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CSU / Business / AM 205 / What are the steps of the civil process?

What are the steps of the civil process?

What are the steps of the civil process?


School: Colorado State University
Department: Business
Course: Legal and Ethical Issues in Business
Professor: Stephanie bowen
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Legal/Ethical Issues in Business: In Depth Study Guide
Description: Here is an in-depth study guide that gives further information of what you need to know for the exam! This will really help studying, especially if you don't have the required notes
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
8 Pages 158 Views 5 Unlocks

Legal and Ethical Issues in Business

What are the steps of the civil process?

Study Guide Help

Important definitions to know:

∙ Grand Jury

o 16 jurors determine whether there is a probable cause in order to issue and  indictment

∙ Writ of Certiorari 

o Request that an appellate court hear an appeal (discretionary)

∙ Precedent

o Theory of law where judges are obligated to follow precedents established in prior decisions

∙ Stare Decisis

o “To stand on a decided case”

∙ Subject Matter

o Specific court hears specific cases

∙ Personal (long­arm statutes)

o Does the court have the right to hear the case personally based on minimum  contact and location?

What is central hudson test?

∙ Minimum Contact

o Enough personal jurisdiction by court for defendant

∙ In Rem Jurisdiction

o “Jurisdiction over the thing”

o Real property

∙ Diversity of Citizenship

o Must have citizens of different states and the amount of the controversy is over  $75,000

∙ Federal Questions Jurisdiction

o Any case based on, at least in part, on the U.S. Constitution, a federal law, or  federal treaty If you want to learn more check out What is the 2nd order system?

∙ Standing

o Before a person can sue they must show they have suffered real harm or  prospective harm

∙ Venue

o Location

∙ Delegation Doctrine

What is the process of formal administrative adjudication?

o 1) Rulemaking; 2) Enforcement; 3) Adjudication

∙ Subpoena

o Ordering a person to attend court

∙ Subpoena Ducus Tecum 

o Ordering witness to bring specific documents

∙ Commerce

o All business dealings that affect more than one state

∙ Substantial Effect Rule

o Does the activity substantially affect interstate commerce?

∙ Police Power

o Power to protect or promote health, safety, general welfare, public order, and  morals

∙ Supremacy Clause If you want to learn more check out Do you feel comfortable writing compound sentences, using the connectors and, or, conditional and biconditional?

o Federal law wins over state law

o State law is allowed to be stricter than federal law

∙ Procedural Due Process

o Any governmental action to take away a person’s life, liberty, or property must be given procedural safeguards to ensure fairness

∙ Substantive Due Process

o A form of due process that says that certain rights are so fundamental that the  government may not eliminate them

o Focus on the content or substance of a law (not the government action) ∙ Equal Protection We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between mala in se and mala prohibita?

o The government must treat similarly situated individuals must be treated in the  same manner

∙ Defamatory Speech

o False speech that harms the reputation of another

∙ Fighting Words

o Anything likely to incite violence

Parties to a case: 

∙ Plaintiff

o The person bringing the lawsuit

∙ Defendant

o The person getting sued or charged with a crime

Steps of the Civil Process 

∙ Fills out a complaint and a summons

o These are two separate documents

o Summons: plaintiff requires defendant to respond by a certain date

∙ Defendant files an answer

o Admit and/or deny

∙ Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings (Plaintiff) 

OR      Motion to Dismiss (defendant)

∙ Discovery If you want to learn more check out Where is olmec located?

o Asked to exchange information with each other

o 4 types

 Interrogatories – written

 Depositions – oral

 Request for Production of documents

∙ Electronic Discovery

 Request for admissions 

∙ Motion for Summary Judgment 

o Ruling on the pleadings

o Questions whether the trial is necessary

o No genuine/material question of fact

o Most judges deny these due to Jury System

∙ Pretrial Disclosures

o What is the evidence? Witnesses? Exhibits?

∙ Trial – Verdict Decree or Ruling If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between pulmonary pump and systemic pump?

∙ Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding the Verdict

o Defendant asks judge to not pay attention to jury decision

∙ Motion for a New Trial

o Usually filed with the previous motion

o 99.9% denied

∙ Appeal If you want to learn more check out Define paranormal.

Steps for Criminal Process 

∙ Ticket/Arrest/Booking

∙ 1st Appearance

∙ Bail/Bond

∙ Preliminary Hearing

o DEA presents evidence to court and court determines if the evidence is valid  Making sure that people aren’t being held for the wrong reasons

o These are for the most serious cases

∙ Arraignment/Plea

o Are you pleading guilty or not guilty?

