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KHP 200 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Sharon Liang

KHP 200 Exam 1 Study Guide KHP 200

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Kinesiology > KHP 200 > KHP 200 Exam 1 Study Guide
Sharon Liang

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Chapters 1-4
History and Philosophy of Physical Education and Sport
Dr. Jill Day
Study Guide
Sport, history
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharon Liang on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KHP 200 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Jill Day in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see History and Philosophy of Physical Education and Sport in Kinesiology at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 09/18/16
KHP 200 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Obesity  When BMI (body mass index) is 30+  There are regional, societal, and economic factors  Costs of overweight and obesity - Medical spending - Health insurance - Airline industry - Future impact  Nutrition factors - Dramatic fast food consumption increase since 1980 - Inverse relationship between sugary drinks and milk - Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act  States with the highest obesity levels are Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama National Goals for Healthy Foods and Physical Activity in Schools  Healthy People Initiative: established health goals for the nation in the next decade  Goals of HP 2010 - Increase quality and years of healthy lives - Eliminate health disparities  Goals of HP 2020 - Increase % of schools offering more nutritional foods - School breakfast programs National Plan for Physical Activity  “One day, all Americans will be physically active and they will live, work, and play in environments that facilitate regular physical activity.”  Serves 8 societal sectors 1) Business/industry 2) Education 3) Healthcare 4) Mass media 5) Parks and rec programs 6) Public health 7) Transportation/design of community 8) Volunteer/nonprofit organization  Barriers to parents getting children involved in physical activity - Cost, fear of injury, transportation, etc. Lifespan Physical Activity  Gender and age limits - Some girls are afraid of being called “tom-boy” if they play sports  Role of self-efficacy  Concept of play Early Years  Learning through physical movement  From informal to sport opportunities  A variety of venues  Kids begin sport programs at earlier ages Youth: Transition Years  Become more sedentary - Sports become more competitive - Puberty  Venues range from park and rec programs, intramurals, interscholastic sports, private clubs Young Adulthood  Campus rec centers  Intramurals  Sport clubs  Outdoor adventure center  Health clubs  YMCA’s  Parks and Rec programs Older Adults  Old myth: avoid MVPA (moderate to vigorous physical activity)  Since the 1960s, there has been a dramatic increase in all forms of competitive physical activity  Regular physical activity increases life expectancy New Settings for Physical Activity  Public and private sector programs  Home fitness  Fee-for-service sport clubs  Fee-for-service fitness centers  Community centers  YMCA/YWCA  Worksite fitness/wellness centers Emerging Characteristics of Lifespan Physical Activity  Importance of early start to form habits  Must be enjoyable  Reduced gender bias  Increased life expectancy  Emergence of private-sector industry  More readily available and better info  Improved technology available Major Issues  Access to healthier foods  Role of race, place, and socioeconomic status  Built environment  Individual responsibility Chapter 2 Gymnastic Philosophies  Major European influences on US  Germany: Friedrich Ludwig Jahn - Military influence - Goal was to create a strong country by creating "turnvereins,” which included jumping, running, throwing, and basically simple games of running and dodging  Sweden: Pen Henrik Ling - His system had goals that were aesthetic, pedagogical, and medical aspects of exercise - Wanted his students to achieve a unifying relationship of mind, body, and duty to Sweden. He wanted to unify Sweden - Rejected Jahn’s work  Charles Beck - First PE teacher  Hartwig Nissen - Swedish diplomat - Brought Ling system to US  Catherine Beecher - Women can do physical activity as long as it’s appropriate  Dicolesian Lewis - Grace of Beecher system and scientific nature of Ling system - Moderate physical activity  Edward Hitchcock - First to use measures such as height and weight  Dudley Sargent - Influenced by German, Swedish, and American systems Emergence of Physical Activity in American PE  William G. Anderson (1885) - Association for the Advancement of Physical Education o Very few preparation for PE teachers o Helped found this organization  Delphine Hanna (Oberlin College) - Develops nation’s first PE teacher preparation program  1893 – International Congress on Education: Thomas Wood (Stanford University) - Presented new PE - People realized they can learn through physical activity - Teamwork, determination, etc.  