CSD269 Exam 1 Notes
CSD269 Exam 1 Notes CSD 269
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This 69 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Thein on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CSD 269 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Summer Chilton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Culture vs. Community Big D vs. Little d Deaf deaf Little “d” deaf big “D” Deaf Cultural model Medical/pathological model Deafness as a Audiologically deaf diﬀerence Technology focused Pro-ASL Community A group of people who share common goals and cooperate in achieving these goals Occupies a particular geographic location Has some degree of freedom to organize the social life and responsibilities of its members What communities do you belong to? Can you belong to more than one community? Explain. How do you decide what community to belong to? Can someone else decide what community you will be part of? Community continued… A Deaf community ◦ Group of people who live in a particular location ◦ Share common goals ◦ In various ways work toward achieving these goals A Deaf community may include persons who are not themselves Deaf, but actively support the goals of the community and work with Deaf people to achieve them. ◦ Who are the individuals that are not Deaf that are part of the Deaf community? Interpreters Family members Audiologists pports the Deaf culture/community Educators Culture A set of learned behaviors of a group of people who have their own ◦ Language ◦ Values ◦ Rules for behavior ◦ Traditions A person may be born into a culture A person may grow up in one culture and later learn the language, values, and practices of a diﬀerent culture. (From “The Deaf Community and the Culture of Deaf People,” Carol Padden) Deafness as a Cultural Identity Deafness is not seen as a disability ◦ Deaf people are a linguistic & cultural minority Emphasizes vision as a positive, eﬃcient alternative to hearing ◦ Focus is on visual communication Sign language is seen as equal to spoken language ◦ Communication for Deaf people can include, but should not be limited to speech In education, focus on subject matter rather than communication methodology ◦ Work to expand ALL communication skills Support socialization within the deaf community as well as the larger community Openly acknowledge Deafness Goal of professional involvement is to work WITH Deaf people Stages of Membership in Deaf Culture Not all members of the deaf culture move through all the stages Stage 1: Cultural hearing ◦ Deafness = medical pathology ◦ Medicine and technology are the answers to dealing with deafness ◦ To be hearing is better than to be deaf Deaf people should try to act as hearing as possible ◦ Hearing professionals are wise and informed ◦ Use of residual hearing, speech training, and mainstreaming will encourage deaf children to join hearing society, which is the ultimate goal Stages continued… Stage 2: Culturally Marginal ◦ Usually the ﬁrst identity developed by deaf children born into hearing families ◦ Don’t ﬁt in with either the deaf world or the hearing world ◦ Communication diﬃculties with both English and ASL ◦ Sense of isolation, often bitterness ◦ May use English-like signing, but usually actively disapprove of ASL ◦ Shifting loyalties between Deaf and hearing Stages continued… Stage 3: Immersion into the Deaf World ◦ Enthusiastic and uncritical acceptance of everything related to Deaf culture ◦ Idealization of the deaf world and disparagement of the hearing world ◦ Black-and-white thinking: Deaf can do no wrong, hearing can do no right ◦ Reversal of hearing values: ASL is superior to English Deaf should never use their voices Only Deaf professionals should run Deaf programs Simultaneous communication should never be used ◦ Generalized anger, especially towards hearing people Stages continued… Stage 4: Bicultural ◦ Clear cultural pride as a Deaf person Recognizing that both Deaf and hearing people have strengths and weaknesses ◦ Some level of comfort in both Deaf and Hearing situations ◦ Respect for both English and ASL as distinct languages of equal value ◦ Ability to oppose oppression while maintaining appropriate alliances with trustworthy hearing people ◦ Deep personal Deaf identity ◦ Appreciation and acceptance of diﬀerent visions of cultural Deafness Variables Aﬀecting Membership in Deaf Culture Age at onset of deafness ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ What groups do you think are more likely to adopt Deaf culture? More Variables… Extent of the hearing loss ◦ ◦ ◦ Levels of hearing loss Profound= 90dB+ Severe= 71-90dB Moderate= 41-70 Mild= 25-40dB http://www.nzgirl.co.nz/images/articles/story/hearing_june07_chart.jpg Some people with mild to moderate hearing loss consider themselves Deaf. Some people who are profoundly deaf are culturally hearing. Some hearing loss is necessary for complete inclusion in Deaf Culture. More variables… Presence of other disabling conditions Parental inﬂuence ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Parent