 Guilty – goes straight to sentencing

 Not Guilty – goes to trial first

∙ Trial

∙ Sentence

∙ Post Conviction Relief

o Asking trial court for new trial or to overturn the verdict

∙ Appeal

Equitable Remedies  

∙ Eye for an eye

o Criminal or Civil

Legal Remedies 

∙ Based off money or punishment

o Criminal Case

State Court Systems 

∙ Start at:

1. Trial Court

∙ Limited jurisdiction

∙ Only specific types of cases they are allowed to hear

∙ General jurisdiction

∙ Can hear everything else

∙ Divorce

∙ Felonies

∙ Probate

∙ Civil

2. Appellate Court

∙ They only look at the Record

∙ Pleadings

∙ Transcript

∙ Exhibits

3. State Supreme Court

∙ Writ of Certiorari 

Federal Court Systems 

∙ Start at:

1. Trial court

2. U.S. Court of Appeals

3. U.S. Supreme Court

∙ Writ of Certiorari

Sources of American Law 

∙ Constitution

o Legal framework

∙ Legislative Statues

o Uniform laws, creates Administrative Agencies

∙ Executive Orders

∙ Treaties

o International law

∙ Common Law/Case Law


∙ Subject Matter

∙ Personal Long­arm Statutes

o Minimum Contacts

∙ In Rem 

∙ Federal

o Diversity of Citizenship

∙ Federal Question

Judicial Review 

∙ Marbury v. Madison

∙ The Judicial branch interprets the law

Roles of an Attorney 

∙    Advisor

o Biggest role

∙    Drafter

o Drafts leases, contracts, notes, etc.

∙    Negotiator

∙    Advocate

o Representative of client

Attorney Client Privilege 

∙ Protected communications between attorney and client

∙ Only a client can waive disclosure to information

Creation and Process of Administrative Agencies 

∙ By congress through legislation

o Define problem

o Create agency through legislation

o Define agency powers

∙ Delegation Doctrine

o Rulemaking (legislative)

o Enforcement (executive)

o Adjudication (judicial)

Rulemaking Process 

∙    Notice of proposed rulemaking

o Must notice what the rule is, who has the authority for making the rule, and when  and where the hearing is held

o Federal Register

∙    Comment Period

o Usually written

o Allows expression of views, response to significant comments, modification ∙    Final Rule

o Binding as if legislation


∙ Issue a Subpoena

∙ Issue a Subpoena Ducus Tecum

∙ Search Warrants

o Need a warrant to search businesses except highly regulated businesses such as  alcohol, drugs, or nuclear power

∙ Inspection and Tests

o Gather information to prove violation

The process of Formal Administrative Adjudication 

∙ Complaint

∙ Answer

∙ Hearing before Administrative Law Judge (ALJ)

o Federal ALJ

 Appointed by executive branch

 Doesn’t have to be confirmed

 Payed by agency

 Supposed ot be non­bias

 Similar to regular court judges

 Duties set out in ALJ statute

 Vigorous testing

 Merit based

∙ Issue an order of ALJ

o Ex. Cease and desist order

∙ Appeal to Governing Board of Agency

∙ Final Agency Order

∙ Appropriate Court for Review of Agency Decision

∙ Court order

Commerce Clause 

∙ Article 1 Section 8

∙ Commerce

∙ Substantial Effect Rule

∙ Police Power

∙ Supremacy Clause

∙ Bill of Rights (Amendment 1­10 as follows)

o Freedom of Religion, Speech, Assembly, Press

o Right to bare arms

o Soldiers cannot occupy home without consent

o Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure

o Right to due process of law

o Right to a speedy and public trial

o Right to trial by jury

o Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment

o Rights not specifically granted still belong to the people

o Any powers that aren’t given to the federal government belongs to the state

Procedural and Substantive Due Process 

∙ Life, liberty, and property

∙    Strict Scrutiny

o If the law limits fundamental rights, then its deemed unconstitutional UNLESS  the government can show that the law furthers a compelling state interest   National Security 

∙    Rational Basis Test

o If the law want to regulate something else, then it’s constitutional if it relates to a  legitimate government interest

Equal Protection 

∙ Strict Scrutiny

o Racial, ethnicity, or fundamental rights – is the classification necessary to  promote a compelling state interest and is specific to further that interest? ∙ Intermediate Scrutiny

o Gender – important government objective?

∙ Rational Basis

o Economic and social issues – related to legitimate government interest?

Central Hudson Test 

∙ A law or regulation limiting lawful and truthful commercial speech will be deemed  constitutional (i.e. the government may regulate commercial speech) if the law or  regulations:

o Seeks to implement a substantial government interest;

o Directly advances that interest; and

o Goes no further than to accomplish that objective

 Must meet all 4 of these requirements

Unprotected Speech 

∙ Defamatory Speech

∙ Lewd and Obscene

o “You’ll know it when you see it” – definition by Supreme Court of obscene ∙ Fighting Words

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