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Exam 1 study guide

by: Olivia Notetaker

Exam 1 study guide SO 1003

Olivia Notetaker

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This is the completed study guide for exam 1
Intro to Sociology
Ashley Vancil-Leap
Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SO 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Ashley Vancil-Leap in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Exam 1 Study Guide  Social Theory – Chapter 1 o Be able to define and understand these  Sociology:  Study of human society  MAKING THE FAMILIAR STRANGE  Sociology:  Study of human society  MAKING THE FAMILIAR STRANGE  C. Wright Mills and sociology imagination  The ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual’s life to society and history  How we think critically  Baby names  personal  historical  Formal sociology;  Microsociology: Local interactional contexts, focusing on face- to-face, gathering data, in depth interviews  Macrosociology: social dynamics across whole societies o Numbers and stats  Social identity:  The way individuals define themselves in relationship to groups that they are or are not a part of  Grand Narrative:  Sum of all your social identities o Ex: family, education, society, Greek life  Auguste Comte:  Stated that society is understood by determining the scientific laws governing behavior  We could determine right or wrong by ourselves and not by a higher power  Positivism: Scientific method  Came out during a time of declining religious authority  Social institution:  Networks of structures in society that work to socialize the people in them o Education systems, legal system, military o Not stable and reflect the current values in society o Who are the founding fathers of sociology and what are their main theories  Founding fathers:  1. Karl Marx: Identifies class conflict as primary cause of social change o Historical materialism  2. Max Weber: Emphasized subjectivity or personal experiences o Different perspectives o Personal experiences shape who you are  3. Emile Durkheim: Suggested division of labor helps determine how social cohesion is or is not maintained o Assembly line  4. Georg Simmel: Sociology of pure numbers o Quantitative  Functionalism:  Draws from Durkheim  Stated that the best way to analyze society is to identify the roles that different aspects and phenomena play in society o Functions:  1. Manifest (explicit): Beneficial  2. Latent (hidden): Beneficial, unintentional  3. Dysfunctions (hidden): Negative o Society is a living organism o Ex: Labor market  Role/Function: provides jobs, money, pay bills, goods, helps mental health connects people, insurance, retirement, food  Conflict theory:  Draws upon Karl Marxx  Conflict among competing interests is the basic force of any society  Competition drives social change o Through revolution and war  Inequality exists because of political struggles  Inequality is unfair and exists at the expense of the less powerful groups in society  Symbolic Interactionism:  Gorge Mead, Goffman o Everyday personal encounters shape and reinforce our notions o We make judgements  People act in response to the meaning that signs and social signals hold for them  Focused on how face-to-face interactions create the social world (microsociology) o What are the 3 waves of feminism and what are they known for?  Wave 1:  Suffrage movement  Diverse people and goals o Right to vote, sexual freedom  Expanded workplace roles  Wave 2: (1960s)  Stereotype: lesbian, angry, burning bras  Diverse participation  Workplace rights, sexual violence, domestic violence, reproductive rights  Wave 3: (1980s)  Diverse (academics)  Black Female o Fought on race  Sexual orientation  Gender o University of Chicago:  Charles Cooley: social self  Looking-glass self: gauge how others view me and then create a self-concept from that  Grand narrative  George Mead: Social self  grand narrative  WEB DuBois: Race and ethnicity  Jane Addams: opened hull house  Behaviors and personalities shape who we are  Methods; Science – Chapter 2 o Be able to define & understand these terms  Theory: Explanation for why or how a phenomenon occurs  Supported by a large body of evidence  Hypothesis:  Proposed relationship between two variables; an educated guess  Null Hypothesis: there is no relationship between the two variables  Alternative Hypothesis: there is a relationship between the two variables  Deductive & inductive research  Deductive approach: o Theory  Hypothesis  Observations  Analyze the data  Inductive approach: o Observation  Theory  Determine if correlation exists by noticing if chance is observed  Qualitative: Collect information about the social world that can’t be readily converted into numerical form  Quantitative: Seek to obtain information that is in numeric form  Correlation: Observe a change in both variables  Sociologists conduct research to try and prove causation  To prove causation… correlation and time order have to be established and any alternative explanations are ruled OUT  Causation: Idea that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another factor (domino effect)  Reliability: How likely are you to get the same results using the same measure if you conduct the same experiment again?  Ex: Does your scale read the same numbers each time you step on it?  Validity: Does the study measure what it is intended to measure?  Ex: Does the scale measure your weight?  Generalizability:  Will the findings of this study apply to a different population or group of people?  