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UM - CHM 111 - Study Guide - Midterm

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UM - CHM 111 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image CHEM MIDTERM REVIEW 
GUIDE
CHAPTER 2: DATA ANALYSIS VOCABULARY Measurement: Accuracy: how close a measured value is to an accepted value Precision: how close a series of measurements are to one another Density: how tightly packed molecules are in a substance CONCEPTS Scientific Notation: a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by 10 to a power o To multiply: multiply the numbers and add the exponents
o To divide: divide the numbers and subtract the exponents
o To add or subtract: make exponents equal then add or subtract
Metric System: 7 base units, common measurement system o Time- seconds
o Length- meters
o Mass- kilograms
p-pico= 10 -12 n-nano= 10 -9   -micro=10 -6 m-milli=10 -3 c- centi=10 -2 k- kilo=10 3 M-mega=10 6 G-giga=10 9 New::::: Hecto (h)  Deka (da) 10 grams in a dekagram Deci; (d) ten decigrams in a gram Significant Digits (including math problems): the number of digits recorded in 
an experiment
o All non-zero numbers
o All zeros between non zeros
o Underlined #s not significant: 0.03440 or 560  or 56.00
o Addition/subtraction: the final answer has the least 10
th  or 100 th  place  o Multiplication/division: least number of significant digits Dimensional Analysis: a method of problem solving using unit factors to 
describe a matter
o Conversion factor: a ratio of equivalent values used to express the  same quantity in different units that always equal one
background image FORMULAS Density: d= m/v  measured in grams per cubic centimeters  Percent Error (Provided): the ratio of an error to an accepted value CHAPTER 3: MATTER- PROPERTIES AND CHANGES VOCABULARY Matter: anything that takes up space or has mass Phase: differing states of matter o Solid: has its own definite shape and volume, tightly packed molecules
o Liquid: has indefinite shape but definite volume
o Gas: has indefinite shape and indefinite volume
Vapor: the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid 
at room temperature 
Mass:  how much matter an object has Volume: how much space an object occupies Element: a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances 
by chemical or physical means
Compounds: a combination of 2 or more different elements that are 
combined chemically (water, salt)
Pure substance: matter with uniform, unchanging composition (salt, water) Physical vs Chemical o Physical Properties: a characteristic that can be observed or measured  without changing the samples composition (density, color, odor, taste, 
melting and boiling point)
Extensive: depends upon the amount of substance present 
(length, mass)
Intensive: independent of amount present (density) o Chemical Properties: the ability of a substance to combine with and  change into 1 or more other substances (and inability to do so) o Physical Changes: altering a substance without changing its  composition (crumple, bend) o Chemical Changes: (chemical reaction) altering a substance such that  the result has different compositions and properties  Mixtures: a combination of 2 or more pure substances in which each pure 
substance retains its individual chemical properties
o Homogenous Mixtures: doesn’t blend smoothly, individual substances  remain distinct o Heterogeneous Mixtures: constant composition throughout the mixture Filtration: a mean of separation of a mixture using a porous barrier to 
separate a solid from a liquid
Law of Conservation of Mass: mass is neither created nor destroyed in a 
chemical reaction, it is conserved
background image Law of Definite Proportions: regardless of the amount, a compound is always 
composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass (percent by 
mass= mass of element/mass of compound x 100)
Law of Multiple Proportions: when different compounds are formed by a 
combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine 
with the same relative mass of the other in a ratio of small to whole numbers
FORMULAS Pecent Mass: mass of element/mass of compound  x 100 Avg Atomic Mass: (abundance1 x atomic mass1) +(abundance2 x mass2) STRUCTURE OF ATOM AND ELEMENTS Vocabulary Atom: the smallest particle of an element that retains the property of that 
element
o Atomic number: the number of protons in an atom (equal to the  number of electrons) o Atomic mass: the average mass of isotopes of that element Sum of (isotope mass x abundance) o Mass number: the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
o Isotope: an atom with a different number of neutrons than protons 
Period: horizontal row in the periodic table Group: vertical column in the periodic table Periodic Law: Overall:  Theories Models of the atom: o Dalton: tiny, solid sphere
o Thompson: plum pudding model. 
o Rutherford: electrons move around the nucleus
Famous Experiments o Thompson: shot a ray of particles that was bent by a magnet showing  they had a charge and finds charge to mass ratio. o Rutherford: shot particles through gold foil, and it was repelled in some instances shown that they must have hit something dense- discovered 
the nucleus.

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School: University of Miami
Department: Chemistry
Course: Principles of Chemistry I
Term: Fall 2014
Tags: scientific, notation, Vocabulary, atom, elements, Chemistry, Energy, levels, periodic, and Table
Name: CHM 111 Midterm Review Guide
Description: These notes cover the topics on the midterm exam.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
9 Pages 55 Views 44 Unlocks
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