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Toledo - BIOL 2600 - Class Notes - Week 4

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Toledo - BIOL 2600 - Class Notes - Week 4

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background image Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I 
Dr. Frederick E. Williams
Week 4 Lecture Notes   Cell pathology  
 
How diseases start   What factors into a cell reaction   ■ Age of cell  ● Mature cells have a better adaptability  ■ How well fed the cell is  ● Cells well supplied with glucose and oxygen will be able to adapt  better  ■ Health of the cell  ● Cells that are already weak or have been injured in the past face an  increased chance of cell death  How cells react to stress  ■ Adapt   ● Cells can change their shape while still remaining functional   ■ Injury  ● Stress drives cell beyond adaptation, causing reversible damage as  long a stress is removed  ● Signs of cell injury  Membrane damage  Ions can flood into the cell through rips, bringing in 
more water and causing the cell to swell 
Enzyme and K +  leakage is possible  Swelling mitochondria  Swelling due to ion imbalance and increased water 
uptake 
Swelling endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, or 
ribosomes 
Ribosomes will detach from the ER  Clumping of chromatin   This is the end game level and will likely result in 
cell death 
pH is lower than threshold necessary   ■ Death  ● Stress from injury persists and irreversible damage is done to cell 
● Types 
Necrosis  Results from external factors 
background image Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I 
Dr. Frederick E. Williams
Week 4 Lecture Notes   Breakdown of organelles and coagulation of 
proteins  
Nuclear changes during  ■ Pyknosis  ● Shrinkage of nucleus   ■ Karyolysis  ● Chromatin disappears  ■ Karyorrhexis  ● Nucleus breaks up and is spat out of  the cell  Apoptosis  Is a controlled occurrence  Normally during embryo development  Helps eliminate dangerous cancer cells  Nucleus changes during  ■ Chromatins condenses, breaks up, and is  spat out  ■ Apoptotic bodies will form and are also  extruded  Some causes of cell stress  ■ Hypoxia  ● Lack of oxygen   ■ Biological  ● Bacteria, fungi, viruses   ■ Malnourishment  
■ Genetics  
■ Physical agents  
● Temperature 
● Trauma  
● Radiation 
■ Chemical agents   ● Drugs  ■ Immunologic reaction  ● System is destroying own cells  Forms of adaptation to stress   ■ Atrophy   ● Cells shrink or begin to break down to create new material to adapt  with   ● Can happen due to…  

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School: University of Toledo
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology
Professor: Frederick Williams
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Science, Biology, anatomy, and Physiology
Name: Week 4 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes
Description: These notes cover the basics of cell pathology as discussed in week 4 of lectures.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
3 Pages 14 Views 11 Unlocks
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