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UCLA - LIFESCI 23 - Class Notes - Week 1

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UCLA - LIFESCI 23 - Class Notes - Week 1

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background image Life Science 15 Week 1  Lecture 1 - 9/22  ● Some of the subjects taught in this class  ○ Evolution 
○ Kindness to family/friends 
○ Biotechnology 
■ The ways technology is applied for practical benefit, e.g. medicine,  criminal justice, etc.  ○ Technology  ■ Does our ability to alter our environment so much to our benefit hinder  our evolution as a species?  ○ Drugs  ■ Anything addictive and/or mind-altering (caffeine, alcohol) 
■ Are all drugs bad for us? 
○ Money 
○ Food 
■ Most people believe they weigh too much. Who makes them believe that?  Themselves? Family? Society?  ○ Fidelity  ■ "Once a cheater, always a cheater" <-- True statement? Are we naturally  monogamous?  ○ If we have more time...  ■ Beauty  ■ Are there biological reasons that we see some people as more  attractive/beautiful than others? How much of it is a cultural 
● Tips for Success  ○ Go to lecture. You could pass the class just by paying close attention to each  lecture.  ○ Go to section, so that you can get points on quizzes. 
○ Don't read the textbook ahead of time. When you read before lecture, you don't 
know what you're supposed to be focusing on, so you can end up taking notes on 
material that will be unimportant to the class, and that takes up your time. Get 
introduced to the topics in lecture, read afterwards. 
● Scientific Method  ○ Organized 
○ Empirical: based on observations 
○ Methodical 
background image ○ Formal way of finding information by rejecting what we might think about  something until we narrow down to the only possible explanation.  ○ People believe that science is separate from the rest of the world, when really the  scientific method is just a more structured version of what we do every day. We're 
always making hypotheses, testing them, making observations, and concluding 
based on our findings, even if we don't realize it. 
● Professor's Version: Scientific Thinking (since Method implies rigidity, as if it is not  applicable to your own life)  ○ Make observations (be a human, we do this all the time)  ■ My friend who took steroids looks huge.  ○ Formulate hypotheses  ■ Taking steroids makes you muscular. 
■ Can you test it? Can you refute it? 
○ Make a prediction  ■ When subjects take steroids, they will become more muscular.  ○ Conduct an experiment  ■ Ideas  ■ 2-way between-subjects design with an exercise group, an exercise  and steroids group, a steroids group, and a group with neither 
exercise or steroids. 
■ placebo group, inject with fake steroids that do nothing 
■ randomized? double-blind? 
■ Remember to question yourself. Think of how others might constructively  criticize your idea. Is there a better version of your idea that you maybe 
haven't thought of? 
● Examples of scientific process  ○ How reliable is eyewitness testimony?  ■ Hypothesis: infallible. Victims of a crime know their attacker and can  point them out in a line-up.  ■ How do we test this?  ■ Test peoples' accuracy in pointing out their attacker from a line-up  and from seeing each suspect one at a time.  ■ 30% incorrect ID's in standard line-up, 10% incorrect ID's in  sequential viewing (seeing suspects one after the other)  ■ Conclusion: Eyewitness testimony really not that reliable, since  there were a lot of errors and it seems that it depends on the way 
suspects are presented. 
○ London headline: "One in seven fathers 'not the real parent'" 
background image ■ Cellmark Labs received more than 10,000 requests a year for paternity  testing. One in five has not been ordered by a court or child support 
agency. Of these, in one case of every seven, the father is the wrong man. 
■ Not a very reliable experiment, and not a necessarily true headline 
■ How would you design a better experiment? 
Lecture 2 - 9/27
● Launchpad is not required, but it is recommended as an excellent way to study for the  exam  ● Review  ○ Scientific Thinking  ■ Make observations 
■ Formulate hypotheses 
■ Make predictions (based on hypotheses) 
■ Devise and carry out experiments (to test hypotheses and alternatives) 
■ Draw conclusions, modify hypotheses (continue the process) 
○ Example: Does it rain more on weekends?  ■ How do we test this? Record rainfall every day, take averages for every  weekday, compare  ■ Actual data: rains 22% more on Saturdays than Mondays!  ■ Why? Maybe because people drive more on the weekdays.  Particulate matter from the cars gets into the air, moisture clings to 
it, building up more and more with more traffic and eventually 
falling, on the weekends. 
■ Compare areas where there are no cars (rural area or even  open ocean), compare with original data (taken from east 
coast highway) 
■ Science can be used to change minds. It can change our  minds.  ○ Remember: Scientific thinking illuminates situations in which we should change  what we think.  ● The "Critical Experiment"  ○ Putting a hypothesis to the test  ■ The results can decisively determine whether a hypothesis is correct. 
■ Vitamin C does not decrease symptoms or duration of illness. This has 
been tested over and over again, even by famous scientist Linus Pauling.  ■ Antibacterial hand soap kills microbes with triclosin. Triclosin takes 2-3  minutes to come into effect. We don't wash our hands for that long. But 
even if we did, even a 1-second touch with something with those microbes 

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School: University of California - Los Angeles
Department: Life Science
Course: Introduction to Laboratory & Scientific Methodology
Professor: Pfluegl
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: life, Science, Biology, and scientific method
Name: Life Science 15, Week 1 Notes
Description: Slides are not recorded here since these are all free on the class website, but these notes elaborate on what the professor was saying about the main points, and emphasizes what is important for the exams.
Uploaded: 09/19/2016
7 Pages 18 Views 14 Unlocks
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