TEST1 BUNDLE NOTES
TEST1 BUNDLE NOTES Geog 140
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tran on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 140 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Rebecca Buller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 219 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography in Geography at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice Geography Test 1 Study Guide =======intro to geography=============== Geography: the study of WHY WHAT IS WHERE 2 Different ways t o approach geography 1) Systematic: approach to geographic study based on topical geography a. Ex: religion geography 2) Regional: based on spatial unit of region a. Ex: Asian geography Divided into: Human Geography & Physical Geography Techniques used by geographers: o GIS, GPS, remote sensing, qualitative/quantitative techniques, maps o exploring link between people and place o explaining differences across people, places, scales,& times Five Themes of Geography: 1) Location: explains how geographical position of people and things on Earth affect what happens & why 2) Place: two types= 1) sense of place 2)perception of place 3) Human-environmental Interactions a. Understanding relationship between humans & physical world b. What is that, and why is it there? 4) Movement: mobility of things from hearth to other areas a. Expansion, relocation 5) Regions: features of Earth’s surface in a particular area Core vs Periphery regional relationships: areas and relationships to each other Core areas: independent, dominate economically; exploit periphery & strong & powerful Periphery areas: dependent on core areas; poor economically ====Population========== Population continues to grow=> many misconceptions that there’s not enough supplies Three Diseases that can Affect Life Expectancy & Mortality (death rate) 1) Infectious diseases (vectored/nonvectored) 2) Chronic/degenerative diseases 3) Genetic/inherited diseases ‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice Major World Population Clusters 1) East Asia(1/4 of World Population) a. South Korea , Japan, China 2) South Asia (23% of population on 3% of land) a. Clustered in cities, coasts, and rivers b. Ganges River, Bangladesh c. Separated by Himalayas 3) Western Europe (715 million) a. Most live in cities along coal fields 4) Eastern North America (335.6 million) a. Largest urban center from Boston to Washington DC = BoshWash i. 20% of US population 5 Highest Population Countries 1) China (1,373,541,278) 2) India (1,266,855,598) 3) United States (323,995,528) 4) Indonesia (258,316,051) 5) Brazil (205,834,665) Population composition includes: o Gender distribution o Age distribution Demographic transition model: takes into account changes in birth, death and NIR o Model of demographic cycle: Stage 1= low growth Stage 2= increasing growth Stage3= population explosion Stage 4= decreasing growth Stage 5= declining population Government involvement has affected population change o Expansive policies, eugenic policies, and restrictive policies =====Movement======== Basic types of movements: Cyclic, periodic, migration, guest workers Push & pull factors that cause migration ‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice Economic conditions, legal status, power relationships, political circumstances, armed conflict & civil war, environmental conditions, culture and traditions, technological advances Reasons for moving: Forced migration, voluntary migration (step or chain) o Step: following a series of stages, can be interrupted o Chain: further migration to a place where friend/relative lives Males > mobile @ young age Laws of Migration: every migration flow generates a return or counter migration Majority of migrants move a short distance Migrants who move further= big city ====HUMAN TRAFFICKING======= Human trafficking= 2ndmost profitable illegal activity o High $,low risk About 100k children in sex trade in US Great Plains involvement = early stages on researching trafficking o Learn about combating stereotypes, increasing public awareness, assist law enforcement, provide statistics for victim-support services, heal victims, change policy, prevent future incidents Geography can be very helpful in stopping trafficking through o Core/periphery power relationships o Culture o Demographics o Development o Economics o Identity o Migration o Networks o Politics o Urban dimensions Research can help examine & understand things like: o Enslavement processes Location Motivation o Identify common characteristics & patterns …in victims: Why/how did they get here? Push and pull factors Depend on economic socio status? …in traffickers: ‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice Can be found in economic demand situations (places with a lot of people ) o College World Series, Sturgis, pheasant hunting season, pipeline construction, truck stops, football games , fairs …in clients: Stereotypical white male middle age w/ $ and family …commuting long distance Challenge: people assume human trafficking doesn’t exist around b/c it’s