Luther Halsey Gulick - Development of public and private self  1927 – Wood and Rosalind Cassidy publish The New Physical Education by putting all ideas together on paper Emergence of Fitness  Pre-10,000 BC: hunting and gathering of food for survival - People had to be fit to defend themselves against common enemies, hunter, etc.  2500-250 BC: eastern cultures recognize its connection with health problems - People realize if they’re not fit, that can lead to health problems  Greek & Roman Empires: integral part of culture, military readiness, and worshipping of gods - Must be ready to defend city from enemies that try to enter - Wanted to please gods  Dark and Middle Ages (476 AD-1400 AD): return to need to sustain life (survival)  Renaissance (1400-1600): physical activity viewed as central to intellectual learning  National Period in Europe (1700-1850): Emergence of Swedish and German “gymnastics systems”  20 century - Roosevelt was a proponent of fitness, physical activity, and PE - Great Depression slows progress of PE since it’s such a dark time that people can’t even think about exercise - Many draftees were rejected in both world wars o 1/3 of people weren’t fit o Today, it would be a larger issue if there were to be a draft - In the 1950s, they were minimum muscular fitness tests in children. Therefore, 50% of Americans failed the tests while 9% of Europeans failed. This led to JFK writing an article called, “The Soft American.” - 1950-1960s: emergence of kinesiology as a scientific field of study - 1968: Kenneth Cooper started aerobics - 1970-1980: focus of PE shifts from fitness to lifestyle PA Greek Influence  Men dominated society with men only having access to education  Physical prowess was much sought after - Naked (designed to show off body) - Gods would bless people when they’re lean and toned  Panhellenic games were a huge part of Greek life  Physical training and sport also prepared military for defense against outside intruders - Meant to influence young people to exercise so that they can join military somewhere down the road  Sparta vs. Athens Sparta 776 BC-371 BC  Only strongest babies survived - If a baby had a physical/mental deformity, they would essentially kill the child on the spot as they would be useful in protecting the society as a soldier - Would blame mother sometimes  Sons were taught to value their roles as obedient soldiers  Military training started at age 7 to 50 or death  Running, jumping, swimming, hunting, wrestling, boxing, horseback riding, discus, and javelin - Actual warfare and military experience began at 20 - Little to no mental training o Didn’t feel education was important if they would potentially die in battle  Daughters learned their responsibility was to bear healthy children  Prescribed gymnastics and swimming Athens 776 BC to 480 BC  Boys were encouraged to develop both their physical and mental abilities  Physical prowess was part of preparation for war and as a way to depict harmony and beauty  Upper-class boys were given strong education from age 7 to 14-18  Taught music, literature, and arithmetic  Wrestling, boxing, jumping, dancing, and swimming  Eligible for military service at age 20 but not mandated (difference between Sparta and Athens)  Upper-class men didn’t work but spent their time at government-run gymnasiums  Girls stayed home receiving little to no formal education  Lived secluded lives even after marriage  Lower-class boys often received similar treatment - If you weren’t wealthy, they had no use for you  Only virgins (not married women) were permitted to watch athletic competitions since it’s a place to consider soul searching, too Socrates’ and Plato’s Views of PE and the Body  Aristotle believed the training of the mind was crucial because the individual who developed intellectual prowess could make eternal contributions  The body would eventually decay  The body would never equal the mind/soul  Plato, more so than Socrates, believed that the body was important, but lacked patience for athletes who were devoted to training of the body, while neglecting the mind The Roman Influence  Its military training was critical to conquering other civilizations  Obedience, discipline, and physical prowess were key goals of military training  Its sporting events mirrored what we see today: entertainment, large venues, betting  Women were less marginalized than they were in Greece - Could do swimming, dancing, etc. (but were mainly healthy women)  The empire’s demise also lessened the perceived importance of sport and fitness The Roman Republic  Boys were taught to become citizen-soldiers, to be physically and mentally prepared for war - Learned military skills such as archery, fencing, javelin throwing, marching, riding, running, swimming, and wrestling - Conscripted into military at age 17 and were available for active duty until age 47  Daughters were educated to assume roles of raising kids - Expected to teach sons importance of dying or even fighting for the state - More highly respected and socially active than Athenian women, though they typically didn’t train physically