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Penn State - CHEM 210 - Class Notes - Chemistry 210: Chapter 2

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Penn State - CHEM 210 - Class Notes - Chemistry 210: Chapter 2

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background image Chemistry 210
Chapter 2: Isomers and Stereochemistry
Lectures 8,9, and 10
9/9/16-9/16/16
Lecture 8: Isomers, Hydrocarbon Nomenclature, and Definitions Nomenclature: Prefix-Locant-Parent-Suffix Prefix: where/what the substituents are
Locant: where is the primary functional group
Parent: how many carbons
Suffix: what is the primary functional group
-functional groups -groups of atoms whose structure/chemical behavior does not  change substantially, regardless of environment
-isomer
-term that describes structural relationships between molecules  that appear to be similar -have to be drawn and counted -some notation: 1 - primary 2 - secondary 3 - tertiary 4 - quaternary -indicates the number of carbons attached to a carbon -also applies to hydrogen  -based on carbon they are attached to Definitions: -chiral molecule -any molecule that has a non-superimposable mirror image -achiral -not chiral -enantiomer -a pair of molecules that are non-superimposable mirror images  of one another
-racemic mixture
-a 50/50 mix of enantiomers
background image -optical activity -the physical property of rotation of plane-polarized light by a  solution of chiral molecules
-stereogenic center
-an atom that has 4 different substituents -diastereomers -any stereoisomers that are not the same molecule or mirror  images of one another
-geometrical isomers
-molecules that differ only by rotation about a double bond -enantiomeric excess -measured excess of one enantiomer over the other in a mixture  of enantiomers Lecture 9: Enantiomers and Diastereomers -absolute configuration -molecular level structural characteristic
-determining absolute configuration:
-assign priority numbers -based on atomic number -isotopes with higher mass have priority -lone pair has lower priority than H -orient molecules with lowest priority pointing away
-assign direction based on priority decrease
-R for clockwise -dextrorotary -S for counterclockwise -levorotary -multiple bonded atoms are considered equivalent to the same number
of single bonded atoms
-use of dummy atoms -absolute configuration and the electrostatic charge of molecule are 
NOT the same
-enantiomers have identical physical and chemical properties in achiral
environments
-except optical activity -diastereomers have different chemical and physical properties Chirality: -indications: -1 stereogenic center (4 different substituents)
-more than 1 stereogenic center

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School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry I
Professor: Maslak
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Organic Chemistry, enantiomers, diastereomers, chirality, and isomers
Name: Chemistry 210: Chapter 2, Lectures 8, 9, and 10
Description: These notes start with lecture 8 material (some of which was on the first exam).
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
3 Pages 21 Views 16 Unlocks
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