not heavily reported UN & federal laws have come out with definition of trafficking o Key words: Force, coercion ,of fraud exploitation Cases The Boys in the Bunkhouse: labor trafficking mentally ill people Labor trafficking o Targets ex-cons and illegals Common Assumptions It happens over there, not here====can be in any community Only big cities have that problem===small town like Upland ,NE The girls trafficked here are from elsewhere=====most are NATIVE to the area= home grown Pimps are male========Michelle Randall sold her daughters Victims are female=====males make up 50% Incidents occurred in the past Prostitution is different from sex trafficking===NOT IF BY FORCE OR UNDERAGE Those girls chose prostitution; They created the situation and must suffer the consequence==72% are homeless Patronizing strip clubs is harmless; they do it voluntarily Patronizing an escort is harmless=75% attempt suicide This is just a business, detached transaction for this sex worker She is safe; no one is harming her==73% are assaulted / 83% assaulted w/ weapon Human trafficking laws have been on the states’ books for a long time==recently mentioned in NE in 2012 Johns are single, poor males= false Risk factors of child trafficking The individual’s life= bad family life, community, workplace ‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice Human trafficking indicators (What to look for to see if someone fits in any category ) General indicators: doesn’t know own address, act as if instructed by someone else, false/no documentation, others speak for them, receive little $, act on false promises, depend on others, unable to communicate freely, come from sex-trafficking known place, transportation paid for, indebted, be unfamiliar with local language, not have a home address/ false identity , distrustful of authorities, afraid to reveal immigration status, unfamiliar w/ local language Children who were trafficked may: have no parents/guardians, look intimidated & not act their age, have no time to play/education, travel w/o adult & carrying phone for taxis, travel in groups that aren’t relatives , be given only leftovers o Also: where clothes for manual/sex work, adult says they ”found” the child, illegal adoptions Domestic servitude: live w/ a family, doesn’t eat w/ rest of family, have no private space, be reported missing, rarely leaves house w/o employer, subject to insults, abuse, threats/violence Sexual exploitation : live/travel in group, sometimes w/ other women who don’t speak same language, have few items of clothing that are for sex/labor, only know sex-related words, no $ of own, no documentation, be any age, move, have tattoos to indicate ownership, sleep where they work Labor exploitation: work in sectors , live in groups and rarely leaves house, not dressed well, only given leftovers, no access to their $, no contract, work many long hours Begging and petty crime: trafficked for purpose of committing/begging petty crimes o Normally children, elderly, disabled, migrants, children commonly sell drugs o (children) move in groups w/ little adult supervision o Participate in activities of organized criminal gangs o Live w/members of gangs o Move frequently Keep an eye when: new forms of gang-related crime appear, involved in crimes in another country COUNTERING Human Trafficking: Remember 4 P’s Prevention of the crime Prosecution of trafficker/johns Protection for the victims Partnerships across all levels of society Learn & educate yourself about Human trafficking Learn from resources FIND THE RED FLAGS o Especially for hotels, school employees, students, parents, ERresponders Contact legislation/ authorities ‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice DO’s and DON’T’s to HUMAN trafficking Don’t ignore DO figure out your niche DO have courage DO support organizations that are helping now DO educate others DO be aware DO report ====READING OUTLINE CHAPTER 1-6 A PATH APPEARS==== Authors: Sheryl WuDunn o Wife of Nicholas Kristof o Won Pulitzer Prize 1 Asian American to win o Business editor o Former VP of Golden = knows microeconomics Nicholas Kristof o Did not live privileged life o Writer of NY Times o Won Pulitzer Prize 2006 with Sheryl WuDunn Claims book will be about innovators around the world doing good to prevent violence/poverty o Educating the reader of successful strategies to change the world Chapter 1: o Compassion isn’t a sign of weakness o Sources from book come from scholars Chapter 3: o Failed projects show things may not always work out Global Alliance (cleaner cook stoves)- Clinton initiated research but couldn’t find any effective solution Head Start: similar to Perry Preschool; showed long term effects later on Chapter 4: o Poverty in U.S. can be solved through Early interventions Pre-k efforts Programs to build character Chapter 6: o Marshmallow tests: kids given marshmallow/ candy and told to wait IF they wanted more; showed results of self-control & correlated long term to testing ‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice o Grit= persistence and working hard Mrs. Gray & the Boy