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MSU - HI 1113 - Study Guide - Midterm

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MSU - HI 1113 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Intro to Logic Exam 1 Study Guide TERMS:  Fallacy: a defect in an argument that is not simply due to false 
premises – They exhibit poor reasoning 
 Formal Fallacy: One that can be identified by merely looking at the 
form or structure of an argument 
 Informal Fallacy: One that can be identified only by examining the 
content of an argument
 Appeal to Force: Implicit or Explicit implication that some harm will 
come to you if you don’t accept the conclusion
 Argument: group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) 
are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the 
others (the conclusion)
 Statement: sentence that is either true or falsear  Premises: add support or give reason to believe a conclusion.  Conclusion: the statement supported by a premise or premises.  Inference: reasoning process expressed by an argument  Proposition: the meaning or information content of a statement  Factual Claim: At least one of the statements must claim to present 
evidence or reasons
 Inferential Claim: a claim that something follows from the alleged 
evidence or reasons (implying)
 Ad Hominem Abusive: Attacking the person making the argument, 
rather than the argument itself, when the attack on the person is 
completely irrelevant to the argument the person is making.
 Ad Hominem Circumstantial:  is a fallacy in which one attempts to  attack a claim by asserting that the person making the claim is making
it simply out of self interest
 Tu Quoque:   is an informal logical fallacy that intends to discredit the  validity of the opponent's logical argument by asserting the opponent's
failure to act consistently in accordance with its conclusion(s).
 Explanandum: is the statement that describes the event or phenomenon to 
be explained
 Explanans: is the statement or group of statements that purports to do the 
 Conditional statement: is an “if…,then…” statement.  Antecedent: follows the “if”   Consequent: follows the “then”  Sufficient Condition: A is said to be a sufficient condition for B whenever the 
occurrence of A is all that is needed to for the occurrence of B.
background image  Necessary Condition: B is said to be a necessary condition for A whenever A 
cannot occur without the occurrence of B.
 Deductive Arg: incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion 
to be false given that the premises are true
Valid deductive argument: an argument in which it is impossible for the
conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
   Sound argument: is a deductive argument that is valid and has 
all true premises.
   Unsound argument: is a deductive argument is a deductive 
argument which is invalid, has one or more false premises, or 
Invalid deductive argument: is an argument in which it is possible for 
the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
 Inductive Arg: an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable for 
the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
Strong Inductive Argument: is an argument in which it is improbable 
that the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
   Cogent argument: is an inductive argument that is strong and 
has all true premises.
   Uncogent argument: is an inductive argument that is weak, has 
one or more false premises, or both.
Weak Inductive Argument: is an argument in which the conclusion does
not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to.
 Appeal to Pity:  Fallacious use of pity to establish a conclusion.  Argument Based on Mathematics: an argument in which the conclusion 
depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or 
 Argument from Definition: an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to 
depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise 
or conclusion
 Syllogism: an argument consisting of exactly two premises and one 
 Categorical Syllogism: a syllogism in which each statement begins with the 
words, “all”, “no” or “some”.
 Hypothetical Syllogism: a syllogism having a conditional statement for one or 
both of its premises.
 Disjunctive Syllogism: is a syllogism having a disjunctive statement (an “or” 
statement) for one of its premises
 Appeal to the People: Fallacious use of the opinions of others to establish a 
 Main Operator: that operator in a compound statement that governs the 
largest component(s) in the statement (punctuation, either, both)

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School: Mississippi State University
Department: History
Course: History & Appreciation of Music
Professor: Ryan Ross
Term: Fall 2016
Name: Intro to Logic Review for Exam 1
Description: a review for exam 1
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
4 Pages 34 Views 27 Unlocks
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