PSYC 475 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC 475 Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 475
Popular in Personnel Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 475 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Phan, Wei Ming Jonathan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Personnel Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Personnel Psychology: Exam 1 Study Guide Lecture 1: Chapter 1 What is I/O psychology? • “Application of psychological principles and theories to the workplace” – Textbook definition • Simpler terms: Study of how people find work, like what they do, and do their job well. What is Organizational psychology? • Micro: motivation, leadership, teams, worker attitudes, safety & well- being, work-family • Macro: organizational theory, culture, organizational development & change What is Personnel Psychology? • Sub-field within I/O psychology • “It is an applied discipline that focuses on individual differences in behavior and job performance and on methods of measuring and predicting such differences” Staffing: • “The process involved in finding, assessing, placing, and evaluating individuals at work.” • Staffing builds the workplace through: staffing strategy, recruitment, selection, employment, retention • Organizations add breadth and scope to these processes and indicate how important the characteristics of the job and organizations are to the entire staffing process. • The best staffing programs take great care to specify: the kinds of people who will be effective and satisfied with the job and the organization into which they are hired and also the kinds of people required by the organization today and in the future to promote long-term organizational effectiveness. • Just know that: the goals of staffing and organization an organization are to improve organizational functioning and effectiveness by attracting, selecting, and retaining people who will facilitate the accomplishment of organizational goals and meet their own individual goals. Individual attributes: • Refer to the characteristics people bring with them to work, such as knowledge, skills, abilities, personality, values, interests, and experiences. • These individual attributes are psychological in nature according to the book In the book diagram on page 3: A focus on the changing nature of work • Larger environment: Economic conditions, nature of competition, social conditions, nature of community, schools, government regulations • Organizational practices and procedures: training systems, employee evaluation systems, organizational philosophy like HR, type of product or service, reward systems • Job Characteristics: coworkers, task, supervisory style • Individual attributes: personality, desires, interests, ability o These are some variables of impact on employee satisfactoriness and satisfaction in the work setting So why do staffing decisions matter? • People make the place Modern challenges affecting staffing: (Table 1.1 on page 4) 1. Individual Attributes a. Aging of the workplace b. Increasing demographic diversity c. Large educational and skills shortages d. Group differences in ability, skills, and experience 2. Job Characteristics a. Technology and the internet b. Shift from manufacturing to service-based and knowledge-based work c. Increased movement toward team-based work 3. Organizational Practices and Procedures a. Increase in contract, part-time, or project-based work b. Outsourcing and shifting work to other countries with cheaper labor costs c. Flatter organizations push autonomy to lower levels d. Increasing mergers and acquisitions 4. The Larger Environment a. Increased immigration b. Globalization and global competition c. Ever-changing and increasing employment laws and regulations Difference between satisfactoriness and satisfaction? • Satisfactoriness is when people meet the performance standards set for them at work • Satisfaction is people’s own personality and interests are fulfilled What is a major/important challenge facing modern organizations? • A severe shortage of qualified labor in many sectors of the economy What do we learn from Lewin, Vroom, McGregor, Lord and Hanges? • There are more than individual differences in abilities and personality that lie behind the individual behavior in organizations Multi-Level staffing: • Individual differences: knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics generally referred to as KSAO or human capital • Individual level research: analysis of how individual differences contribute towards individual performance and assume that individual differences contribute to organizational value • Organizational level research: Examines how HR practices contribute to organizational performance but assumes that these practices have an effect because of their influence on employee individual differences Kurt Lewin: B=f (P,E) Personnel Psychology is all about FIT! • Person-vocation fit • Person- career fit • Person- job fit • Person- team fit • Person- supervisor fit • Person- organization fit Parson: remember as the person that is said to find someone interest and match them to a specific job based on their interest • InterestsàPerfect o R=.40 If