who made Her Cry o Olly O’Neil troubled kid in Arkansas o Ended up reading the treasure of pleasant valley b/c of cover; but stole it o Thought reading would ruin reputation =>kept on stealing books and reading Mrs. Grady the librarian used own $ and time to find books for him w/o him knowing st o Olly ended up becoming 1 African American Attorney/judge in Arkansas *Remember to study photos/captions given during class * use context clues 13- line graph w/ diff countries: “Changes in a country’s migration policies are reflected in the number of people entering the country and the origin of the immigrants. The United States experienced two major waves of immigration before 1930 and is in the midst of another great wave of immigration today. Major changes in the government’s policies are reflected in this graph. Push factors are also reflected, as people in different regions found reasons to leave their home and migrate to the United States.” 8-Chinese in Southeast Asia:“European colonialism also had an impact on regional migration flows in Southeast Asia. Europe’s colonial occupation of Southeast Asia presented economic opportunities for the Chinese. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, many Chinese immigrated to cities in the region to work in trade, commerce, and finance. Many remained, and today Chinese minorities in Southeast Asian countries account for substantial portions of national populations: 14 percent inThailand, 32 percent in Malaysia, and 76 percent in Singapore. The Chinese minority in Indonesia accounts for only about 3 percent of the total population, but Indonesia has more than 200 million people, so its Chinese minority is one of Southeast Asia’s largest clusters.” 7 major islands of development: “European colonialism helped establish islands of -development throughout the world. Islands of development are often coastal cities because their establishment was based on access to trade. Islands of development are places within a region or country where most foreign investment goes, where the vast majority of paying jobs are located, and where infrastructure is concentrated.” 4 “The Atlantic slave trade”: “International migration, movement across country borders, is also called transnational migration. Forced migration involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice. The largest and most devastating forced migration in the history of humanity was the Atlantic slave trade, which carried tens of millions of Africans from their homes to South America, the Caribbean, and North America, with huge loss of life. The number of Africans sold into slavery will never be known (estimates range from 12 million to 30 million). [This figure] shows an approximation of the numbers involved, as well as the destinations of the trans- Atlantic African deportees.” 14- center of population:“National migration flows can also be thought of as internal migration flows. Historically, two of the major migration flows before 1950 occurred internally—that is, within a single country rather than across international borders. In the United States, a massive migration stream carried the center of population west (and more recently also south). As the American populace migrates westward, it is also shifting from north to south, to reflect migration flows from south to north and back again.” ‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice 1-”Legal immigration from middle/south America” “Not all immigrants are illegal. Of the estimated 37.9 million immigrants in the United States today, 26.6 million are legal immigrants. Countries recognize the need for immigrant labor, and many have policies allowing—even encouraging— legal immigrants to work under temporary visas to fill a need. Thousands of people who work in the United States and Canada are there on temporary visas to fill seasonal jobs in agriculture and forestry. In the United States, over 45,000 agricultural laborers legally enter the country each year under a program that allows unskilled laborers into the country, as long as no Americans want the jobs. In both Canada and the United States, the vast majority of legal agricultural laborers come from Mexico.” 9- Jordan yellow map:“Regional migration flows also center on reconnecting cultural groups across borders. A migration stream with enormous consequences is the flow of Jewish immigrants to Israel. At the turn of the twentieth century, fewer than 50,000 Jewish residents lived in what was then Palestine. From 1919 to 1948, Great Britain held control over Palestine, and Britain encouraged Jews (whose ancestors had fled more than a thousand years earlier from the Middle East to Europe) to return to the region. By 1948, as many as 750,000 Jews resided in Palestine, when the United Nations intervened to partition the area and establish the independent state of Israel. Following the division of the land between the newly created Israeli state and the state of Palestine, another migration stream began—600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of Israeli territories. Many sought refuge in neighboring Jordan, Egypt, Syria, and elsewhere. Through a series of wars, Israel expanded its area of territorial control and actively built settlements for new Jewish immigrants in Palestinian territories. Jewish immigrants from the Eurasian region continue to migrate to Israel. Today Israel’s population of 7.4 million (including about 1 million Arab citizens) continues to grow through immigration as well as substantial natural increase.” 