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Toledo - BIOL 2170 - Class Notes - Week 1

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Toledo - BIOL 2170 - Class Notes - Week 1

School: University of Toledo
Department: Biology
Course: Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, Cells, and Inheritence
Professor: Deborah Chadee
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Biology, 1270, ut, Utoledo, week 1, detailed, and easy notes
Name: BIOL WEEK 1: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Description: These notes cover in as much detail as possible, an understanding of the first week notes, some have specifics, bold(s) needed to take note of and should be studied.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
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background image WEEK 1: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientific Method: - Make Observations - Ask Questions - Form a hypothesis and make predictions. - Test the Hypothesis (Experiment) Note: If a hypothesis is supported through continued observation and 
experiment over long periods of time, it is elevated to be a THEORY.
Observation is the act of viewing the world around us.  Observation allows us to draw tentative explanations called HYPOTHESES.  A Hypothesis makes predictions that can be tested by observation and 
experiments. 
If results are NOT consistent, you can revise or reject a hypothesis. Experimentation is a disciplined and controlled way of asking and answering 
questions about the world in an unbiased manner.
There are two types of experiments. They are:- 1. Comparative experiments: This sort of experiment looks for the difference  between groups or samples. Typically, these experiments are performed in 
nature where tightly controlled experiments are difficult.
2. Controlled experiments: This kind of experiment is usually performed in a  lab setting. Parameters can be more easily controlled. Note: Both experiments can be used by scientists, but depending on what the goal 
might be for the research.
When using the controlled experiment, the researcher deliberately introduces 
something different, known as a variable, into one group that he or she 
hypothesizes might have some sort of an effect. This is called the test group. But 
one where as no effect occurs is called the control group.
                                                    THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observation  Hypothesis  Predictions  Experiments or new Observations
 Theory
Biology is the study of life. The science of how works. The living and non-living worlds follow the same chemical rules and obey the 
same physical laws.
Characteristics of Life - Complex - Able to change in response to environment
background image - Able to reproduce - Have the capacity to evolve The difference between living and non-living environment; Earth crust consists mainly of oxygen and silicon. The Human body = living organisms are made up mostly of oxygen, 
carbon, and hydrogen.
First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor 
destroyed; it can only be transformed from one form into another.
Energy in the form of sunlight or food is taken up by organisms. INPUT ENERGY  Conversion process in organisms  Heat/Output Energy All organisms convert input energy into heat and work. No energy is created or 
destroyed in the process.
Second Law of Thermodynamics states that disorder in any system tends to 
increase. Entropy can decrease locally (inside a cell, for example) because the heat
released increases disorder in the environment.
Life originated on Earth about 4 billion years ago, arising from non-living matter. The scientific method shows that living organisms come from other living 
organisms, such experiments were demonstrated by Redi and Pasteur.
The fundamental unit of life is the cell. The cell is the simplest biological entity that can exist independently. All organisms are made of either a single cell or a combination of cells. In all organisms, the information archive is a remarkable molecule known as 
Deoxyribonucleic Acid, also known as DNA.
DNA is a double-stranded helix made up of varying sequences of four different 
subunits. Notably, the information encoded in DNA directs the formation of 
Proteins (This is the key structural and functional molecules that do the work of 
the cell).
DNA  RNA (Transcription)  Protein (Translation) The pathway from DNA to RNA to Protein is known as the central dogma of 
molecular biology.
The DNA sequence that corresponds to a specific protein product is called a gene. Each organism’s DNA archive can be stably and reliably passed from generation to 
generation in large part because of its double-stranded helical structure.
DNA is replicated, allows for genetic information to be passed from cell to cell or 
from an organism to its progeny.

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School: University of Toledo
Department: Biology
Course: Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, Cells, and Inheritence
Professor: Deborah Chadee
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Biology, 1270, ut, Utoledo, week 1, detailed, and easy notes
Name: BIOL WEEK 1: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Description: These notes cover in as much detail as possible, an understanding of the first week notes, some have specifics, bold(s) needed to take note of and should be studied.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
3 Pages 19 Views 15 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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