Types of data collection  Participant observation: Seeks to uncover the meanings people give their social actions by observing their behavior o Qualitative o Advantages: Cheap o Disadvantages: Time consuming, access to people, small sample size o Ex: Lunch ladies  Interviews: Ask people how and why they do something o Can be taken from a script or open ended o Qualitative o Advantages: Cheap, face-to-face o Disadvantages: Time consuming, hard for people to open up and be honest, small sample size  Survey research: An ordered set of questions in hopes of gaining information from the responses o Quantitative o Helps capture and understand national and state trends o Reaches many people o Panel survey or longitudinal study: tracks the same individuals or groups of people over an extended period of time o Advantages: cheap, fast, a lot of information o Disadvantages: Doesn’t capture small interactions, honesty from participants is unknown  Comparative research: Compares across time, places, people, or events with hopes to learn about the differences and factors between them o Quantitative or qualitative o Ex: US vs. Sweden o Advantages: across an extended period of time o Disadvantages: Time consuming, limited access, hard finding comparable things  Experimentation: Method sociologists use by altering a variable in a specific way for a sample of individuals or things and then track what changes o Quantitative o Includes a control group & experimental group o Steps:  Hypothesis  choose design  localize subjects  randomly assign subjects  conduct experiment  analyze data o Advantages: Control for variables o Disadvantages: Costly, does not account for variations “what if”  Content analysis: Review of documents for similar patterns and ideas o Quantitative or qualitative o Advantages: Cheap, comparative o Disadvantages: Determining the sample selection is mainly based off of personal knowledge of the topic, time consuming  Ethics in research:  IRB (Institutional Review Board): committee that approves, monitors, and reviews experiments and research conducted on humans (experiment cannot cause harm to any of the participants  Informed Consent: experimenter must tell the subjects detailed information about the study they will be participating in and participation must be voluntary  Culture & Media – Chapter 3 o Define and understand these terms  Culture: Meanings and ways of life that characterize society  Beliefs, values, norms, symbols  NOT biological  Passed down through communication through stories told by family members, media, school…  Institutions make up culture: Military, art, music, government  Subculture: A group within society that is united by sets of concepts, values, traits, and behavioral patterns that distinguish from others in society  Ex: Goths, Cosplay, Amish, Hipsters  Music: Hip-hop, Rock, Country, Christian  MSU is its own subculture  Counterculture: A subculture whose values and norms differ from mainstream society  Nonmaterial Culture: Beliefs, values, and social norms  What feels normal but is actually socially produced and very evident when you are in a foreign culture o Ex: saying “bless you” when someone sneezes  Elements of nonmaterial culture:  Beliefs: Influence whether and individual views a particular social situation as a social problem  Values: Social agreements about wat is good or bad  Norms: How our values tell us to act o Folkways: Customs, habits, manners (Shaking hands) o Laws: Formal norms with political backing (DUI) o Mores: Norm with moral basis (littering)  Sanctions: Social consequences for conforming or violating social norms o Positive – Informal: When you DO follow social norms (Praise in classroom) o Positive – Formal: When you DO follow social norms (Graduation) o Negative – Informal: When you DO NOT follow social norms (bullying) o Negative – Formal: When you DO NOT follow social norms (Jail, ticket)  Material Culture: Everything that is a part of our physical constructed environment  Items didn’t originally have a meaning but through our culture e have established certain meanings for certain items  Ex: Technology, books, monuments, fashion  Ideology: System of concepts and relationships that include an understanding of cause and effect  Ex: American dream  Hegemony: Impact of media on culture and how people and societies shape and are shaped by the dominant culture  Cultural scripts: Modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural but may strongly shape beliefs and concepts held by a society  Ex: Gender roles  Conglomerates: 6 companies own media  Disney, CBS, Time Warner, Viacom, Comcast, News corporation and media ownership  Ads can lead to Consumerism: Belief that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved through material possession  Socialization & “Reality” – Chapter 4 o Define and understand these terms  Socialization – process by which individuals internalize values, beliefs, & norms of a given society and learn how to become a functioning member of that society  Agents of Socialization – school, media, family, religion  Total institutions – total life immersed (army, prison)  Resocialization – change in values, beliefs, norms through a social process (new job, mother, new country)  Charles Horton Cooley’s looking-glass self – the self emerges from our ability to assume the POV of other people and imagine how they see us  3 steps  George Herbert Mead’s role theory – Kids don’t have a sense of other and  learn through 3 stages o 1. Play stage o 2. Game stage o 3. Generalized others – applying norms and behaviors learned over time & in other situations to new situations  Symbolic Interactionism: People act in a way with shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions  Common perspective adopted  Conflict – When different groups hold different meanings for an object o Ex: Confederate flag  Erving Goffman’s dramaturgy theory: Sees social life as a theatre performance  Front stage & Back stage symbolic interaction  Role theory – Robert Merton  Status – position in society that comes with expectations o Achieved status – earned (CEO, babysitter) o Ascribed status – born with (sex, age, race) o Master status – status that overrides all, what people notice first (male, female, mother)  Roles – behaviors of individuals in that status o Role conflict – when the person has 2 different roles and they conflict with one another (Mother and student) o Role strain – one role and one status conflict with one another (student and party)  Social construction: People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions  Ongoing process  Our personal experiences make us and our reality  Ethnomethodology: Approach that focuses on the ways we make sense of our world, convey understanding, and produce a shared social order  Breaching Experiments: Students went out and exhibited “abnormal” behaviors in social settings to see how people would react  Harold Garfinkel  Ex: Face wall in elevator


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