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Intro to Logic Review for Exam 1

by: Andrews Notetaker

Intro to Logic Review for Exam 1 PHI 1113

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > PHI 1113 > Intro to Logic Review for Exam 1
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a review for exam 1
Intro to Logic
Barton Moffatt
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrews Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 1113 at Mississippi State University taught by Barton Moffatt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Intro to Logic Exam 1 Study Guide TERMS: Fallacy: a defect in an argument that is not simply due to false premises – They exhibit poor reasoning Formal Fallacy: One that can be identified by merely looking at the form or structure of an argument Informal Fallacy: One that can be identified only by examining the content of an argument Appeal to Force: Implicit or Explicit implication that some harm will come to you if you don’t accept the conclusion Argument: group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion) Statement: sentence that is either true or falsear Premises: add support or give reason to believe a conclusion. Conclusion: the statement supported by a premise or premises. Inference: reasoning process expressed by an argument Proposition: the meaning or information content of a statement Factual Claim: At least one of the statements must claim to present evidence or reasons Inferential Claim: a claim that something follows from the alleged evidence or reasons (implying) Ad Hominem Abusive: Attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself, when the attack on the person is completely irrelevant to the argument the person is making. Ad Hominem Circumstantial: is a fallacy in which one attempts to attack a claim by asserting that the person making the claim is making it simply out of self interest Tu Quoque: is an informal logical fallacy that intends to discredit the validity of the opponent's logical argument by asserting the opponent's failure to act consistently in accordance with its conclusion(s). Explanandum: is the statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained Explanans: is the statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining. Conditional statement: is an “if…,then…” statement. Antecedent: follows the “if” Consequent: follows the “then” Sufficient Condition: A is said to be a sufficient condition for B whenever the occurrence of A is all that is needed to for the occurrence of B. Necessary Condition: B is said to be a necessary condition for A whenever A cannot occur without the occurrence of B. Deductive Arg: incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true o Valid deductive argument: an argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true  Sound argument: is a deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises.  Unsound argument: is a deductive argument is a deductive argument which is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both. o Invalid deductive argument: is an argument in which it is possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true Inductive Arg: an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true. o Strong Inductive Argument: is an argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true  Cogent argument: is an inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises.  Uncogent argument: is an inductive argument that is weak, has one or more false premises, or both. o Weak Inductive Argument: is an argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to. Appeal to Pity: Fallacious use of pity to establish a conclusion. Argument Based on Mathematics: an argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement. Argument from Definition: an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion Syllogism: an argument consisting of exactly two premises and one conclusion Categorical Syllogism: a syllogism in which each statement begins with the words, “all”, “no” or “some”. Hypothetical Syllogism: a syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises. Disjunctive Syllogism: is a syllogism having a disjunctive statement (an “or” statement) for one of its premises Appeal to the People: Fallacious use of the opinions of others to establish a conclusion. Main Operator: that operator in a compound statement that governs the largest component(s) in the statement (punctuation, either, both) Translating ~ Tilde Negation Not the case that . Dot Conjunction And, also, moreover V Wedge Disjunction Or, Unless ⊃ Horseshoe Implication If… then, only if ≡ Triple Bar Equivalence If and only if Negation Truth Table P ~P T F F T Conjunction Truth Table P Q P . Q T T T T F F F T F F F F Disjunction Truth Table P Q P v Q T T T T F T F T T F F F Conditional Truth Table P Q P ⊃ Q T T T T F F F T T F F T P Q P ≡ Q T T T T F F F T F F F T True Premises // False Conclusion = INVALID


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