inﬂuence may prevent access to the Deaf community during childhood and adolescence ◦ Proximity to others who are Deaf ◦ Cultural and Racial Identity Development Pre-encounter ◦ Lack of knowledge about and denial of racial and cultural diﬀerences Encounter ◦ First exposure to deaf community ◦ Eﬀect is diﬀerent in early and late deafened people Immersion ◦ Characterized by anger, especially towards dominant groups in society ◦ Rejection of everything pertaining to majority society ◦ Embracing everything connected to the minority culture Internalization ◦ Bicultural ◦ Integrating cultural diﬀerence in an aﬃrmative way ◦ Intolerant of oppression ◦ Proud of heritage and community ◦ But able to recognize limitations of community and positive aspects of majority society (Helms, 1990, Glickman, 1997) Remember… Not all deaf people are Deaf & not all Deaf people are deaf. Families with Deaf Members Part 1 Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents Video – my deaf family My Deaf Family ◦ How is this family the same as yours? Parents check up on schoolwork, like having serious talks in the car while driving, siblings ﬁghting, parents making assumptions/guesses ◦ How is it diﬀerent? parents aren’t deaf, oldest son had responsibility of family spokesman, ordering pizza through video relay service – diﬀerent technology, not close to half of the family because they cannot communicate, much quieter house, siblings went to diﬀerent schools, if he gets in trouble at school they can’t call his parents (interaction of hearing world with deaf parents) Deaf baby to Deaf Parents • Reaction is diverse – Many members of the Deaf World would prefer having a Deaf child to having a hearing child – Many cultures have preferences about children • Some prefer male babies • Others fair or dark skinned – Preference for a Deaf baby does not mean a hearing baby would be less loved • Birth of a Deaf baby in a Deaf household signiﬁes that the Deaf heritage of the family will be secure • Deaf families with many Deaf members are commonly proud of their genealogy Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents •Deaf parents bring their baby home to a nurturing environment in which communication is naturally depended on visual cues •Home is already functioning as an environment conducive to using vision as the main means of learning and development •House is wired to environmental signals with visual ones Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents • Deaf infant in a Deaf family is immediately exposed to a world suited to maximizing his or her social, emotional, psychological, cognitive, and linguistic development. – Social development: through exposure to adults who function normally as models for the child – Emotional development: encouraged by the positive responses of the family to its new member – Psychological development: Deaf parents treat their Deaf child as an extension of themselves – Cognitive development: parental expectations are high • on intellectual development e are no Deaf-dependent limits Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents • The child will enjoy a full command of language through exposure to ASL, allowing him or her to grasp the idea of communication, its purpose, and its form. – Deaf parent are able to communicate with their Deaf children immediately – They present a model for language acquisition • the Deaf child is able to reach naturally and easily the milestones of language development • Cooing, babbling, and ﬁrst-word stages of hearing children are paralleled in Deaf babies with their play in handshape and movement and ﬁrst-signs • Deaf babies also coo and babble orally, but since these sounds are not the building blocks of a language the children Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents – Deaf parents are able to communicate with their Deaf child – respond to their child’s developing language appropriately – Deaf parents also naturally present language that is slightly above the language level of the child – they are able to assist their child in the natural acquisition of increasingly complex language Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents • At the dinner table – the Deaf child is part of the conversation from the beginning – Interactions are in ASL and all the family is included Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents • Maximizing interactions – Attention getting • Waving a hand or gentle touch – Reading • Baby in lap, back touch their chest and read, using signs that, when they touch the body, touch the baby’s body – This allows the baby to observe and internalize how signs are seen from the signer’s perspective • The traditional way, with the child sitting beside them or across from them – Allows for a comparison of perspectives, both of which allow parents and children to view the signs and the printed page Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents Most Deaf children of Deaf parents ◦ function better than Deaf children of