Exam 1 study guide
Exam 1 study guide SO 1003
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SO 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Ashley Vancil-Leap in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Social Theory – Chapter 1 o Be able to define and understand these Sociology: Study of human society MAKING THE FAMILIAR STRANGE Sociology: Study of human society MAKING THE FAMILIAR STRANGE C. Wright Mills and sociology imagination The ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual’s life to society and history How we think critically Baby names personal historical Formal sociology; Microsociology: Local interactional contexts, focusing on face- to-face, gathering data, in depth interviews Macrosociology: social dynamics across whole societies o Numbers and stats Social identity: The way individuals define themselves in relationship to groups that they are or are not a part of Grand Narrative: Sum of all your social identities o Ex: family, education, society, Greek life Auguste Comte: Stated that society is understood by determining the scientific laws governing behavior We could determine right or wrong by ourselves and not by a higher power Positivism: Scientific method Came out during a time of declining religious authority Social institution: Networks of structures in society that work to socialize the people in them o Education systems, legal system, military o Not stable and reflect the current values in society o Who are the founding fathers of sociology and what are their main theories Founding fathers: 1. Karl Marx: Identifies class conflict as primary cause of social change o Historical materialism 2. Max Weber: Emphasized subjectivity or personal experiences o Different perspectives o Personal experiences shape who you are 3. Emile Durkheim: Suggested division of labor helps determine how social cohesion is or is not maintained o Assembly line 4. Georg Simmel: Sociology of pure numbers o Quantitative Functionalism: Draws from Durkheim Stated that the best way to analyze society is to identify the roles that different aspects and phenomena play in society o Functions: 1. Manifest (explicit): Beneficial 2. Latent (hidden): Beneficial, unintentional 3. Dysfunctions (hidden): Negative o Society is a living organism o Ex: Labor market Role/Function: provides jobs, money, pay bills, goods, helps mental health connects people, insurance, retirement, food Conflict theory: Draws upon Karl Marxx Conflict among competing interests is the basic force of any society Competition drives social change o Through revolution and war Inequality exists because of political struggles Inequality is unfair and exists at the expense of the less powerful groups in society Symbolic Interactionism: Gorge Mead, Goffman o Everyday personal encounters shape and reinforce our notions o We make judgements People act in response to the meaning that signs and social signals hold for them Focused on how face-to-face interactions create the social world (microsociology) o What are the 3 waves of feminism and what are they known for? Wave 1: Suffrage movement Diverse people and goals o Right to vote, sexual freedom Expanded workplace roles Wave 2: (1960s) Stereotype: lesbian, angry, burning bras Diverse participation Workplace rights, sexual violence, domestic violence, reproductive rights Wave 3: (1980s) Diverse (academics) Black Female o Fought on race Sexual orientation Gender o University of Chicago: Charles Cooley: social self Looking-glass self: gauge how others view me and then create a self-concept from that Grand narrative George Mead: Social self grand narrative WEB DuBois: Race and ethnicity Jane Addams: opened hull house Behaviors and personalities shape who we are Methods; Science – Chapter 2 o Be able to define & understand these terms Theory: Explanation for why or how a phenomenon occurs Supported by a large body of evidence Hypothesis: Proposed relationship between two variables; an educated guess Null Hypothesis: there is no relationship between the two variables Alternative Hypothesis: there is a relationship between the two variables Deductive & inductive research Deductive approach: o Theory Hypothesis Observations Analyze the data Inductive approach: o Observation Theory Determine if correlation exists by noticing if chance is observed Qualitative: Collect information about the social world that can’t be readily converted into numerical form Quantitative: Seek to obtain information that is in numeric form Correlation: Observe a change in both variables Sociologists conduct research to try and prove causation To prove causation… correlation and time order have to be established and any alternative explanations are ruled OUT Causation: Idea that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another factor (domino effect) Reliability: How likely are you to get the same results using the same measure if you conduct the same experiment again? Ex: Does your scale read the same numbers each time you step on it? Validity: Does the study measure what it is intended to measure? Ex: Does the scale measure your weight? Generalizability: Will the findings of this study apply to a different population or group of people? Types of data collection Participant observation: Seeks to uncover the meanings people give their social actions by observing their behavior o Qualitative o Advantages: Cheap o Disadvantages: Time consuming, access to people, small sample size o Ex: Lunch ladies Interviews: Ask people how and why they do something o Can be taken from a script or open ended o Qualitative o Advantages: Cheap, face-to-face o Disadvantages: Time consuming, hard for people to open up and be honest, small sample size Survey research: An ordered set of questions in hopes of gaining information from the responses o Quantitative o Helps capture and understand national and state trends o Reaches many people o Panel survey or longitudinal study: tracks the same individuals or groups of people over an extended period of time o Advantages: cheap, fast, a lot of information o Disadvantages: