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UTEP - CS 1305 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UTEP - CS 1305 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image Chapter 3: Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes Genome- complete set of DNA in a living organism
Genes- DNA sequence that encodes specific proteins and 
are transcribed into RNA.
-Not all genes are transcribed in all cells of an organism. 
Nucleic Acids- polymers specialized for storage, 
transmission, and use of genetic information.
DNA= Deoxyribonucleic Acid
RNA= Ribonucleic Acid
Nucleotide: Pentose sugar + N-containing base + 
phosphate group
Nucleosides: Pentose sugar + N-containing base
Pyrimidines: Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), Uracil (U)
Purines: Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) Oligonucleotides- about 20 monomers, and include small 
RNA molecules important for DNA replication and gene 
-DNA and RNA are polynucleotides, the longest polymers 
in the living world. 
Complementary base pairing:
background image Adenosine=Thymine (Thymine=Uracil in RNA)
Cytosine=Guanine (applies to both DNA & RNA)
-DNA is an informational molecule: genetic information is 
in the sequence of base pairs.
-DNA undergoes two functions:
2.Gene expression- base sequences are copied to RNA, 
and specify amino acids sequences in proteins. 
-DNA replication and transcription depend on the base 
5’-TCAGCA- 3’
-3’-AGTCGT-5’ transcribes to RNA with the sequence 5’-
-DNA base sequences reveal evolutionary relationships.
-Closely relate living species should have more similar 
base sequences than species that are more distantly 
-Scientists are now able to determine and compare entire 
genomes of organisms to study evolutionary 
Major Functions of proteins: Enzymes- catalytic proteins
background image Defensive proteins (e.g., antibodies) Hormonal and regulatory proteins- control 
physiological processes
Receptors proteins- receive and respond to molecular
Storage proteins store amino acids Structural proteins- physical stability and movement 
Transport proteins carry substances (e.g., hemoglobin)
Genetic regulatory proteins- regulate when, how, and to 
what extent a gene is expressed
Protein monomers are amino acids. Amino and carboxylic acid functional groups give amino 
acids both acidic and basic properties.
The R group differs for each amino acid and gives the 
amino acid its individual properties. 
Cysteine side chains can form covalent bonds- a 
disulfide bridge, or disulfide bond
Oligopeptides or peptides- short polymers of 20 or 
fewer amino acids (some hormones and signaling 
Polypeptide or proteins range in size form insulin, which 
had 51 amino acids, to huge molecules such as the 
muscle protein titin, with 34,350 amino acids. 

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School: University of Texas at El Paso
Department: Science
Course: General Biology
Professor: Schuyler Pike
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology and Science
Name: BIOL 1305 Week 3 Notes
Description: This is an overview of Nucleic Acids, enzymes and proteins. Hope this helps! If you want me to make any study guides or any additional resources to help you better understand the material. Don't be afraid to contact me :-)
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
10 Pages 9 Views 7 Unlocks
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