someone is interested in a job they almost do o R=.38 as well as people that would be considered smart for the job o R=.20 Vroom: People put out effort when they think that they work in a place where effort results in rewards they value and when they can put enough effort to reach the levels of performance required to see rewards McGregor: Depending on the manager’s views if… • Theory Y: people want to experience self-actualization • Theory X: people just want money and need to be coerced to work Lecture 2: Planning Two types of planning: 1. Strategic Planning a. Procedures for making decisions about the organizations long-term goals and strategies 2. Human Resource Planning (HRP) a. Process of anticipating and making provision for the movement (flow) of people into, within, and out of an organization Why Plan? 1. It leads to success 2. Provides a sense of control 3. Forces managers to define their organizations objectives Examples of strategic planning: • Being the low cost retailer: Walmart • Being the high quality car: Mercedes Purpose of planning: • To anticipate and respond to needs emerging within and outside of the organization, to determine priorities, and allocate resources where they can do the most good HR planning (staffing) definition: • HR planning is “the process of forecasting the organizations future employment needs and then developing action staffing plans and programs for fulfilling these needs in ways that are in alignment with strategy Overview of HR planning: • Learn about the employment environment o External influences: economic conditions, labor markets, technology, labor unions o Internal influences: surveys, track key indicators, talent survey External environment scanning: This is the process of tracking trends and developments in the outside world and determining their implications for HR planning External Influences: Macro-economic forces such as growth and contraction, labor markets, labor supply skill gaps, labor demand, unions, technology Internal environment scanning: Use employee attitude scales and track key indicators to understand what is going on inside the organization Internal Influences: Talent inventory which is an organized database of existing skills, abilities, career interests, and experience of the current workforce Forecasting: Forecasting HR requirements: • Based on judgement and or statistics • Remember: HR planning is the process of forecasting the organizations future employment needs and then developing action staffing plans and programs for fulfilling these needs in ways that are in alignment with strategy Markov Analysis: • Uses past patterns of job stability and movement to predict availabilities What are AAP’s? • Affirmative Action Plans: major legal issues in HR and staffing • AAP’s seek to rectify the effects of past employment discrimination by increasing the representation of certain groups • Consider the type of workforce: o Core Workforce: employees of the organization o Flexible Workforce: staffing firm or independent contractors o Outsourcing: Transfer business process to external organization How are AAP’s similar to diversity planning? • Availability (utilization) analysis • Placement goals • Action-oriented programs for meeting goals Specific AAP steps 1. Utilize analysis 2. Goals and timetables 3. Implement new recruiting and selection practices 4. Monitor progress Job Analysis Lecture 4: Chapter 3 What is a job? • Defined as a relatively homogeneous cluster of work tasks carried out to achieve some important and enduring purpose in an organization What is job analysis? • The process of describing what is done on a job and the context in which the work activities are performed What is job specification? • The process of inferring the human trait requirements presumed to be necessary for successful job performance According to the book: We use job analysis to refer to both the identification of work activities and the development of job specifications. Task Characteristics Theory: 1. Autonomy: to what extent does your job permit you to decide on your own how to do your work? 2. Task identity: do you do a whole and identifiable piece of work? Or only a small part of the overall piece of work? 3. Skill variety: to what extent does the job require you to do many different things, using a variety of skills and talents 4. Task significance: are the results of your work likely to significantly affect the lives or well-being of other people 5. Feedback: does the work itseld let you know how well you are doing Motivating potential score for a job: MPS=Sv + TI + TS divided by 3 multiplied by Autonomy multiplied by Feedback ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ MPS correlates: .50 with high internal work motivation .22 with high quality work performance .60 with high work satisfaction -.25 with absenteeism • But relations are stronger for people with high growth need strength, weaker for people with low GNS.. GNS is a moderator variable What are job specifications? • The KSAO’s deemed necessary to perform a job o Ex: astronauts/test pilots require 20/20 vision o Minimally acceptable standards! What is job analysis? • Technology for learning what people do on their jobs o The process of