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UA - BCMB 215 - BSC 215 Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UA - BCMB 215 - BSC 215 Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image *** BSC 215 Exam 1 Study Guide SQ3R method of studying: survey, question, read, recite, review Learning styles Visual / Verbal: learns best when words in written language format Visual / non­verbal: learns best when info in pic/ design format Auditory / Verbal: learns best when info presented in oral language format (i.e. lecture/ discussion) Tactile / Kinesthetic: learns best in “hands on” environment (also helped by working in groups) characteristics of life 1. Homeostasis: creation and maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment to 
facilitate the numerous physiological processes that cells undergo
2. Organization  Truism: if something is alive, has cells Truism: if something is alive, has organization ex. biomolecules  cells  tissues  organs 3. Metabolism anabolism + catabolism = metabolism Breakdown + synthesis Essential property of cells Reason why viruses not considered alive Generally do not have metabolisms Parasitic, use host metabolism; can’t exist isolation 4. Growth maturation; increased size 5. Adaptation Response to stimuli Reproduction  DNA evolves; Structure always evolving toward desired function 6. Responds to stimuli:
background image Humans complex—language v. bacteria move toward sugar 7.  Reproduction For something to be determined alive, must rep ALL 7 CHAR Ex. viruses reproduce but don’t metabolize—not alive! histology: study of tissues
anatomy: study of body structures and internal workings
physiology: study of body’s structures, as they relate to function anatomical position: body is upright, directly facing the observer, feet flat and directed 
forward. The upper limbs are at the body's sides with the palms facing forward
anatomical directions anterior: toward front posterior: toward back
superior: toward head
inferior: toward tail
proximal: closer to point of origin (typ to the trunk)
distal: farther from the point of origin 
medial: closer to the midline of the part of a body part; on the inner side
l
ateral: farther away from midline of the body; on the outer side superficial: closer to the surface deep: farther below the surface feedback loops—BOTH positive and negative required to maintain homeostasis positive:  Increase / reinforce initial stimulus on regulated variable  in same direction of initial stimulus embedded w/n neg feedback loop to maintain homeostasis
ex. platelets recruiting more platelets to cite of injury
negative:  Return regulated variables to within “normal” range of values  in opposite direction of initial stimulus ex. maintaining body temperature when enviro temp changes stimulus: event that triggers physiological response/ feedback loop oftentimes, in physio, the regulated variable receptor: measure regulated variable; sends signal to control center control center: receives stimulus; makes decision to activate response  oftentimes, the brain  effector: puts into effect response indicated by control center direct response to stimulus
background image unusual ex. platelets act as both control center and effector cell signaling: 
chemical
autocrine:  close­range; signals to self juxtacrine:  close­range cell produces messenger to adjacent (touching) cell  paracrine:  semi­long distance; Chem messenger travels across ECM  (not touching; but not separarated by bloodstream)  until finds cell w/ receptor
BOTH messenger and receptor necessary
endocrine: long­distance signaling; released into bloodstream  electrical       within nervous system (along neurons only; chemical btwn them) biological hierarchy (smallest to largest) chemical level/ biomolecules cells
tissues
organs
organ systems
organisms variables: factor liable to change; physiological variables affect cell chemistry regulated variables:  can be affected by physio mechanism(s) Temperature
pH
blood glucose concentration
rate dissolved O2/ CO2 in blood
unregulated variables: environmentally determined solely ex. Vit D synth—dep on how much time spent in sun gradients: increase/ decrease in magnitude of property; passively move high  low temperature heat dissipates from its source pressure gas and liq molecules diffuse to lower conc. areas  regulated by Brownian motion concentration particles move from areas with high to low concentration 2.  subatomic particles:
background image proton: pos charge loc in nucleus determines element’s ID, know proton # of H, O, N, C neutron: neutral charge loc in nucleus electron: neg charge loc in orbitals; valence (outermost) electrons responsible for reactivity how many electrons can shell hold?  n th   shell holds 2(n 2 ) electrons octet rule: need 8 valence electrons in valence (outer) shell to be stable ALL chem bonding (or lack thereof) to satisfy this rule duet rule: modification—need 2 val electrons in smaller atoms (H, He) atomic categorization atomic #: # protons
atomic mass: # protons + # neutrons –whole number 
decimal on periodic table is average of diff isotypes—called atomic  weight isotope: diff forms of same element (same # protons, varying # neutrons) radioactive isotopes decay physical v. biological half life physical: how long til ½ remains (ex. carbondating)
biological: how long to get rid of radioactive ion
depends on what it’s incorporated into low penetrance (  &   particles) α β high penetrance (  rays = high energy photons) γ can mutate genes metabolism = sum anabolic (building rxns) + catabolic (breakdown rxns) (endergonic rxn) (exergonic rxns) types energy Chemical energy: Potential energy stored in chemical bonds (covalent bonds) When break those bonds, energy released that can do work
Ex. glucose has lots potential chem energy—molecule of choice for bio­rxns
Electrical energy:  Flow of ions Discussed more with respect to nerves Mechanical energy: Energy directly transferred from one object to another Types chem rxns Reactants  Products Decomposition: AB   A + B  o Reactants more complex/ larger than products o Nature of bonds doesn’t matter Synthesis: A + B   AB  o Opposite of decomp
background image o Products larger/ more complex than reactants Exchange: AB + CD  AC + BD  o NO change in size/ complexity o AB/ CD have “swapped” partners Reversible: AB   A + B  o ALL the above rxns are reversible o Typ faster rate in one direction reaction kinetics endergonic:  Products have higher energy than reactants Need to put energy into system Exergonic reactions: Reactants have higher energy than products  Get energy out of rxn
Think… digestion/ breakdown to release energy so orgs can use it
Endothermic: absorb heat energy
Exothermic: give off heat energy
enzyme: increases rxn rate by lowering activation energy not permanently altered by rxn 2 factors increasing reaction rate 1. reactants must come into physical contact with one another  a. dep on phys proximity at same time b. cell mechanisms work to bring molecs in concentration @ same place/ time 2. reactants must overcome the repulsive forces of their electrons get electrons over barrier to be attracted to other nuclei make 1 and/or 2 happen thru… Concentration: higher concentration = more molecules in given space
more likely to collide if more particles
Temperature: more kinetic energy  higher speed  more collision likelihood Reactant properties: ex. state/ phase of matter  increased molecular motion  increased collision likelihood Ex. liquid Catalysts: “master builders/ breakers”  bring molecules together or put tension on bonds  (only a little excess energy req to break) active site where desired reactant molecules fit together so they can interact              Law of mass action: rxn rate directly proportional to [ ] reactants Bonds Ionic: bond via transfer of electrons btwn oppositely charged molecules Charged particles via unequal number of protons & electrons   Ionization  by  octet rule  Atoms with < 4 valence electrons… give them up   Cations (+) pos charge • Atoms > 3 & < 8 valence electrons… tend to gain more

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Professor: Jason Pienaar
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anatomy, Physiology, Biology, Chemistry, Genetics, premed, and Nursing
Name: BSC 215 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the key points of lecture materials and readings for which we are responsible on Exam 1.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
22 Pages 61 Views 48 Unlocks
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