11- average refugees by country of origin:“The refuge situation changes frequently as some refugees return home, conditions permitting, and as other, new streams suddenly form. Yet we can make certain generalizations about the overall geography of refugees. In the early twenty-first century, Subsaharan Africa had the largest number of refugees in the world as well as the greatest potential for new refugee flows. The second-ranking geographic realm in terms of refugee numbers was Southwest Asia and North Africa, the realm that includes the Middle East, Iraq, and Afghanistan. South Asia, as a result of Pakistan’s proximity to Afghanistan, ranked third.” 5- interaction intensity vs increasing distance graph: “When considering pull factors, the principle of distance decay comes into play. Prospective migrants are likely to have more complete perceptions of nearer places than of farther ones, which confirms the notion that the intensity of human activity, process, or function declines as distance from its source increases. Since interaction with faraway places generally decreases as distance increases, prospective migrations are likely to feel much less certain about distant destinations than about nearer ones. This leads many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplated.” 12- three children baking bread unhcr: Bredjing, Chad. “The [Sudanese] Arab Muslim government (located in the north) began a campaign of genocide early in this century against the non-Arab Muslims in Darfur. The government of Sudan funds the militia known as the Janjaweed. The Janjaweed is waging a genocide campaign against the non-Arab, Muslim, darker-skinned Africans in Darfur—a campaign that includes killing over 400,000, raping women and girls, taking lands and homes from Africans, and displacing 2.5 million people. [Here we see refugees from the Darfur region of Sudan bake bread near their tent in Chad’s largest refugee camp.” ‘is NOT characteristic’ style multiple choice 10- houses over a dusty hill: Jerusalem, Israel. “Just a few miles into the West Bank, not far from Jerusalem, the expanding Israeli presence could not be missed. New settlements dot the landscape, often occupying strategic sites that are also easily defensible. These ‘facts on the ground’ will certainly complicate the effort to carve out a stable territorial order in this much- contested region. That, of course, is the goal of the settlers and their supporters, but it is salt on the wound for those who contest the Israeli right to be there in the first place.” 3 -“percent change …” green colored map: Percent Change in Population by State and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012. Population change factors in natural increase, immigration, and emigration. 6- house with just dust and dry: Plymouth, Montserrat. “This photo shows the damage caused by the 1995 eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat… Many Montserratians fled to the United States when Plymouth was destroyed and were given ‘temporary protected’ immigration status. The U.S. government told Montserratian refugees to leave in 2005—not because the volcanic crisis was over or because the housing crisis caused by the volcano was solved. Rather, the U.S. government expected the volcanic crisis to last at least 10 more years; so, the Montserratians no longer qualified as ‘temporary’ refugees.” 2- border with crosses: Tijuana, Mexico. “Tijuana and San Diego, California are separated by a highly guarded border infrastructure that in this section includes two walls to discourage illegal crossing. Human rights activists placed crosses on the wall to memorialize people who died while attempting to cross into the United States.” Vocabulary TEST1 Geography: study of WHY WHAT IS WHERE Physical geography: spatial analysis of structure, processes, & location of Earth’s natural phenomena i. Climatology, marine geography Human geography: spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities & land ii. Economic geography iii. Focuses on how 1) people make places 2) we organize space 3) we interact w/ each other 4)we make sense of ourselves & others Cartography: science & art of making maps, including data compilation, layout & design Geographic Information Systems (GIS): collection of computer hardware & software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, & displayed to the user Remote Sensing: a method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (ex: satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study sense of place: infusing a place with meaning and emotion ex: fun vacation in California…you will see California as a fun place perception