hearing parents in the areas of Academic Linguistic Social Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents Some Deaf adults are sadden by the birth of a Deaf baby ◦ inﬂuenced by the values and instructions of hearing professionals ◦ Deaf parents know that their deaf child must endure many arduous trials on the way to adulthood ◦ Their own experiences may have been negative ◦ (video: Jackie Roth of Far From the Tree) Parents were upset they had a deaf baby because they knew how tough it was Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents Deaf parent can face considerable obstacles in raising their children ◦ Educated below their capability ◦ Employed below their capability ◦ Viewed negatively by the hearing world ◦ Some Deaf parents question their abilities to raise Deaf parents, like hearing parents, are often baﬄed about how to manage their children Unlike hearing parents there are very few places they can turn to for advice Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents Deaf is viewed negatively in our society and creates complicated interaction between the Deaf parents of a newborn and the hearing professionals. ◦ Well-baby checkups Deaf parents are enthusiastic and full of positive thoughts Professionals express concern and give advice that is not usually well received Encourage Deaf parents not to use sign language if their child is hearing Encourage hearing aids or cochlear implants for deaf babies Deaf Baby to Deaf Parents Deaf parents who are secure in their cultural identity, recognize that they have more experience and knowledge about growing up Deaf than the professionals advising them. They are reassured that nothing has been found wrong with their baby, that their child is simply Deaf. They go home and proceed with their lives Deaf-World oﬀers support, encouragement, and means to function as a self fulﬁlled, contributing member of society, in the world at large as well as in the Deaf-World Families with Deaf Members Part 2 Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Deaf people marry other Deaf people 90% of the time ◦ BUT these marriages rarely produce Deaf children ◦ Only about 5-10% of Deaf children have Deaf parents Deaf children born to hearing parents: response to the birth of a deaf infant usually contrasts with the response of Deaf parents Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents If a child is born deaf, and especially if there are other Deaf family members, the hearing parents may feel that they have produced a genetically defective child Relatives (and professionals) may contribute to this feeling by insisting that the parents must work very hard to mitigate the child’s impairment Hearing parents of a deaf child may blame themselves for having inﬂicted a burden on their other children and on society at large Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Hearing parents of deaf children seldom have personal experience with the Deaf-World as a resource to help raise their child. This leads to a process of professionally guided identity development for their child ◦ Otologists determine the cause of hearing loss and remedies such as hearing aids and surgery ◦ Audiologists quantify and characterize the loss in detail ◦ Speech therapists develop oral communication ◦ Special education teachers to provide teachers trained in managing children with disabilities Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Hearing parents are commonly unaware that other parents, Deaf parents, raise their Deaf children successfully without many of these services. Hearing parents are often shocked at the news that their child is deaf. Newborn hearing screenings have changed diagnosis of hearing loss dramatically in the last 10+ years ◦ Hearing loss used to not be identiﬁed until close to the age of 2 ◦ Now most states require newborn screening The “stages of trauma” that hearing parents are said to experience ◦ grief, mourning, denial, and anger Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Since the professionals are hearing and since the premise of their profession is that lack of hearing is a serious impairment, it is only natural for discussions with the parents to end by reinforcing the parents’ view that something is very wrong with their child. Professionals commonly see parental acceptance that their child is Deaf as a reluctant last choice Parent who choose not to have their child ﬁtted with aids are often viewed as negligent, and deemed to be closing oﬀ options for their deaf child Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Options exercised by Deaf parents, such as early use of ASL, and hiring Deaf baby-sitters, are rarely presented to hearing parents. With the hearing-impaired model of their child there is a huge amount of information that parents have to learn ◦ Hearing aids, audiograms, the principles of hearing, the methods of speech therapy and aural rehabilitation, invented sign systems Professional inﬂuences and issues Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents