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UNLV - BIOL 224 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UNLV - BIOL 224 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image 9/13 & 9/15 Notes
Chapter 18 cont’d
The Adrenal Medulla •  Response to sympathetic stimulation Adrenal Glands
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
•  Skeletal muscle and the liver store their own energy
•  Skeletal muscle burn lipids at rest
•  In the lungs, inhibitory affect on smooth muscle
The Pancreas •  Integral in digestion
•  Endocrine
-  secrete into bloodstream •  Exocrine -  secrete into ducts Exocrine Pancreas •  Consists of clusters of gland cells called pancreatic acini and their attached ducts -  digestive system •  Take up 99% of pancreatic volume Endocrine Pancreas •  Small % in hormone secretion
•  Consists of cells that form clusters
-  known as pancreatic islets •  islets of Langerhans 1.  Alpha cells •  Produce glucagon -  response to low blood sugar -  increase blood sugar levels 2.  Beta cells •  Produce insulin -  antagonists
-  response to high blood sugar levels
-  decrease blood sugar levels 3.  Delta cells and F cells •  Produce hormones that influence digestive system function **Not a main focus Insulin •  A peptide hormone released by beta cells
•  Effects of insulin on target cells
-  nutrient uptake -  nutrient utilization •  ** Functions
background image -  accelerates glucose uptake
-  accelerates glucose utilization and enhances ATP production
→ burn it -  stimulates glycogen formation → store it
→ skeletal muscle and liver
-  stimulates amino acid absorption and protein synthesis
-  stimulates triglyceride formation in adipose tissue
→ lipids broken down Glucagon •  Released by alpha cells
•  Encourages mobilization of energy
•  Effects of glucagon on target cells
-  mobilizes energy reserves •  Functions -  stimulates break down of glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver cells → stores -  stimulates breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue
-  stimulates production of glucose in liver
→ gluconeogenesis - sugar; new; creation of → “creating new sugar” - producing glucose molecules ** Possible Essay Question Figure 18-17 •  Relationship explaining glucose blood levels -  negative feedback → antagonistic relationship 1.  Normal blood glucose levels (Homeostasis)
2.  Rising blood glucose levels (Homeostasis disturbed)
•  Process to restore Homeostasis -  Beta cells secrete insulin -  Increased rate of glucose transport into target cells
-  Increased rate of glucose utilization and ATP generation
-  Increased conversion of glucose to glycagon
-  Increased amino acid absorption and protein synthesis
-  Increased triglyceride synthesis in adipose tissue
3.  Blood glucose levels decreases (Homeostasis restored) •  Process to restore Homeostasis 1.  Falling blood glucose levels (Homeostasis disturbed) -  Alpha cells secrete glucagon
-  Increased breakdown of glycogen to glucose
-  Increases breakdown of fat to fatty acids
-  Increased synthesis and release of glucose
2.  Blood glucose levels increase (Homeostasis restored)
background image Diabetes Mellitus •  Sweet “honey”
•  Sugars present in urine
-  large amount of sweet urine
-  high blood sugar levels (loss of excess water)
•  Affects ~26 mil people (~8% population)
•  Another ~80 mil people have prediabetes
2 Types 1.  Type I (insulin dependent) diabetes •  Inadequate insulin production by the pancreatic beta cells à continual insulin injections -  possibilities → autoimmune disease
→ faulty cells
•  5% - 10% of cases -  often develops in childhood → not very common 2.  Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes •  Misleading; many need insulin
•  Not an insulin production problem
-  stop responding to insulin being produced •  Associated with obesity -  weight loss through diet and exercise can be an effective treatment •  Acquire in lifetime; environmental effect
•  Reversible condition
•  Overproduction of insulin à down regulation (to become less sensitive)
à solution; diet/exercise Adipose Tissue
*Leptin
•  Facilitates feedback control for appetite -  feedback through hypothalamus •  Stimulated by eating
•  Creates a “fullness” sensation
-  maintaining weight, help you feel full and stop eating •  Necessary for normal levels of GnRH and gonadotropin -  big role in sex development 1.  Thin girls •  puberty relatively late -  obesity a better explanation → enter puberty much earlier 2.  Increasing body fat can improve fertility •  If you don’t have a lot of body fat 3.  Menstruation stops when body fat is low •  Women starving themselves

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School: University of Nevada - Las Vegas
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Professor: Sean Neiswenter
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Anatomy & Physiology II
Name: Ch 18 cont'd, Ch 19 Blood
Description: Week 3 notes Notes from 09/13 & 09/15
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
12 Pages 18 Views 14 Unlocks
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