Doesn’t capture small interactions, honesty from participants is unknown Comparative research: Compares across time, places, people, or events with hopes to learn about the differences and factors between them o Quantitative or qualitative o Ex: US vs. Sweden o Advantages: across an extended period of time o Disadvantages: Time consuming, limited access, hard finding comparable things Experimentation: Method sociologists use by altering a variable in a specific way for a sample of individuals or things and then track what changes o Quantitative o Includes a control group & experimental group o Steps: Hypothesis choose design localize subjects randomly assign subjects conduct experiment analyze data o Advantages: Control for variables o Disadvantages: Costly, does not account for variations “what if” Content analysis: Review of documents for similar patterns and ideas o Quantitative or qualitative o Advantages: Cheap, comparative o Disadvantages: Determining the sample selection is mainly based off of personal knowledge of the topic, time consuming Ethics in research: IRB (Institutional Review Board): committee that approves, monitors, and reviews experiments and research conducted on humans (experiment cannot cause harm to any of the participants Informed Consent: experimenter must tell the subjects detailed information about the study they will be participating in and participation must be voluntary Culture & Media – Chapter 3 o Define and understand these terms Culture: Meanings and ways of life that characterize society Beliefs, values, norms, symbols NOT biological Passed down through communication through stories told by family members, media, school… Institutions make up culture: Military, art, music, government Subculture: A group within society that is united by sets of concepts, values, traits, and behavioral patterns that distinguish from others in society Ex: Goths, Cosplay, Amish, Hipsters Music: Hip-hop, Rock, Country, Christian MSU is its own subculture Counterculture: A subculture whose values and norms differ from mainstream society Nonmaterial Culture: Beliefs, values, and social norms What feels normal but is actually socially produced and very evident when you are in a foreign culture o Ex: saying “bless you” when someone sneezes Elements of nonmaterial culture: Beliefs: Influence whether and individual views a particular social situation as a social problem Values: Social agreements about wat is good or bad Norms: How our values tell us to act o Folkways: Customs, habits, manners (Shaking hands) o Laws: Formal norms with political backing (DUI) o Mores: Norm with moral basis (littering) Sanctions: Social consequences for conforming or violating social norms o Positive – Informal: When you DO follow social norms (Praise in classroom) o Positive – Formal: When you DO follow social norms (Graduation) o Negative – Informal: When you DO NOT follow social norms (bullying) o Negative – Formal: When you DO NOT follow social norms (Jail, ticket) Material Culture: Everything that is a part of our physical constructed environment Items didn’t originally have a meaning but through our culture e have established certain meanings for certain items Ex: Technology, books, monuments, fashion Ideology: System of concepts and relationships that include an understanding of cause and effect Ex: American dream Hegemony: Impact of media on culture and how people and societies shape and are shaped by the dominant culture Cultural scripts: Modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural but may strongly shape beliefs and concepts held by a society Ex: Gender roles Conglomerates: 6 companies own media Disney, CBS, Time Warner, Viacom, Comcast, News corporation and media ownership Ads can lead to Consumerism: Belief that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved through material possession Socialization & “Reality” – Chapter 4 o Define and understand these terms Socialization – process by which individuals internalize values, beliefs, & norms of a given society and learn how to become a functioning member of that society Agents of Socialization – school, media, family, religion Total institutions – total life immersed (army, prison) Resocialization – change in values, beliefs, norms through a social process (new job, mother, new country) Charles Horton Cooley’s looking-glass self – the self emerges from our ability to assume the POV of other people and imagine how they see us 3 steps George Herbert Mead’s role theory – Kids don’t have a sense of other and learn through 3 stages o 1. Play stage o 2. Game stage o 3. Generalized others – applying norms and behaviors learned over time & in other situations to new situations Symbolic Interactionism: People act in a way with shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions Common perspective adopted Conflict – When different groups hold different meanings for an object o Ex: Confederate flag Erving Goffman’s dramaturgy theory: Sees social life as a theatre performance Front stage & Back stage symbolic interaction Role theory – Robert Merton Status – position in society that comes with expectations o Achieved status – earned (CEO, babysitter) o Ascribed status – born with (sex, age, race) o Master status – status that overrides all, what people notice first (male, female, mother) Roles – behaviors of individuals in that status o Role conflict – when the person has 2 different roles and they conflict with one another (Mother and student) o Role strain – one role and one status conflict with one another (student and party) Social construction: People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions Ongoing process Our personal experiences make us and our reality Ethnomethodology: Approach that focuses on the ways we make sense of our world, convey understanding, and produce a shared social order Breaching Experiments: Students went out and exhibited “abnormal” behaviors in social settings to see how people would react Harold Garfinkel Ex: Face wall in elevator
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