The Roman Empire 27 BC-476 AD  Poorer citizens, who were forced off their land during the Republic, spent their days attending festivals and games sponsored by upper- class citizens  Chariot races at the Circus Maximus and gladiator contests at the Colosseum often drew 150,000 spectators  Animal fights featured elephants, bulls, tigers, lions, panthers, and bears  Condemned criminals, social undesirables, and Christians were forced to combat lions, tigers, and panthers  Gladiators and charioteers trained physically, but most other Romans lost interest in developing their bodies because they were no longer expected to serve as soldiers Dark and Middle Ages  The Dark Ages (476-900) was a period of cultural and intellectual darkness - Europe regressed into kingdoms similar to tribal societies - Organized sport and PE was mostly nonexistent - Physical activity was used for survival  Middle Ages (900-1400) - Increased trade and commerce - Rise of Christianity, though Christians disagreed on the view of the body (body is a temple needed to spend physical time as well as spiritual time) - Leisure physical activity was limited to the upper class Emergence of Organized Sport in America  Increasingly industrialized, urbanized culture along with emerging middle class helps sport become more “institutionalized” - The more industry you have, the more growth you have - Establishes a set of standards  Post Civil War Period: sport changed from loosely organized games to standardized sports  Standardizing of rules  Oversight by governing organizations  Standards for competition  Championships are formed  Records are kept  Traditions and rituals are developed  Europe: golf, tennis, cricket  US: basketball, volleyball, baseball Sport on College Campus  1850’s little to no sport on campus - students drive the explosive growth initially - university administration steps in - early abuses: eligibility and athlete treatment  1882: Harvard has its first ever faculty athletic committee  1895: Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives would become the “Big Ten” conference  1917: Blanche Trilling (University of Wisconsin) organizes Athletic Conference of American College Women Collegiate Sports for Women  Fewer abuses  Late 1800s: archery, croquet, and tennis were among the first to attract females  Societal attitudes toward women in 1800s  Females who sought schooling, especially college attendance, encountered ridicule and suspicions about their femininity Sport During Depression, WWII, and Beyond  Spectator sport suffers  Shift toward participatory youth sport, family sport, and informal kinds of participation  Sport in educational institutions continued at a reduced level  Professional sport also suffers Post WWII:  Explosive growth of sports at all levels - Young kids, students - People were getting paid to play sports Prime Influences:  Brown vs Board of Education (1954) stating it’s illegal to separate schools based on race  Rachel Carson’s “Silent Spring” - Be aware of things like fertilization  PL 94-142 (1975)  Increasing expansion of youth sport opportunities Philosophical Influences  European nationalism/patriotism (Germany and Sweden) - Having pride in your country’s sport teams  Puritanism - Strict view of life - If you’re not working on your spiritualism, then you’re actively sinning  “Muscular Christianity” - Combines being religious and physically active  Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes “The Conduct of Life”… the first wealth is health - You have to be healthy to be wealthy Emergence of Physical Activity for Females  19 century views of women - Should be raised to occupy narrow and constrained roles - Promoted “feminine virtues” - Acceptable activities were less strenuous  Title IX (1972) - Consequence: in order to make room for women’s teams, men’s teams are cut - Equal opportunity for men and women Chapter 3 Introduction  What constitutes a “physical activity infrastructure?” - Facilities, spaces, and programs enabling children, youths, and adults to become and stay physically active - Characteristics of a successful infrastructure include safe, accessible, and attractive - Current facilities make it easy to be sedentary  What’s needed to develop a supportive infrastructure? - Cooperation among organizations w/similar goals to improve physical activity and health among population - Federal Physical Education for Progress (PEP) Act of 2001 State-Level Efforts of Support  Funding  Monitoring system  Reporting system Local-Level Efforts of Support  Shared use agreements: joint efforts between local governments and school districts sharing resources that promote and sustain physical activity  Approaches: co-location of facilities  Community schools Role of Allied Fields  Recreation and leisure service industry: Recreational, sport, travel, and tourism programs provided by private-sector companies, YMCA, and federal parks programs  Health professions - Shifted from remedial/medical approach to preventive or wellness approach - Services are delivered through a variety of organizations  2 categories of health enhancement industry 1) Private sector for-profit health-enhancement industry (gyms, workout videos, AdvoCare, weight watchers) 2) Public sector non-profit health organizations (American Heart Association, cancer society)  Dance - A significant human activity virtually everywhere and throughout history - Part of school curriculum - Form of fitness activity Themes Defining Present and Future 1) Distributing Opportunity for Physical Activity More equitably  Narrowing the gap between socioeconomic statuses  Goal of Healthy People 2020 2) Focusing on Older and Younger Populations 3) Gender Equity in Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport  Great progress since 1972, but . . .  