendages Bacteria with flagellum have a huge advantage, bacteria without flagella are nonmotile 1. Monotrichous = single flagellum at 1 pole 2. Amphitrichous = single flagellum at each pole 3. Lophotrichous = 2+ at 1+ pole 4. Peritrichous = flagellum all over surface  Endospores are produced by Clostridium and Bacillus  Endospores are composed or 15% water, with high concentration of Ca+2 and dipicolinic  Acid  Archaea’s ether bond is stronger than bacteria’s ester bond  Gram – have outer membranes (OM) that contain: Lipid A, core polysaccharide, and O­ antigen (aka endotoxin aka lipopolysaccharide LPS). Lipid A is toxic  Flagella and cilia both used for motility and consist of 9+2 structure, 9 pair surrounding 2 central arrangement of microtubules (composition of flagella)  The 3 protein structures: microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments Osmosis 1. Hypotonic solution – cell swells 2. Hypertonic solution – cell shrinks 3. Isotonic – nothing happen, happy cell  Requirements for Growth  Thermophiles grow at 37­65 degrees C o Strict thermophiles – 45 degrees C + o Facultative = thrive at 37 and 55 degrees C  Mesophiles = moderate temps (20­45oC)(20­37oC optimum)  Psychrophiles = psychos, they like the cold (0­20oC) (15oC opt) Listeria monocytogenes  Macronutrients – what macromolecules are made of: CHONPS, K+, Ca+2, Mg2+, Fe3+,  Fe2+  Micronutrients or Trace Elements = essential for survival and must be consumed from  environment (Mn, Zn, Co, Mo, Ni, Cu) o Auxotroph = organism that needs trace elements o Prototrophs = not required Oxygen Effects  Lone pairs are O2 containing and highly reactive, deadly in inactivated  Structural component of molecules and final e­ accepter  Toxicity of O2: H2O2, Superoxide (O2.­), Hydroxyl radicals (OH.)  3 Enzymes:  1. Superoxide dismutase 2O2.­ + 2H+ ­­­­ O2 + H2 2. Catalase 2H2O2 ­­O2 + 2H2O 3. Peroxidase H2O2 + 2H2 ­2H2O  Strict anaerobes = dies with contact of O2, no catalase, no superoxide dismutase Membrane Transport 1. Simple diffusion 2. Facilitated diffusion = carrier protein 3. Active transport = carrier protein, against concentration gradient 4. Group translocation – unique to bacteria, variation of active transport, modification as  well as transport to prevent backflow by attachment of a phosphate (P­) Culture Media 1. Defined = composition known 2. Complex = exact composition unknown (soy, beef broth, blood, milk, yeast) 3. Selective = growth of desired microbes only, inhibit unwanted 4. Differential = distinguish different organisms 5. Enrichment culture = used to encourage growth of particular microbes in mixed culture Phases of Growth 1. Lag phase = adjustment to new conditions 2. Log phase/Exponential phase = adapted and thriving 3. Stationary Phase – waste accumulates, run out of nutrients 4. Death – death  Chemostat – cell number constant due to limited nutrient Biofilms  Microbes adhere to surface and accumulate on solid surfaces, form on teeth, catheters,  contact lenses  Biofilms make microbes more resistant to antibiotics  Occur in natural environment  10­200nm thick  complex mix of microbes Measurements of Microbial Growth Direct Measurement Indirect Measurement 1. Plate count 1. Turbidity 2. Filtration count 2. Dry weight 3. Direct microscopic count – use  3. Metabolic consumption (O2  special slide called counting chamber consumption, acid production..)


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