Limited time offer 20% OFF StudySoup Subscription details

USC - POLI 223 - Study Guide

Created by: Madison Waterman Elite Notetaker

USC - POLI 223 - Study Guide

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Political Science
Course: Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Raymond Thompson
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: cells, tissue, and biochemistry
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide includes outlined answers for all of the objectives listed for each section of chapters 1-4 that are on the exam. The outlined answers include notes from lecture as well as the textbook. I have also included notes on the additional reading assignments that were assigned during class including the two "A Closer Look" sections and the section on cell motility. I hope you find this he
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
0 5 3 17 Reviews
This preview shows pages 1 - 5 of a 27 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image EXSC223 Exam 1: CH 1-4 Study Guide Exam material: 1.1-1.4, 2.6, 2.8-2.12, 3.1-3.7, 3.9-3.11, 4.2-4.3 Learning objectives for chapters 1.1 Learning objectives
Define anatomy and physiology and describe their subdivisions.
•  Anatomy: structure of body parts and their relationship to one another o  Macro §   Gross: study of large structures (heart, lungs, etc.) §   Surface: internal body structures as they relate to skin §   Regional: all of the structures of the same region are examined §   Systemic: anatomy within a system is studied o  Micro §   Cytology: cell level §   Histology: tissue level o  Developmental §   Embryology •  Physiology: function of living systems (think: HOW do they work?) o  Physiology is subdivided based on what is being studied
o  Examples:
§   Renal physiology: kidney function and urine production §   Neurophysiology: workings of the nervous system §   Cardiovascular physiology: operation of the heart and blood vessels Explain the principle of complementarity. •  Principle of complementarity: anatomy and physiology are interdependent •  it helps explain how a structure’s function is dependent on its shape and vice versa.
•  Ex: red blood cells don’t have nuclei or some other organelles that take up space so that
there is more room for hemoglobin and oxygen to be carried o  Its shape services its function 1.2 Learning objectives Name the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships. •  Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, organ systems, organism
•  Organization of organisms:
Level Example Structure Chemical level Oxygen Atoms O 2 Molecules Cellular level Nuclei, ribosomes, golgi Organelles Smooth muscle cell Cell Tissue level Smooth muscle tissue Tissue
background image Organ level Blood vessel (made up of 3 tissues: epithelial, smooth muscle, and connective) Organ Organ system level Cardiovascular system (made up of organs: heart and blood vessels) Organ system Organism level Human (made up of many organ systems) organism List the 11 organ systems of the body, identify their components, and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system. •  11 systems (2 or more organs that work together for a specific function): o  skeletal: protects and supports body organs, provides a framework for the muscles to use to cause movement o  muscular: allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, facial expression, maintains posture o  digestive: takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces) o  integumentary: protects the body as a whole from the external environment
o  reproductive: produce offspring, control sex hormones
o  nervous: responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate
muscles and glands o  endocrine: glands secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and metabolism o  cardiovascular: circulates blood continuously to carry oxygen and nutrients to all body cells: o  respiratory: takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
o  lymphatic: houses white blood cells, disposes of debris, attacks foreign
substances o  urinary: eliminates nitrogenous wastes, regulates water and electrolyte balances 1.3 Learning objectives List the functional characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans. •  maintain boundaries o  skin keeps dirt and bacteria out •  movement o  muscle
o  skeletal
•  responsive o  sensory input
o  stimuli
•  digestion
background image o  food §   mechanical: chewing §   chemical: stomach acid o  cellular §   macrophages (big eaters): digest things in the body •  metabolism o  sum of all chemical reactions
o  catabolism-break down
o  anabolism-build
•  excretion o  cellular level or organism level
o  elimination of waste
§   defecating §   urinating §   exhaling CO 2 (metabolic byproduct) •  growth
•  reproduction
o  procreation
o  cellular reproduction: mitosis
List the survival needs of the body. •  Nutrients (food)
•  Oxygen
•  Water
•  Appropriate temperature
•  Appropriate atmospheric pressure
1.4 Learning objectives Define homeostasis and explain its significance. •  Homeostasis: a dynamic state of equilibrium which maintains a relatively constant internal environment •  significant to the survival of organisms because without it they would die •  If homeostasis was not maintained, something as simple as walking out into the hot sun could be life threatening Describe how negative and positive feedback maintain body homeostasis. •  Negative feedback o  Whole point of a negative feedback system is to reduce/eliminate the stimulus
o  Negative feedback systems are self-limiting
o  Ex:
§   Stimulus: go in the sun §   Receptor: detect an increase in temperature **afferent pathway**