There are not many support systems available that can help hearing families through the trials of having a deaf child ◦ Bills for medical services grow ◦ Enormous time pressures occur Fitting of hearing aids, doctors visits, time to gather information, read information, make life- changing decisions ◦ Faced with all of this some parents begin to blame each other Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Frustration begins to grow as the deaf child approaches his or her eighteenth month ◦ Parents are unable to explain to their child why the child cannot have certain objects or do certain things ◦ Frustration builds in both parents and child May result in manipulation or over disciplining ◦ Parents communicate less The mother is left to handle the interactions with the child Mother also assumes responsibility for dealing with professionals, appointments, and collecting information ◦ Extended family members can increase tension Grandparents usually support the professionals Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Deaf child in a hearing family develops strategies for copping The interaction between parent and child becomes more the relation of teacher to pupil ◦ (rather than giving them independence and free choices) Deaf Baby to Hearing Parents Videos Changing the focus ◦ ASLized: Early Intervention: The Missing Link ◦ NAD Recommendations for EHDI Families with Deaf Members Part 3 Deaf Parents and Hearing Children Acronyms HCDP: Hearing Children with Deaf Parents CODA: Children of Deaf Adults KODA: Kid of Deaf Adults Cross-cultural dilemma Hearing children raised in Deaf family ◦ 88-92% of children born to deaf parents are hearing ◦ CODAs in the U.S. commonly learn two languages and two cultures ◦ Commonly become sign language interpreters and cultural mediators while they are still children ◦ Children of Deaf Adults (CODAs) are able to them learn the mores, values, and behaviors that the family and culture consider desirable or undesirable – Equal number of CODAs do not learn ASL • Because their Deaf parents were falsely told that using ASL inhibits learning English – Birth order and learning ASL – Oldest child will learn ASL – If the oldest is female, she most certainly will, she will be assigned may duties mediating between deaf and hearing cultures – Sometimes siblings do not learn ASL very well » Like a Deaf child in a hearing family, they grow up without fully understanding their parents’ culture, rely on others in order to communicate with their parents – CODAs who know ASL often mediate between the Deaf and Hearing worlds everyday • Most issues arise from the mutual ignorance of hearing and Deaf people concerning one another's cultures • Most Deaf parents have nowhere to turn to learn all the rules of the hearing culture • No place for hearing people can commonly turn to get accurate information regarding the Deaf World • CODAs do the explaining Deaf parents may ask their hearing children about the hearing world ◦ How hearing people live ◦ About sounds ◦ About English Hearing friends will ask about Deaf world ◦ How do deaf use the phone? ◦ Can deaf people drive? • In many ways a CODA is “almost Deaf” – Possess the cultural part of being Deaf – But lack physical diﬀerence and the experiences associated with it – “Am I hearing or am I Deaf” • Parallels the experiences of deaf children born into hearing families – Adjectives CODAs have used to describe identity • Friendless, confused, lonely, alone, ambivalent, isolated, branded, diﬀerent, not aﬃliated, lost, odd, & disconnected – Phrases CODAs have used to describe feelings • Caught in between, the only one, on the edge, a bridge & not sure who I am CODAs know they are diﬀerent from very early on ◦ Visual awareness of environment ◦ Eye contact ◦ Often want their parents to be hearing I thought my Mom was a spy. Testing to see if they can hear. Deaf parents who take advantage of professional and community resources are in a better position to help their hearing children deal with their bicultural experiences Deaf community and those parents of hearing children need to become more engaged with the needs of their hearing children for community and cultural identity Deaf parent can help their young hearing children ﬁnd their identity early on Deaf parents can enhance their children’s self-esteem by passing along their knowledge of ASL, cultural norms, values, rules for behavior, traditions, and Deaf community heritage ◦ Tell their children they are special because they are bilingual and bicultural Meet other CODAs and KODAs http://videocatalog.gallaudet.edu/player.cfm? video=1879 http://www.mmkoda.org/ Five Ways to help with identity conﬂict in CODA/KODAs By Thomas H. Bull 1. Acquiring information through reading autobiographies and other resources 2. Developing individual and group identities intentionally 3. Forming support groups for parents and providing a variety of camping and other activities for hearing children 4. Using humor to enhance the bond of parents 5. Increasing opportunities