Women still suffer discrimination in terms of access to facilities, equipment, and programs 4) Toward an expanded Physical Education 5) Toward an inclusive Rather than Exclusive Sport culture Chapter 4 Introduction  Physical education influences over the past 100 years: - Polio epidemic - Both World Wars - Mid-1950s - Recent rise in child/youth overweight & obesity o No Child Left Behind (focused more on math than science  Defining a physical education program th 20 Century Philosophical Influences  Most important influence early 20 century: - “Education-through-the-physical” or the “new physical education”  We can learn other things through being physically active (teamwork, overcoming obstacles) - Consistent with progressive-education theory  Influences on Modern Physical Education: 1900–1950 - Clark Hetherington’s “Fundamental Education” o organic education o psychomotor education o character education o intellectual education - Charles Bucher (physical and motor)  Typical content of lesson - Fitness, Skill development, Knowledge, & social development - Rise of the “multi-activity” curriculum (For full development of the whole child)  AAHPERD 1971 PEPI Project  Defining “a physically educated person”  NASPE content standards - Doesn’t tell you how to achieve goals  Does not prescribe physical activities Contemporary Curriculum and Instruction Models  Skills Theme Model - Focus on learning to perform locomotor, manipulative, and non- manipulative motor skills - Learning movement concepts such as location, directions, levels, pathways, and extensions - Ample opportunity for high levels of MVPA - Generic skill proficiency levels: o Pre-control o Control o Utilization o Proficiency  Health-Optimizing Physical Education (HOPE) - False assumptions underlying fitness education - Primary goals: o Children and youths develop and value a physically active lifestyle o Ensure that schools provide adequate daily physical activity for students, including MVPA throughout school day - Supports ecological model  Academic Integration Model - Influenced by emergence of Kinesiology in 60’s and 70’s - Academic discipline model gave way to emphasizing “integration” - Common in elementary and middle school  Personal and Social Responsibility Model - Focuses on the development of the whole student, including how students think, feel, and interact with others. - Embraces students as individuals, provides them with a voice, allows them to make decisions on their own, and places less emphasis on skill development and academic achievement. - Students assume more responsibility for their personal and social development in physical activity settings both in and outside of school.  Sport Education Model - Sport education is divided into seasons that are longer than typical PE units in a multi-activity program - Students are organized immediately into teams and retain that affiliation throughout season - Seasons are built around series of competitions that grow increasingly complex as students master techniques and tactics involved in activity for that season - The season ends w/culminating event that provides a festive way to conclude season - Records are kept so that teams can mark progress  Adventure Education Approach Goals - Learn outdoor sport skills and enjoy satisfaction of competence - Live within limits of personal ability related to an activity and environment - Find pleasure in accepting challenge and risk of stressful physical activity - Learn mutual dependency of self and natural world - Share experience and learning w/classmates and authority figures Physical Education vs Physical Activity  Physical activity: as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure  Physical education: A program that equips all students with the skills, knowledge, and dispositions needed to make physical activity an integral part of daily life PE for Disabled Students • 1920’s: Corrective Physical Education • Post WW II: Rehab & Programming for war veterans > Adapted Physical Education • 1960’s: Special Olympics • Importance of physical activity for students with disabilities • 1975 PL 94-142, Education of All Handicapped Children Act • Places students in the least restrictive environment (LRE) • Inclusion represents an alternative philosophy to LRE, with the goal that all students with disabilities should be in regular classes


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