of place: belief/understanding of what a place is like, often based on books , movies, or pictures ; stereotypical and usually inaccurate Based on what creates mental maps: maps in our minds of places you’ve heard/ideas Cultural landscape: the visible human imprint; the material character of a place 1. Geographers regularly read the land: “What is that, and why is it there?” Scale: (1) distance on a map compared to the distance on the Earth (2) spatial extent of something Formal region: area that has a shared cultural or physical trait a. Ex: Spanish-speaking region of Europe Functional region: area that contains a set of social political, or economic activities/ interactions b. Ex: suburbs and city, urban area Perceptual region: area that is created by ideas in our minds, based on accumulated knowledge of places and regions, that defines an area of “sameness” or “connectedness”; stereotypes c. Ex: Australia = kangaroo riders Vocabulary TEST1 Cyclic movement: traveling away from home for a short period of time Nomadism: traveling along a definite set of space Activity spaces: area within which daily activity occurs Periodic movement: traveling away from home for a longer period Migrant labor: worker who crosses international borders in search of employment Transhumance: seasonal periodic traveling of pastoralists Migration: change in residence intended to be permanent International: travel across country borders Internal: travel within a single country’s borders Guest workers: migrants allowed into a country to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides Remittances: money migrants send back to family/friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in poorer countries Push factor: negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to anew locale Pull factor: positive conditions & perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas Forced migration: movers have no choice but to relocate Voluntary migration: movers have the option and choose to relocate 1. Step migration: when migrant follows a series of stages to a final destination; could be intervened 2. Chain migration: further migration to a place where friends/relatives have already settled Doubling time: number of years for a population to double in size Vocabulary TEST1 Infectious diseases: spread from person to person 1)Vectored: spread through intermediary, such as insect (malaria) Diseases that can 2)nonvectored: spread directly from person to person affect population decrease Chronic/ degenerative diseases: diseases of middle & old age (heart disease) Genetic/inherited diseases: passed through genes from one generation to the next Natural increase rate (NIR): difference between BIRTHS and DEATHS - High NIR= most African/asian countries - Low= developed countries - 0= eastern Europe Demographic transition model: multistage model of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization Population Pyramid: graphic depiction of a population by % in each gender’s age group - Evergreen= poorer countries o High fertility/infant mortality rate…short life expectancy , rapid population growth - Lopsided vase = more developed countries o Middle age makes up largest share of population; low fertility/infant mortality ; long life expectancy Expansive policy: policies that encourage large families & raise the rate of natural increase - Ex: Ulyanovsk Province, Russia’s national Day of conception Eugenic policy: policies which favor one racial/cultural sector of population over others Gov intervention - Ex: Nazi Germany & ideal race policies Restrictive policy: policies designed to reduce natural increase rate - Ex: China’s one child policy= bad consequences Trafficking in persons: [United Nations] recruitment, transportation, harboring, or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion…fraud…having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation…include, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor, or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs Vocabulary TEST1 Human trafficking[federal]: recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion, for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery Sex trafficking[federal]: recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of a commercial sex act…induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age Romeo: manipulates/ lures victims into trafficking; gives gifts to victims Bottom b*/girl: appointed by trafficker/pimp to supervise victims & report rule violations; “right hand”; collects $ , books hotels, post ads, and punishes victims (can be a victim) john: customer; mostly white middle aged male with $ and a family seasoning: combination of pysch manipulation, intimidation, gang rape, beatings, abuse, isolation from friends/family and threats; used to break down victim’s resistance the circuit: series of cities among which prostituted people are moved - Ex: MN-> SD-> NE->MO Trick: actual act Track: prostitute walking up/down street (usually punishment) The Life/The Game= trafficking
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