studying jobs in order to gather, analyze, synthesize, and report information about job requirements Griggs vs Duke Power Co. • Griggs claimed that Duke Power had unfair and invalid standards for entry into supervisory positions Job analysis choices: 1. Type of information obtained 2. Methods for data collection 3. Agent 4. Purpose for the job analysis Types of information obtained: • Task Oriented: (specific) – collect a description of the particular work activities performed… describes the characteriscts of the job… materials processed, products made, tools used, services provided, etc.. • Worker Oriented: (general) – collect a description of the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA’s) needed… what KSA’s are required of the worker to do the job What is KSAO? 1. K-knowledge: collections of discrete, but related facts and information about a given domain (e.g., psychology) 2. S- skills: level of proficiency or competency to perform a task or learned activity (e.g., typing) 3. A- abilities: relatively enduring basic capacities for performing a range of different activities (e.g., cognitive, math vs psychomotor) 4. O- other characterisitcs: a catch-all category designed to encompass all other potentially relevant facots (e.g., personality, interests, or motivation) Methods for Data collection: Pros and cons of each? 1. Direct observation by job analyst 2. Individual interviews (e.g., worker, supervisor) 3. Interview Groups of job incubents (SME meetings) 4. Administer Questionnaire (e.g., frequency, importance, difficulty) 5. Ask respondents to keep a diary 6. Beeper/Palm pilot study Agent used to collect info: Source • Written documentation (e.g., job descriptions) • Job analyst – directly observes workers • Job incubents - they do the job • Technical experts • Supervisors – know job well • Clients Process commonly used in practice: 1. Review existing documentation 2. Augment with information from role incumbents and technical experts 3. Supervisor checks 4. Analyst compule information and draw relevant conclusions Approaches to job analysis: Job inventory • Job inventory: consist of a listing of tasks performed on the job o Typically begin with interviews of job incumbents and supervisors to develop a list of tasks performed § Then a questionnaire/structured interview is developed that lists all of the tasks, perhaps 100’s of them • Questionnaire is administered to a representative sample which rates: do you perform the task, frequeny, importance, duration, difficulty and trainability Then results are aggregated, giving: • % who perform task • Frequncy of task • Importance • Time spnet on task • Difficulty • Trainability Classic Job Analysis techniques: • Functional job analysis • Critical incidents • Position analysis questionnaire Airplane pilot critical incident: Pilot drove plane straight into the water and told the students to remain in seats and told them to stay where they were and it would be safer that way. Everyone died but the pilot.. For staffing purposes, jobs and organizational analyses serve 3 major functions: 1. Job analysis is means for identifying the important job tasks and human behaviors necessary for adequate performance on those tasks 2. Job analysis identifies the rewards the job itself offers to the humans who do the job 3. Organizational analysis is necessary because of the clear findings regarding the impact of organizational features, aside from the job, on human behavior in the work setting Know the chart on page 105 in the book! DOT and why it is useful? • First, the DOT included information on approximately 12,000 jobs useful for determining job requirements • Second and more importantly, the DOT presented a system for describing worker attributes and jobs • DOT has been phased out and now we use the O-NET system Sidney Fine: • Major contribution to Fine’s work was the standardized manner in which task statements were written • Task statements should include 5 types of information: o Subject of the task o Action performed requires an explicit, concrete verb o Immediate objective of the work should be defined o A task statement should identify the tools, equipment, or work aids a worker uses o Include the type of instructions given to the worker Fine’s three tasks people do organizationally on these levels: • Data – synthesizing, coordinating, analyzing, comiling, computing, copying, comparing • People – mentoring, negotiating, instructing, supervising, diverting, persuading, speakering/signaling, serving, taking instructions/helping • Things – setting up, precision working, operating/controlling, driving/oprtating, manipulating, trending, feeding/offbearing, handling The Criterion: Lecture 6: Chapter 3 Why is performance important? • Performance-based pay • Identify high potential employees • Give development feedback (+/- reinforcement for +/- behaviors) • Assess organizational effectiveness • Criterion for validation research I/O Jargon: “The Criterion” • What is Criterion? o A criterion is an evaluative standard that is used to assess job performance • The “criterion problem” refers to the difficulties involved in the process of conceptualizing and measuring performance constructs that are multidimensional, dynamic, and