CHEM 101 - Exam #1 Study Guide : Bethel
CHEM 101 - Exam #1 Study Guide : Bethel CHEM 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by AnnaBanana on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 101 at Texas A&M University taught by Dr. Ryan Bethel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 101 in Chemistry at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
CHEM 101 – EXAM #1 STUDY GUIDE Formulas −34 Speed of Light H = Planck’s Constant = 6.626 × 10 ???? · ???? Equation ???? = ???????? (Speed of Light ) ???? = 2.998 × 10 ???????? E = a single photon’s energy E = ???????? = h = 6.626 × ???? · ???? ???? ???? = frequency ???? λ = wavelengthight E = -2.178 x 101J (2) ???? ???? N – energy level Z – charge of nucleus (usually 1) Wavelength of A Particle ???? ???????? = E –fE i ???? = ???????? −18 1 1 v = velocity ???????? = −2.178 ∗ 10 [????2 − ????2] m – mass of particle ???? ???? h – planck’s constant. Is the same as 1 1 1 = ???? ℎ − ] ???? ???????? ???? ???? Heisenberg Principle ℎ ???? =RydbergConstant = 1.094* 1m-1 Δ???? ∗ Δ ???????? ≥) ℎ 4???? −???????? ???? ???? ????2 Energy of Specific “n” level. Schrödinger Equation ???????? = ???????? Concepts Ex. 21.16 21.1 These #s don’t change. Example : I have a pin that is 2.85 cm. How They’re certain. long is it in inches? 21.15 21.17 .6, .7, .5 These #s do change. 1 in = 2.54 cm Unit Factor They’re uncertain. 1 ???????? 2.85 2.85 cm x2.54 ????????x 2.54???????? = 1.12 in Rules for Counting Significant Figures 1. Non-Zero Integers Always 42.316 2. Zeroes: (three types) a. Leading Zeroes Never 0.0025 b. Captive Zeroes Always 1.008 c. Trailing Zeroes Decimal 1.00 x 10^6 3. Exact Numbers Infinite bc Exact. 1 in = 2.54 cm Physical Property Method Density Centrifugation Boiling Point Distillation State of Matter Filtration Intramolecular Forces Chromatography Vapor Pressure Evaporation Magnetism Magnets Solubility Filtration Methane 1g Carbon = 0.336 g H Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1. Each element consists of tiny particles: Atoms. Ethane 1 g Carbon = 0.252g H 2. All atoms of a same element are identical. Atoms of other elements are different. ** Any set of carbon/hydrogen molecules has a 3. Chemical compounds form when different whole # ratio elements combine. 4. Chemical reactions reorganize atoms, not change atoms themselves. - Carbon – 13 Can be written as 12 OR 12 and is still the same element. C C 6 N L value M l 1 0 0 2 0,1 -1,0,1 3 0,1,2 -2,-1,0,1,2 4 0,1,2,3 -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 L # Type of Orbital # of Orbital 0 “s” – spherical 1 (2 atoms) 1 “p” – principal 3 (6 atoms) 2 “d” 5 (10 atoms) 3 “f” 7 (14 atoms) Electron Level (N & Type) N L N + L 2s 2 0 2 2p 2 1 3 3s 3 0 3 3p 3 1 4 3d 3 2 5 ElectronConfigurationofIons - Write an electron configuration of the neutral atom. Then, remove or add electrons from the orbital with the HIGHEST N! Exceptions to the Rule of Adding Electron Orbitals In Order PracticeProblems Definitions Quantitative – measurement (number and scale) Qualitative – immeasurable qualities “very blue” or “extremely cold” SI-System: metric-system based measurement method. Prefixes used to change the unit of measurement. Volume: Derived from length, not its own SI measurement. Needed in most science experiments. Mass: measure of the resistance of an object to a change in its state of motion. In English – force needed to make an object move. Weight: force that gravity exerts upon object. Accuracy – the agreement of a particular value with the true value. Precision – the degree of agreement of several measurements of the same quantity. *reflects how easy it is to reproduce the same results in another experiment* Random Error – measurement has an equal probability of being high or low. Indeterminate - error caused when one (over or under) estimates the value of the last digit. Systematic Error – always occurs in the same direction each time. Determinate – usually due to a problem with calculations. Dimensional Analysis – AKA “unit factor method” because you’re reducing/increasing units by factors of each other in order to change units. Ex. Inches to lbs. or mL to Kg. Density – the mass of a substance per unit volume of the substance. In English: How thick/thin a substance is, measured by whatever measuring technique the substance uses. Matter – anything occupying space and having mass Solid – rigid, fixed volume shape Liquid – definite volume, no specific shape, assumes shape of container. Gas – no fixed volume, takes on shape and volume of container. Mixtures – a substance’s combination that has a “variable composition” Homogenous mixture – having parts you can’t tell apart ex. Wine, air, cake batter Heterogeneous mixture – having parts you can tell apart ex. Cement (clicker Q), Fruit Salad Pure Substances – one or more “types” of atoms that combine to make a substance with its own well-defined physical and chemical properties. Elements: Cannot be further broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. Compounds: substance with constant composition that can be broken into elements by chemical processes. Extensive properties – depend on amount of substance Intensive properties – same, regardless of amount of substance. Energy – the ability to do work or produce heat Kinetic Energy – energy of motion. This happens when something is moving. Potential Energy – stored energy due to position. When something is about to move or go, it has PE. Heat – energy flowing between two objects due to a temperature differential. Work – force acting over a distance. Joules – kilogram meter squared per second squared. Atom – smallest unit of an element with all its properties Molecule – smallest unit of a pure substance with all its properties Ion – atom or a group of atoms that has an electric charge (lost or gained electron) Molecular Formula – shows molecule composition Reaction – one substance changes to another by changing how it is arranged. Scientific Method – a way of conducting research that makes predictions & then tests them out. Theory – aka model. Series of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation for some natural phenomena. Natural law – observation that applies to many different systems. Observation – something that can be witnessed and recorded. Law of Conservation of Mass – total mass of materials isn’t affected by a chemical change in those materials. Law of Definite Proportion - Compounds have constant proportions of elements by mass. Law of Multiple Proportions - when 2 elements form a series of compounds, the ratio of the masses of the second element that combine with 1 gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers. Nucleus – positive blob in center of atom. We now know that a nucleus is the center of an atom and consists of protons and neutrons in varying degrees, depending upon the element and the isotope. −24 Protons – Positive charge, Nucleus, 1.67 ∗ 10 ???? Mass : 1.007u Neutrons – No Charge, Nucleus, 1.009u Electrons – Negative Charge, Outside Nucleus. 0.0005u Nucleons = Protons + Neutrons Atomic Number- is the number of protons. Always the same for every element. Determines where the element is on the periodic table.
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