for parent education and developing information resources An Introduction to History, Communication & Education Important People & Dates Deaf History Handout Deaf History Timeline 1776 Charles Michel Abbe de l’Epee publishes Instruction of Deaf and Dumb by Means of Methodical Sign Deaf History Timeline 1760 Thomas Braidwood opens ﬁrst school for the deaf in Britain called Braidwood Academy for the Deaf and Dumb He advocated teaching the oral method Deaf History Timeline 1805 – 1830 Alice Cogswell was born to Dr. Mason Cogswell in Hartford, CT in 1805. She lost her hearing and speech capabilities at the age of 2 due to an illness Her father was a prominent man in the community, but found that no education for the deaf had been established in the United States Deaf History Timeline 1787 – 1851 Thomas Gallaudet was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, graduated from Yale University and was a member of the Hartford, Connecticut community He was working toward becoming a minister when he met Dr. Cogswell and Alice… Deaf History Timeline 1785 – 1869 Larent Clerc ◦ He was taught by Abbe Sicard, at the famous school for the Deaf in Paris ◦ Became a teacher ◦ “The Apostle of the Deaf in America” Deaf History Timeline 1816 ◦ Laurent Clerc and Thomas Gallaudet return to America 1817 ◦ Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opens in Hartford 1864 ◦ Edward Minor Gallaudet establishes Gallaudet College in Washington D.C. The charter is signed by President Lincoln The Oral Movement 1867 ◦ Clark School 1872 ◦ Alexander G. Bell opens a speech school for teachers of the deaf in Boston Doesn’t think deaf people should be allowed to marry each other because he wanted to stop deafness from being a thing 1880 ◦ International Congress on Education of the Deaf meets at Milan, Italy There was a vote at the end that decided the goal of educa ion for deaf people was to learn to speak – this led to American deaf schools being changed from the manual method to speech Communication Modes used by deaf individuals American Sign Language ◦ History 1964 – Gallaudet University researchers proved ASL to be an oﬃcial language (signiﬁcant time gap) Before it was looked at as a shortcut to english ◦ Elements of ASL grammar Facial features, eyebrow motion and lip-mouth movement Spatial relations More than just your hands ◦ Soda vs Pop…Does it happen in ASL too? Peach and Orange Birthday (internet has allowed deaf people to connect so there’s less variation) ◦ Is ASL universal? NO Over 200 noted and signed languages in the world Among English speaking countries sign language is very diﬀerent ASL could most easily understand French sign language There are dialects in ASL Communication Modes used by deaf individuals continued… English based systems: ◦ Manually Coded English ◦ Signed Exact English ◦ Linguistics of Visual English (LOVE) ◦ Rochester Method ◦ (system, not a complete language) Cued Speech ◦ When cueing English, eight handshapes distinguish consonant phonemes and four locations near the mough distinguish vowel phonemes. A handshape and a location together cue a syllable ◦ (cuedspeech.org) ◦ (Very precise method and model because it is based on sound. Phonemic sound building blocks) Oral ◦ Wide variety of skills between Deaf people ◦ Often sounds nasal, monotone, not a lot of inﬂection ◦ Hard to train, and hard to teach ◦ (conversation and good communication is a 2way street – even if the Deaf person has good speech, they can’t hear what the hearing people are saying) Deaf Education History Early 1800s: ◦ golden era of Deaf Education When we saw Deaf schools pop up in Europe and around the world. Many Deaf people were becoming successful in the communities (Ex. Shoemakers, etc.) 1880-1960s ◦ Oral education of Deaf ◦ Milan Conference 1880 Shift in education for Deaf people. Oral movement. Replaced Deaf teachers with hearing teachers. Main goal was teaching Deaf students to speak. This made many Deaf schools close. Deaf students weren’t as successful. Saw more negative outcomes with Deaf people Average Deaf student reads at the 4 grade level 1970s Total Communication Philosophy of Education ◦ wanted to make more visible support. ◦ Goal was to increase literacy th ◦ Some were very successful, but the average was still a 4 grade reading level Bilingual/Bicultural Education (90s) ◦ Thought that Deaf kids should have the same opportunities that kids do Deaf Education Options Preschool: ◦ Parent/Child Tutorial ◦ Cognitive Academic Preschool Programs ◦ Oral Program ◦ Signing Program ◦ ASL Program Parents DO NOT have to pick just one. Consider each individual child, not every child is the same Early intervention – this is where education starts SLPs and other professionals come into the home and start to teach the children 3 categories of preschool education ◦ Oral/aural method (us) ◦ Signing program ◦ ASL program (usually associated with residential areas that have schools of the Deaf) or a combination of all 3 3-5 age group
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