appropriate for different purposes • The criterion: it turns out to be just about impossible to obtain a truly good measure of job performance Possible Criteria: o Output measures o Quality measures o Lost time o Employability, trainability, and promotability o Ratings of performance o Counterproductive behaviors Criterion Measures: • “Soft criteria” are ratings of the focal individual made by someone (supervisor, peer subordinate, customer) • “Hard criteria” are counts of something (e.g., ales, widgets assembled, days absent, safety accidents o Output o Quality How to evaluatie a criterion measure: • Compare an actual criterion to the Ultimate Criterion (Thorndike, 1949) • The UC is a hypothetical, idealized measure of job performance that “describes the full domain of performance and includes everything that ultimately defines success on the job” o Criterion deficiceny – the part of the UC omitted by an actual criterion o Criterion relevance – the part of the UC that is tapped by an actual criterion o Criterion contamination – the part of the actual criterion that is sustematic errior, i.e., halo error, leniency error o Criterion unreliability – the part of the actual criterion that is random error Behavior vs performance: • Behavior is what people actually do • Performance is an evaluation of the behavior, i.e., the value to the organization of the behaviors o Only behaviors that can make a difference to organizational goal accomplishment Cambell Performance Model • Focus should be on performance behavior o Behavior vs results 1. Job-specific task profieciency: technical, core tasks specific to the job 2. Non-job specific task proficiency: technical, core tasks, generic to all similar jobs 3. Written and oral communication 4. Demonstration of effort 5. Maintenance of personal discipline 6. Facilitation of peer and team performance 7. Supervision/leadership 8. Management/administration The three determinants of performance: 1. Declaritive knowledge (knowing what to do it) 2. Procedural knowledge (knowing how to do it) 3. Motivation (choice, level of effort, and persistence) Big 4 categories: 1. Task performance 2. Contextual performance 3. Counterproductive work behaviors 4. Withdrawal/attrition Task and Contextual performance: • Task performance: is defined as the effectiveness with which job incumbents perform activities that contribute to the organizations technical core either directly or indirectly (by providing a support function) • Contextual performance: refers to the effectiveness of behaviors that shapre the organizational, social and psychological context of the workplace Contextual Performance: • The effectiveness with which a job incumebent: o Volunteers to carry out activities not formally part of the job (conscientious initiative) o Helps and cooperates with others to get tasks done (personal support) o Supports the organization (Org. support) Can Do’s vs Will Do’s • Can do criteria: refers to measures of maximal job performance.. How good are you when you try your best? I.e., work sample tests • Will do criteria: refers to measures of typical job performance… How good has your work been during the past 6 months? I.e., supervisory ratings Withdrawl: • Employee turnover is very expensive! • Organizational withdrawl model o Dis-satisfaction leads to: § Attempts to increase equity § Psychologcal withdrawl § Behavioral withdrawl § Attempts to change work role Job withdrawl: • Physically remove onself from the work environment: o Tardiness o Absenteeism o Unavoidable lateness o Turnover (quitting) § Voluntary § Involuntary (retirement) Antecedants of withdrawl: • Job withdrawl is predicted by job satisfaction but not health satisfaction • Work withdrawl is predicted by health satisfaction but not job satisfaction When should we assess job performance? • Honeymoon period (transitional stage) during approximately first six months when individuals try to perform well, but after that there is a maintance stage when dispositional motivation plays a stronger role in performance Must assess performance! Then you can figure out the most important predictor of it. Lecture 7: Chapter 4 Simple definition of a criterion is something that you’re interested in. Review Questions: 1. Criterion relevance refers to: a. The overlap between an actual criterion and the ultimate criterion b. The extent to which an actual criterion omits part of the ultimate criterion c. The part of the actual criterion that has nothing to do with the ultimate criterion d. Random errors in the actual criterion 2. All of the following make up the Big Four performance categories except: a. Task performance b. Contextfual performance c. Subjective performance d. Counterproductive work behavior 3. The “antecedants” or “variables” that most accurately predict task and contextual performance are different. In general, what tends to predict contextual performance most accurately? a. Personality b. General Mental ability / intelligence c. Need for achievement d. Integrity tests It is bad to have scales less than 5 in BARS! • For the exam: Be sure to look over all of the charts in Lecture notes and make sure you know how to understand them.
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