§
  Input: message sent to control center (brain and spinal cord) **efferent pathway**
background image §   Output: gland activated §   Response: sweat §   END result: stimulus (heat of the sun) is reduced (body is cooled by the sweat) •  Positive feedback o  Instead of reducing the stimulus, it is amplified (the more, the better)
o  Goal: to magnify or increase the stimulus
o  It is self-sustaining/self-perpetuating
o  Only 2 examples (any other responses are negative feedback!!!!!!)
o  Ex 1: Activation of platelets
1.  Break/tear in blood vessel wall *pos. feedback initiated* 2.  platelets secrete chemicals 3.  activates more platelets which secrete more chemicals 4.  platelets seal the tear o  End result: homeostasis is restored because the stimulus (tear in blood vessel) is eliminated since the platelets sealed the tear ****We don’t know what shuts down positive feedback cycles**** o  Ex 2: Delivering a baby 1.  Contraction 2.  Oxytocin released 3.  Stronger contraction 4.  More oxytocin released 5.  Etc………cycle continues until…
6.  Baby comes out
Describe the relationship between homeostatic imbalance and disease. •  Lack of consistency in the internal environment (homeostatic imbalance) leads to a disease state •  Homeostasis is the standard set for the body to stay in a healthy condition
•  Examples of essential conditions that need to be maintained are
o  Body temperature
o  Blood pH
o  Blood glucose
•  When these are not maintained, the body may become diseased 2.6 Learning objectives Explain the importance of water and salts to body homeostasis. •  Water o  Most abundant inorganic compound
o  most important inorganic compound because of its properties
§   high heat capacity: requires a lot of energy to change its temperature (helps maintain a stable body temperature-homeostasis)
background image §   high heat of vaporization: a lot of heat has to be absorbed for water to evaporate in order to break Hydrogen bonds (when we sweat a lot of heat is removed when it evaporates) §   polar solvent properties •  universal solvent
•  polarity causes ionic compounds to dissociate
•  hydration layers: layers of water molecules
•  used to transport substances in the body because it is a good solvent §   reactivity: adding water to break bonds: hydrolysis •  helps conduct important reactions in the body §   cushioning: protects organs o  THESE PROPERTIES HELP MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS IN THE BODY •  Salts o  Ionic compounds made of cations (not H+) and anions (not OH-) §   Ex/ Na 2 SO 4 is made up of 2Na + (cations) and SO 4 2- (anion) o  Ions=electrolytes (conduct electrical currents in solution)
o  Salts in body= NaCl, CaCO
3 , KCl §   Help with nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions o  Kidneys are responsible for maintaining proper ionic balance in body fluids Define acid and base, and explain the concept of pH. •  Acid o  Substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+)
o  Proton donor
o  Concentration of protons determines acidity
•  Base o  Proton acceptors
o  Take up hydrogen ions (H+)
o  Concentration of OH- determines alkalinity
•  pH o  a measure of Hydrogen ion concentration
o  more hydrogen ions = more acidic = lower pH value
o  pH=-log[H+]
o  neutral: pH = 7
o  acidic: pH < 7
o  basic: pH > 7
o  blood pH is 7.4
o  homeostasis: changes in pH in the body (especially blood pH) can interfere with
cell function §   pH regulated by kidneys, lungs, buffers 2.8 Learning objectives Describe the building blocks, general structure, and biological functions of carbohydrates.

This is the end of the preview. Please to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at University of South Carolina who use StudySoup to get ahead
27 Pages 70 Views 56 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join more than 18,000+ college students at University of South Carolina who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: University of South Carolina
Department: Political Science
Course: Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Raymond Thompson
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: cells, tissue, and biochemistry
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide includes outlined answers for all of the objectives listed for each section of chapters 1-4 that are on the exam. The outlined answers include notes from lecture as well as the textbook. I have also included notes on the additional reading assignments that were assigned during class including the two "A Closer Look" sections and the section on cell motility. I hope you find this he
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
27 Pages 70 Views 56 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to USC - EXSC 223 - Study Guide
Join with Email
Already have an account? Login here
×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to USC - EXSC 223 - Study Guide

Forgot password? Reset password here

Reset your password

I don't want to reset my password

Need help? Contact support

Need an Account? Is not associated with an account
Sign up
We're here to help

Having trouble accessing your account? Let us help you, contact support at +1(510) 944-1054 or support@studysoup.com

Got it, thanks!
Password Reset Request Sent An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account. Follow the link in the email to reset your password. If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder
Got it, thanks!
Already have an Account? Is already in use
Log in
Incorrect Password The password used to log in with this account is incorrect
Try Again

Forgot password? Reset it here