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Intro to Logic Exam 1 Study GuideTERMS:Fallacy: a defect in an argument that is not simply due to false premises – They exhibit poor reasoning Formal Fallacy: One that can be identified by merely looking at the form or structure of an argument Informal Fallacy: One that can be identified only by examining the content of an argumentAppeal to Force: Implicit or Explicit implication that some harm will come to you if you don’t accept the conclusionArgument: group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion)Statement: sentence that is either true or falsearPremises: add support or give reason to believe a conclusion.Conclusion: the statement supported by a premise or premises.Inference: reasoning process expressed by an argumentProposition: the meaning or information content of a statementFactual Claim: At least one of the statements must claim to present evidence or reasonsInferential Claim: a claim that something follows from the alleged evidence or reasons (implying)Ad Hominem Abusive: Attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself, when the attack on the person is completely irrelevant to the argument the person is making.Ad Hominem Circumstantial: is a fallacy in which one attempts to attack a claim by asserting that the person making the claim is making it simply out of self interestTu Quoque:is an informal logical fallacy that intends to discredit the validity of the opponent's logical argument by asserting the opponent's failure to act consistently in accordance with its conclusion(s).Explanandum: is the statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explainedExplanans: is the statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining.Conditional statement: is an “if…,then…” statement.Antecedent: follows the “if” Consequent: follows the “then”Sufficient Condition: A is said to be a sufficient condition for B whenever the occurrence of A is all that is needed to for the occurrence of B.
Necessary Condition: B is said to be a necessary condition for A whenever A cannot occur without the occurrence of B.Deductive Arg: incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are trueo Valid deductive argument: an argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true Sound argument: is a deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises. Unsound argument: is a deductive argument is a deductive argument which is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both.o Invalid deductive argument: is an argument in which it is possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are trueInductive Arg: an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.o Strong Inductive Argument: is an argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true Cogent argument: is an inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises. Uncogent argument: is an inductive argument that is weak, has one or more false premises, or both.o Weak Inductive Argument: is an argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to.Appeal to Pity: Fallacious use of pity to establish a conclusion.Argument Based on Mathematics: an argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement.Argument from Definition: an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusionSyllogism: an argument consisting of exactly two premises and one conclusionCategorical Syllogism: a syllogism in which each statement begins with the words, “all”, “no” or “some”.Hypothetical Syllogism: a syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises.Disjunctive Syllogism: is a syllogism having a disjunctive statement (an “or” statement) for one of its premisesAppeal to the People: Fallacious use of the opinions of others to establish a conclusion.Main Operator: that operator in a compound statement that governs the largest component(s) in the statement (punctuation, either, both)Translating
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